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from Dover to London. Here is the seat of the' late Lord Holland, resembling an Italian' villa $ particularly that of Cicero's, near the Bay of Bait, in the Augustan age, when the polite arts were in the zenith of their glory. This is a very elegant place, and enriched by curiosities brought from the most distant parts of the world. There are also, in the adjoining grounds, buildings, with appropriate inscriptions,, intended to represent the ruined edifices of antiquity.
Still keeping along the coast, we reach the Sortb Foreland, the extreme east point of England. It projects far into the sea, after the form of a bastion, on which a light-house exalts its head; whence patent lamps, with reflecting lenses impart a strong and brilliant light, for the guidance of ships traversing this part of the ocean! The light, attended by two men, who watch in turns, may be seen in clear weather more than ten leagues off; the whole building being white washed, is seen farther in the day, and becomes more illuminated throughout the night. Every British ship going round the Foreland pays two-pence, and every foreign one fourpence per ton lor the support of this structure, raised to ensure their safety. It is under the regu-' lation of the Trinity House, Deptford. Such are the improvements of civilized society.
Proceeding in the way to Ramsgate, on the left we perceive Broadstairs, a small neat place, in a retired situation. Here a number of vessels are Sited out for the North Sea, and Iceland codfishery. It has been lately visited by the more genteel classes of company, who wish to be withdrawn from the bustle in which Margate and Hamsgate are generally involved. Opposite to this place, about two leagues from the shore, and about ten miles in length, the Goodwin Sands stretch themselves — always the terror, and net unitequently the destructipn of mariners! Here, in the great storm 1703, the Stirling Castle, Restoration, Northumberland, and Mary, with vice-admiral j;eaumont, and 1100 seamen perished. The origin of these sands lies in great obscurity. .
Ramsgate is situated about five miles from Margate, in the cove of a chalky cliff. Formerly an obscure town; it has been of late raised in its importance, by its trade to Russia, and the East country. Noble families have for some years past honoured it with their residence during the summer season. Chapel Row, Prospect Row, Sion-hill, and Albion Place, are extremely pleasant. It has good inns, an excellent toy-warehouse, and an extensive library. The bathing place is under the cliffs—the bottom being chalk covered with sand. The piers, forming the new harbour, are objects well worthy attention. The eastern one extends itself near 800 feet into the ocean, built entirely of white Purbec stone! The western one is partly wood and partly stone; the bason is rommo lious; and the harbour forms an exellent refuge for ships exposed to the utmost danger in the Downs. The expence of building it was immense 5 but it is, undoubtedly, an object of national utility.
Sandwich, the next town, is near a mile and a half from the sea, and is a place of great antiquity. It contains three parish churches, a grammarschool, three hospitals, and a town-hill, over which is a council chamber. It is incorporated by the name of the mayor, jurats and commonalty. Lysons, in his Environs of London, says, that gardens, for raising vegetables for sale, were first cultivated about Sandwich. The soil about this part is very good, and, of course, the seeds raised in it are in much repute. The town is, for the most part, watered by a narrow stream, called the Delph, which runs through it. An elegant asseuibly-room has been lately built, and there are many .wealthy inhabitants. Wiliiain Boys, Esq. in th« year 1792, published a curious account of Sandwich, embellished with several engravings.
Quitting Sandwich, we soon come in view of Deal, extending itself close along the sea-shore. Its, inhabitants, therefore, must be in the habit of hearing—
The billows break upon the sounding strand,
Deal, in the time of Leland was a fishing-town, but since that period has been greatly improved. It now consists of three narrow irregular streets; and its inhabitants are chiefly either in the sea faring line, or employed in offices under government. St. George's chapel of ease is both elegant and spacious .—the cemetry also adjoining is ornamented by many neat tombs. The trade of the place arises from its connection with the Downs, which lie immediately opposite the town, where ships of war and merchandise ride, previous to their departure for the most distant regions of the world! To behold so many stately vessels at anchor forms a most interesting spectacle; the mind is thrown into a variety of pleasing speculations upon the maritime' importance of our native country. Near the town stands ^.Telegraph, the first'of the twelve that connect the Downs with the Admiralty-office, Westminster, the distance being 72 miies. The period of communication up to London, at an average, is ten minutes; but the atmosphere being at one time wry clear, a message was sent up and an answer returned in fifteen minutes!! The telegraph is by no means a modern invention. Something of the kind is supposed to have been in use even so far kack as the Trojan war; for a Greek play begins with a scene, in which a watchman descending front the top of a tower in Greece, gives the information that Troy was taken—" I have been looking out these ten years (says he) to see when that would happen, and this night it is done 1" Under different forms it certainly existed among the ancients. The Marquis of Worcester also mentions it in 1663, in his Century of Inventions; but it was ne ver much used till the French revolution, when being reviv* ed, it has undergone several alterations, and has been brought to great perfection. We next meet with Deal Castle, of a singular form, and with walls of enormous thickness ; the naval hospital, the military hospital, and the royal barracks, each of which boasts of an healthy and pleasant situation.
The high road from Deal to Dover passes through the village of Walmer, whose castle is the occasi, onal residence of the Right Hon. William Pitt, Esq. the present warden of the Cinque Ports. But this spot is remarkable for being the place where Julius Caesar is supposed to have landed, fifty years before the commencement of the christian era, and by which circumstance the Romans obtained their first footing in this country. The account, which he himself gives of it in his Commentaries, is extremely interesting, and shall be transcribed :—
"The Barbarians (that is,'fthe English), perceiving our design, sent their cavalry and chariots before, which they frequently made use of iu battle, and followed with the rest of their forces, endeavoured to oppose our landing. And, indeed, we found the difficulty very great on many accounts, for our ships being large required a great depth of water, and the soldiers were wholly unacquainted with the places, and had their hands embarrassed, and loaded with the weight of armour, were at the same time to leap from the ships, stand fireast-hrgh amidst the waves, and encounter the enemy; while they, fighting upon dry ground, or advancing only a little way into the water, having the free use of their limbs, and in places which they perfectly knew, could boldly cast their darts, and spur on their horses, well inured to that kind of service. All these circumstances serving to spread a terror among our men, who were »holly strangers to this way oi fighting, they pushed not the enemy with the same vigour and spirit as was usual for them in combats on dry ground. Cesar observing this, ordered some gallics, a kind of shipping less common with the barbarians, and more easily governed and put in motion, to advance a little from the transports towards the shore, in order to set upon the enemy in flank, and by meaus of their engines, slings and arrows, drive them to some distance. This proved of considerable service to our men, for what with the surprise occasioned by the make of our gallits, the motion of the oars, and the playing of the engines, the enemy were forced to halt, and in a little time began to give back. But our men still demurring to leap into the sea, chiefly because of the depth of the water in those parts, the standard bearer of the tenth legion, having first int'oked the gads for success, cried out aloud—" Follow me, fellow-soldiers, unless you will betray the Roman eagle into the hands of the enemy; for my part, I am resolved to discharge my duty to Csesar and the commonwealth." Upon this he jumped into the sea, and advanced with the eagle against the enemy, whereat our men, exhorting one another, to prevent so signal a disgrace, all that were in the ship followed him, which being perceived by those in the nearest vessels, they(also did the like, and boldly approached the enemy. The battle was obstinate on both sides; but our men, as being neither able to keep their ranks, nor yet-fi1m footing, nor follow their respective stand