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renewed. Hunger and thirst are two of our natural appetites; their importance to our preservation is obvious; brutes have them as well as we; and the same remarks that are here made on the one may with a little variation be made on the other. Hunger is a complex sensation, and implies two things quite different from each other, an uneasy feeling, and a desire of food. In very young infants it is at first only an uneasy feeling; which, however, prompts the little animal instinctively to fuck and swallow such nourishment as comes in his way, and without which he must inevitably perish. Afterwards, when experience has taught him, that the uneasy feeling is to be removed by food, the one suggests. the other to his mind, and hunger becomes in him the same complex feeling as in us. In the choice of food, the several species of irrational animals are guided, by instinct chiefly, to that which is most suitable to their nature : and in this respect their instinct is sometimes less fallible than human reason. The mariner in a desert illand is shy of eating those unknown fruits, how
ever delectable to fight and smell, which are not marked with the pecking of birds.
275. Before we cease to be infants, our reason informs us that food is indispensable; but through the whole of life appetite continues to be necessary, to remind us of our natural wants, and the proper time of supplying them: for as nourishment becomes more needful, appetite grows more clamorous ; till at last it calls off our attention from every thing else, whether business or amusement; and, if the gratification be still with-held, terminates in delirium and death. Hunger and thirst are the strongest of all our appetites, being the most essential to our preservation : it is generally owing to criminal indulgence, when any other appetite acquires unreasonable strength.-In obeying the natural call of appetite, in eating when hungry or drinking when thirsty, there is neither virtue nor vice; unless by so doing we intentionally promote some good purpose, or violate some duty. But rightly to manage our appetites, so as to keep them in due subordination to reason, is a chief part of
virtue; as the unlimited or licentious indulgence of them degrades our nature, and perverts all our rational faculties. . . 276. Rest after motion is essential to life, as well as food after fasting; and, when :. rest becomes necessary, nature gives the sensation of weariness ; -which, like hunger and thirst, comes at last to be irresistible, is made up of an uneasy feeling and a defire' of a certain object, goes off on being gratified, and after a certain interval returns. But we must not call weariness an appetite, nor is it commonly called fo. Appetite prompts to action, weariness to rest; appetite rises though no action have preceded, weariness follows action as the effect follows the cause. We have a sort of appetite for action in general: it may be called activity; and, when excessive or troublesome to others, is termed restlessness. For, as action is necessary to our welfare both in mind and body, our constitution would be defective, if we had not something to stimulate to action, independently on the dictates of reason. This activity is very conspicuous in children; who, as soon as
they have got the faculty and habit of moving their limbs, and long before they can be said to have the use of reason, are, when in health and awake, almost continually in motion. It is, however, through the whole of life, so necessary, that without it there can be no happiness. To a person of a found constitution idleness is misery: if long continued, it impairs, and at last destroys, the vigour of both the soul and the body.
277. It were well for man, if he had no appetites but those that nature gave him; for they are but few; and they are all beneficial, not only by ministering to his preservation and comfort, but also by roufing him to industry and other laudable exertions. But of unnatural or artificial appetites, if they may be called appetites, which man creates for himself, there is no end; and the more he acquires of these, the more he is dependent, and the more liable to want and wretchedness. It behoves us therefore, as we value our own peace, and the dignity of our nature, to guard against them. Some of the propen
fities now alluded to may no doubt have been occasioned in part by disease of body, or distress of mind; but they are in general owing to idleness and affectation, or to a foolish desire of imitating fashionable absurdity. They are not all criminal, but they all have a tendency to debase us; and by fome of them: men have made themfelvés disagreeable, useless, contemptible, and even a nuisance in society. When I mention tobacco, strong liquors, opiates, ghuttony, and gaming, it will be known what I' mean by unnatural appetite, and acknowledged that I have not characterised. it too feverely.
The Subject continued.
Paffions and Affections.
278. THE word Passion properly means u it Suffering ; but is seldom used in
that sense, except when we speak of our : micose Gg 2 Saviour's