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yet is an active principle, and often difplays itself visibly in the countenance by raising the complexion, brightening the eyes, and sometimes filling them with tears. An eye that weeps with gratitude - has a particular splendor and earnestness in the expression. ..'380. Gratitude towards things irrational, or even inanimate, (if the term gratitude may be used in such a connection), is not the object of cenfure or ridicule ; for every emotion that resembles this amiable virtue betokens a goodness of nature, which the passions allied to anger frequently do not. The plank that brought the mariner on fhore from a shipwreck we should not blame him for taking particular care of, refusing to part with for any pecuniary consideration, and even sheltering from the injuries of the weather : we might smile at the circumstance; but it would be a smile, not of scorn, but of kindness. Dogs and horses have been instrumental in faving mens lives. Particular good-will towards such a dog, or such a horse, would be laudable; and to shoot the one for running down a sheep, or to harass with toil the old age of the other, would be cruel, and without any violent figure of speech might even be termed ingratitude. However, what is properly, and without a figure, called Gratitude (and the same thing is true of Anger) has for its object a being that acts, or seems to act, with some degree of intention. We are grateful, not to the medicine, but to the physician, that cures us; and angry, not at the knife which wounds, but with the perfon who intentionally or negligently wielded it. Gratitude is due to every benefactor, and ought to be ardent in proportion to the magnitude of the favour, and the benevolence of those who confer it. Persons of small ability confer great favours, when what they do proceeds from a high degree of good-will: by him, who faw the generosity of the giver, the widow's mite was accounted a great sum.

381. To the Supreme Being, who freely gives us life and every other good thing, our highest gratitude' is due; and should be continually offered up in filent" thankf


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giving, and often expressed in words, that it may have the more powerful effect on our own minds, and on those whose devotion we wish to direct, or to animate. Pas rents are in the next degree our benefactors, at least in ordinary cases : for to an attentive and affectionate parent, who must have done so much for us when we could do nothing for ourselves, and watched so long and fo anxiously, and so frequently and fervently prayed, for our welfare, we are more indebted than to any other fellow-creature. A stranger who relieves us, though he never saw us before and may never see us again, is also intitled to peculiar acknowledgements of gratitude, on account of the disinterestedness of his virtue. But we must not think ourselves exempted from the obligation of this great duty, even when our benefactor is a person on whom we may have conferred many favours. A parent ought with thankfulness to receive what a dutiful child offers for his relief. “ This is nothing more than I was s well intitled to," would be an improper speech on such an occasion. It would in

ţimate, timate, that the parent, in taking care of his child, had been actuated, as much at least by the hope of recompense, as by natural affection, and a sense of duty.


The Subject continued.

Pasions and Affections.

382. Have now given a brief account of

fome of our more remarkable paffions, but have not gone thro' the fubject, and could easily have proceeded further, if there had been time for it. Hints have been occasionally thrown in, with respect to the government of particular pafsions : I subjoin some brief remarks of a more general nature.--The government of the paffions is a difficult work; but absolutely necessary, if we wish to be happy either in the next world, or in this. And as it is the more difficult the longer it is delayed, it is the part of prudence, as well as matter

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of duty, to begin it without delay. The
difficulty of this duty may appear from
the concurring testimony of wise men in
every age; from the earnestness with which
all moralists, particularly the inspired wri-
ters, recommend it; from what we may
feel in ourselves of the unmanageableness
of our passions, especially of those to which
we are most inclined by nature or by ha-
bit; and from what we must have obser-
ved in the world around us, where we see
men, of good understanding in other re-
spects, enslaved to criminal inclinations,
and led on to ruin, with their eyes open,
by the strength of prevailing appetites.

383. Temperance, and an active life, are
of the greatest benefit in preserving the
health of both the body and the mind;
and in giving us at all times the command
of our thoughts, and consequently of our
pafsions. Savages are much addicted to
intemperance and idleness; and their pas-
fions are proportionably outrageous. As
the passions depend in a great measure up-
on the imagination, whatever tends to re-
gulate that faculty tends also to make them



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