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fire- I must own, that the heat or warmth given by sea-coal, burnt in the chimney, appears to me softer and milder than that given by our stoves. The. sight of the fire has also a chearful and pleasing effect. Only you must take care not to look, at it steadily, and for a continuance, for this is probably the reason that there are so many young oldmen in England, who walk and ride in the public streets with their spectacles on; thus anticipating, in the bloom of youth, those conveniences and comforts which were intended for old age.
I now constantly dine in my own lodgings; and I cannot but flatter myself, that my meals are regulated with frugality. My usual dish at supper is some pickled salmon, which you eat in the liquor in which it i» pickled, along with some oil and vinegar; and he must be prejudiced, or fastidious, who does not relish it, as singularly well tasted and grateful food.
I would always advise those who wish to drink coffee in England, to mention before hand how many cups are to be made with half an ounce; or else the people will probably bring them a prodigious quantity of brown water; which (notwithstanding all my admonitions) I have not yet been able wholly to avoid. The fine vvheaten bread which I find here, besides excellent butter and Cheshire cheese, makes up for my scanty dinners. For an English dinner, to such lodgers as I am, generally consists of a piece of half-boiled, or halfroasted, meat; and a few cabbage leaves boiled in plain water; on which they pour a sauce made of flour and butter. This, I assure you, is the usual method of dressing vegetables in England.
The slices of bread and butter, which th«y give you with your tea, are as thin as poppy leaves. But there is another kind of bread and butter usually eaten with tea, which is toasted by the fire, and is incomparably good. You take one slice after the other and hold it to the fire on a fork till the butter is melted, so that it penetrates anumberof slices all at once: this is called Toast.
The custom of sleeping without a featherbed for a covering, particularly pleased me. You lie here between two sheets: underneath the bottom sheet is a fine blanket, which, without oppressing you, keeps you sufficiently warm. My shoes are not cleaned in the house, but by a person in the neighbourhood, whose trade it is; who fetches them every morning, and brings them back cleaned1; for which she receives weekly so much. When the maid is displeased with me, I hear her sometimes at the door call me the German; otherwise in the family I go by the name of the Gentleman.
I have almost entirely laid aside riding in a coach, although it does not cost near so much as it does at Berlin; as I can go and return any distance not exceeding an English mile, for a shilling; for which I should there at least pay a florin. But, moderate as English fares are, still you save a great deal if you walk or go on foot; and know only how to ask your way. From my lodgings to the Royal Exchange, is about as far as from one end of Berlin to the other; and from the Tower and St. Catharine's, where the ships arrive in the Thames, as far again; and I have already walked this distance twice, when I went to look after my trunk, before I got it out of the ship. As it was quite dark when I came back the first evening, I was astonished at the admirable manner in which the streets are lighted up; compared to which, our streets in Berlin make a most miserable shew. The lamps are lighted, whilst it is still day-light; and are so near each other, that even on the most ordinary and common nights, the city has the appear, ance of a festive illumination; for which some Getman prince, who came to London for the first time, once, they say, actually took it, and seriously believed it to have been particularly ordered oa ac» count of his arrival.
( To be continued. )
ACCOUNT OF PONT Y POOL.
(From Cox's History of Monmouthshire.*J
THE town of Pont y Pool is singularly placed on the edge of a steep cliff, overhanging the Avon Lwyd, and on the slope of a declivity under impending hills, partly bare, and partly mantled with wood. The line of the canal is seen winding above the town; a rapid torrent, descending from a lake at the foot of the Mynydd Maen, flows under the canal, and rushing impetuously along the outskirts of the town, precipitates itself into the Avon Lwyd, which rolls in an abyss beneath.
The appellation of Pont y Pool is modern, supposed to be derived from a bridge thrown over a large pool, which supplies water for a forge, but is a corruption of Pont ap Howell, or Howell's bridge.
Pont y Pool is a large' straggling place, containing 150 houses, and 1500 souls. Several neat habitations, and numerous shops, present an appearance of thriving prosperity, notwithstanding the dusky aspect of the town, occasioned by the adjacent forges The inhabitants derive great support from the iron works and collieries, and have been recently benefited by the trade of the canal. The place is the principal mart for the natives of the mountainous district, and the weekly market is not the least considerable, and the cheapest in Mon
* For an account of this work, see our Review for July last.
Brouthshire. It was a pleasing amusement to mix in these crouded meetings, to observe the frank and simple manners of the hardy mountaineers, and endeavour, in asking the price of their provisions, to extort a Saxon word from this British progeny. The women were mostly wrapped in long cloth cloaks, of a dark blue or brown colour; all of them wore mob caps, neatly plaited over the forehead and tars, and tied above the chin; several had also round-felt hats, like those worn by the men, or large chip hats covered with black silk, and fastened under the chin. This head-dress gives an arch and lrvtly air to the younger part of the sex, and is not unbecoming.
The town principally owes itsfoundation and increase to the iron works established by the family of Banbury; it is likewise remarkable for the japan manufacture, known by the name of Pont y Pool ware. In the reign of Charles the second, Thomas Aligcod, a native of Northamptonshire, carrie tov Ponty y Pool, and being a man of a projecting genius, made various experiments fo extract copperas and oil from coal, and finally invented the methodof lackering iron plates with a brilliant varnish, in the same manner as the Japanese lackered wood; which was afterwards distinguished by the name of Pont y Pool ware. Dying, however, before it was brought to perfection, his son Edward, who inhelited his father's genius as well as his father's secrets, pursued the discovery with encreasing spirit, made considerable improvements, and finally established a manufactory of ja pan ware, which was long unrivalled. This manufactory is still carried en by his grandson William, but on a less extensive scale; its decrease is principally owing to the rise of similar establishments in other places, and particularly at Usk, under a branch of the family.
Edward Allgood was the principal agent of Major Hanbury, and assisted him in directing and improving the iron works, particularly the wire manufactory, which was deficient in the method of polishing to that established at Woburn in Bedfordshire. For the purpose of discovering the secret, Edward Allgood repaired to Woburn, in the character of a beggar, and acting the part of a buffoon, gradually obtained access to the workshops, and was permitted to inspect the various processes, by which means he acquired the art of making the leys, the principal ingredient for giving a more brilliant polish to the iron wire, which was the only desideratum in the Pont y Pool works.
The situation of Pont y Pool, near a region rich in mineral treasures, in the midst of forges and collieries, and at the head of the canal, render it peculiarly commodious for the establishment of iron manufactories; and perhaps another generation may see a new Birmingham start up in the wilds of Monmoutfuhire!
Pont y Pool is in the manor of Lantarnam, and the townhouse was erected in 1730 by Mrs. Bray, joint lady of the manor with her sister Miss Morgan, which is commemorated by an inscription in English and Welsh on the front.
The family of Hanbury, to whom the town owes its consequence and celebrity, have long resided at Pont y Pool park, in the vicinity; their ancestors were formerly seated at Hanbury Hall in Worcestershire, from which place they derived their name. According to the red book of the bishopric of Worcester, Roger de Hanbury was born there in 1125, and his descendant Galfridus, resided there in the middle of the sixteenth century. About the year 1500 the possessor disinherited his brothers, and left the sear, and part of the estate, to