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plexion. Laughter raises the corners of the mouth still higher, giving the fame direction to the line of the brows, discovers both rows of the teeth, moistens and almost shuts the eyes, diffuses wrinkles over several parts of the cheeks and forehead, and affects the voice in a very sensible and peculiar manner.
406. I need not enter further into the detail of this subject; what has been said may serve as a specimen, and that is 'perhaps sufficient. Descriptions of physiognomy it is not easy to make intelligible without drawings; and if one had a good assortment of these, little description would be necessary. Le Brun's Passions are in every print-fhop, and must be allowed to have considerable merit; though the features expressive of the more violent emotions are perhaps exaggerated into what the Italians call caricatura : Chodowiecki has made fome valuable additions to Le Brun, which may be found in Lavater.--I conclude with observing, that several energies of the understanding, as belief, doubt, perplexity, denial, &c. do alfo display them3 A 2
felves visibly in the look and gesture; as may be seen in that admirable Cartoon of
Raffaelle, which represents Paul preaching • at Athens.
The End of PSYCHOLOGY.
E LE M E N T S
- MORAL SCIENCE.
. 407. M TATURAL Theology explains
what human reason can dis
cover concerning the being. and attributes of God. It is a science of boundless extent; but we must confine ourselves to a few general principles. In
respect of certainty it is equal to any fcience; for its proofs rise to demonstration: in point of dignity it is superior to all others; its object being the Creator of the Universe : and its utility is so great, that it lays the only sure foundation of human society and human happiness. The proofs of the Divine Existence are innumerable, and continually force themfelves upon our observation; and are withal so clear and striking, that nothing but the most obstinate prejudice, and extreme depravity of both heart and understanding, could ever bring any rational being to disbelieve, or doubt of it. With good reason, therefore, it is, that the Psalmist calls the man “ a fool, who faith in his “ heart, There is no God.”_Without belief in God, a considerate perfon (if it were possible for such a person to be without this belief) could never possess tranquillity or confort; for to him the world would seem a chaos of mifery and confufion. But where this belief is established, all things appear to be right, and to have a benevolent tendency; and give en
couragement to. hope, patience, submif fion, gratitude, adoration, and other good affections essential to human felicity.
408. That men, from education or from nature, might have some notion of duty, even though they were to harden themselves into Atheists, can hardly be doubted:. but that notion would, in such men, be wholly ineffectual. From the fear of shame, or of human laws, the atheist may be decent in his outward behaviour; but he cannot act from any nobler principle. And if at any time he could promote (what he takes to be) his interest, by the commission of the greatest crime, it is plain that there would be nothing to restrain him, provided he could conceal his guilt; which any man might do occasionally, and which men of great wealth or power could do at any time. Atheism is utterly subversive of morality, and consequently of happiness : and as to a community, or political society, of atheists, it is plainly impossible, and never took place in any nation. They therefore,
r who endeavour
habeah ah who teach atheiltical doctrines, or who en