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forget that here the bombs, mortars, &c. are rendered fit for the shocking purposes of destruction. The reiterated explosions are felt miles around, and are presages of those tremendous effects that they are to produce on the enemy! Here also are the hulks, &c. of old ships, thronged with convicts, who are expiating theircrimes by a laborious degradation. How far such discipline tends to reformation may bear discussion. In the opinion of some it is a school for vice, and inures the mind • to a still greater degree of hardness. It is a pity that some punishment cannot be devised better calculated to effect the amendment of the unhappy criminals. Many of these persons might be reformed, and become valuable members of the community. .
The convicts come on shore every day, and are employed in manual labour; they return on board to their meals, and clambering up the side of their vessels, the clanking of the chains resounds from afar, and wounds the ear of sensibility. Chained together, and subjected to the strictest regulations, their situation must be highly mortifying to their feelings. Vice is, alas! in every stage of its progress the fruitful source of misery. Far better however, is it thus to try the effects of discipline upon them, than for every little crime to consign them over to the hands of the executioner. Our laws are too sanguinary; public executions are perpetually occurring; hence a great number of poor wretches covered with crimes, are precipitated into eternity, whilst the frequency of these spectacles brutalises the lower classes of mankind. In the province of Pensylvania, capital punishments are abolished, nor has their abolition been found to injure the peace and order of Society. Solitary imfriimvwnt recommended by the benevolent %
Howard, . answers the ,most valuable; purposes.; Few criminals are so depraved as not to feel its si-. lutary efficacy..'1 -. i.. -nut u. i.a: . i s i i'
On the south side of Blacklwath stand.* Let.-, church, au ancient structure in a very secluded si~ tuation. Here, lie bilried amongst many other e*-; lebrated characters, tialUy the astronomer, audi, ^arsons the comedian. ' The latter was well knowr», in the gay world for his powers of wit and mimick-., ery; the former will always be revered forhisdiscor, veries in science, particularly in astronomy and na^ vigation: ........ *
/Immortal Halley! Thy unwearied soul,
Each ocean fathom'd, and eacli wind explor!d.
The church-yard is also decorated by an el< monument to the memory of Lord Dacre, whic Lady Dacre is said to visit daily with the punctual devotion. Such circumstances show the wonderful power which the association of ideas holds over the human mind. To an instance of & similar kind, Akenside refers in the following beautiful lines: . .
. . . i- Ask the faithful yonth,
Why the cold urn of her whom long ho lov'd
So often fills his arms—so often draws
His lonely footsteps at the silent hour,
To pay the mournful tribute of his tears i
Oh! he will tell thee that the wealth of worlds ,
Should n'er seduce his bosom to forego
That sacred hour, when stealing from the noise
Of care and envy, sweet remembrance sooths
With virtue's kindest looks his aching breast i
And turns bis tears to rapture 1 • "•"
A little higher up on the same side of the heath, We perceive Morden Cpllege, founded by Sir John Morden a Turkey merchant, who died in 1708; •it is designed to be the residence of decayed merchants, of which thirty-five are now cherished beneath its hospitable roof. Such institutions " rock tile cradle of declining, age"—and their founders l:ave behind them memorable proofs of their kindness and generosity.
. Not far from this building, the mansion of the late Sir Gregory Page used to rear its stately head, 2nd attract general admiration. It was begun and -finished in twelve months! For this expedition various reasons were assigned; but Sir Gregory died 'in 1775, and in 1787 the -materials were sold, so that no traces rue -left of its former splendour and .glory! Should the .report he true, that this princely 6eat originated in the success of the south.sea com|»r>y, in 1710, it may be said to bear a melancholy litsemblance to that institution in its evanescent nature i they both glittered on the eye like a meteor, and then disappeared to the astonishment of mankind!
Having thus glanced at Blackheath and. its environs, (the theatre also of the Famous Miss Robertsen's manoeuvres^, we proceed along the great Canterbury road up to the summit of Shooter's-Mll, whence we enjoy a most extensive horizon. The cities of London and Westminster rise in full prospect before you, generally enveloped in smoke, t always exhibiting prominent marks of granr and sublimity! The sight also penetrates into :x, Surry, and even Sussex. But the whole landscape is enriched beyond measure by the meandering* of the Thames, the pride and ornament of Britain! Originating in a spring not larger 1 of your hand, it gradually widens
than the palm of your hand, it gradually widens by the accession of lesser streams, till it bears
tud Ji ;islisvtiS ».j •* ...
upon its bosom the stately vessels of commerce, and then pours itself into the ocean, which flings its waters round the globe ," '•
On the brow of the hill near the seventh mile stone is a triangular brick building, raised to the memory of Sir William James, Bart, by his lady, and is beheld in every direction on account of the height of its situation, being 482 feet above the sea! He had the command of the company's mai rine forces in the East Indies, where he greatly distinguished himself by the capture of Severndi oog castle on the coast of Malabar, April 2, 1755. He died in 1783. This singular tower has three
, floors, and the entrance is decorated with trophies taken from the enemy. Shooter's Hill is so called, either because here thieves from the adjoining woods have shot at travellers, and plundered them, or
. because the archers frequented this spot to exercise themselves in their favourite diversion. It is indeed a fact that King Henry the VIII, and his queen Catharine came hither from Greenwich on May Day, and were received by 200 archers clad in green, one of them personating Robin Hood as their captain, and all of them shewing his Majesty feats of extraordinary activity.
We now descend on the other side of the hill, and soon pass by the little town of Erith, wherethe East India ships unburden themselves of part of their cargo, that they may proceed up to London with the greater safety. Pushing on through Crayford, we quickly reach the town of Dartford, situated on a river whence it derives its name, and remarkable for the transparency of its waters.
Lo! the still Darat in whose waters clear
Tea thousand fishes play and deck his pleasant stream.
Dartford has nothing very remarkable to recommend it to the notice of the traveller; it has a market for corn and other articles, and the church possesses some degree of antiquity. Upon the river are no less than five mills, one for sawing, the other for grinding corn, one for making paper, and another for mauufacturing gun-powder. A paper-mill standing not far from the town southwards, is supposed to have 'been the first of the • kind in the kingdom. It was erected by John Spilman, a person of German extraction in the reign of Queen Elisabeth, who granted him a licence for the sole gathering of all rags, &c. during ten years, necessary for the making of writingpaper. That this however was the first mill of the kind in England has been questioned, since it is said that paper used in a book printed so far back as the year 1494, was made by John Tate, jun, of Hertford. Be this as it may, the commodity it of unquestionable utility. It is one of the grand means by which the blessings of knowledge are diffused among mankind. In one of the cemetries belonging to the town, is the following expressive epitaph on a child of three years old:
When the Archangel's trumpets blow,
And souls to bodies joins
Had been as short as mine!
How fine a contrast do these lines form to the rubbish by which places of interment are generally disgraced. In Dorking Church Yard, J with my own eyes saw this inscription on the head stone of a child—
Grieve not for me , My dear Dad-dee,
But think how I am blest!
Surely such wretched doggrel ought to be excluded .. from the solemn abodes of the dead. Nothing