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Civil Service Act.
THE DOMINION ADMINISTRATION.
THE Administration and Government is carried on by means of fifteen departments of State exclusive of the office of the High Commissioner. All the departments are presided over by a Cabinet Minister, but two of them, viz. that charged with Public Printing and Stationery and the department of Indian affairs, are placed each under the charge of a Minister who is at the head of some other department.
OFFICERS, HOW APPOINTED.
The Head of the Department is assisted in his duties by a Officers. Deputy Head, a chief clerk, clerks, messengers, and other employés. The number of officers and employés required for the working of a department is determined by the Governor-General in Council, but a clerkship cannot be established unless the Deputy Head reports that such an officer is necessary for the proper performance of the duties of the department, and the Head concurs in such report, and the salary has been voted by Parliament.
The appointment of all departmental officers and servants other than the Head is regulated by the Civil Service Act1. The Civil Service constituted by that Act includes all persons employed in the several departments of the Execu
1 R. S. C. c. 17.
tive Government of Canada and in the office of the AuditorGeneral, other than Heads of Departments and persons employed in the North-West Territories.
The Deputy Head is appointed by the Governor-General Deputy in Council and holds office during pleasure, but if a Deputy Head be removed the reasons for such removal must be laid before Parliament within the first fifteen days of the next session1.
The duties of the Deputy Head are to oversee and direct, subject to the directions of the Minister, the officers, clerks and employés in the department and to have the general control of the business'.
All appointments below that of Deputy Head in any Other department are as a rule made after an examination.
Two kinds of examinations are held:
(1) The "civil service preliminary examination" which qualifies for the lower appointments such as messenger, porter, &c.
(2) The "qualifying examination" which qualifies for a third-class clerkship.
Certain persons may be appointed to offices without Where no examination, viz. city postmasters: inspectors, collectors and tion repreventive officers in the customs: inspectors of weights and quired. measures deputy collectors and preventive officers in the Inland Revenue3.
When a vacancy occurs in any department, the Head selects from the list of qualified candidates a person fitted for the vacant place. The person selected serves a probationary term of six months, after which period, if it appear that he is competent to discharge the duties of the office, he receives a permanent appointment. If rejected during the probationary period another is chosen in his stead*.
Promotion as a rule takes place after a special examina- Promo
1 R. S. C. c. 17, s. 11.
3 Ib. s. 37.
2 Ib. s. 13.
+ Ib. s. 35.
tion in subjects best adapted to test the fitness of the candidates for the vacant office. The Head of the Department in selecting is to choose "the person whom he considers best fitted for the office having due reference to any special duties incident to the office, to the qualifications and fitness shown by the candidates respectively during their examination and to the record of their previous conduct in the service.'
In the case of certain professional men such as barristers, attorneys, architects, actuaries, land surveyors, draughtsmen, engineers, military or civil officers of artillery in the Militia Department and graduates of a Royal Military College, the examination may be dispensed with on a report from the Deputy Head concurred in by the Head'.
Every promotion is subject to not less than six months probation and at any time during the first year the Head may reject the person promoted2.
The Deputy Head and all officers, chief clerks, clerks, messengers, sorters and packers are required to take the oath of allegiance as well as the following oath.
"I (A. B.) solemnly and sincerely swear that I will faithfully and honestly fulfil the duties which devolve upon me and that I will not ask, or receive, any sum of money, services, recompense, matter, or thing whatsoever directly or indirectly in return for what I have done or may do in the discharge of any of the duties of my said office except my salary or what may be allowed me by law or by order of the Governor in Council."
The clerk of the Privy Council and all clerks under him and any officer of whom the Governor-General requires the same take the above oath with the following addition :
"And that I will not without due authority in that behalf disclose or make known any matter or thing which comes to my knowledge by reason of my employment as
1 R. S. C. c. 17, s. 4.
2 Ib. s. 43.
The Departments of State are at present as follows, but Departprovision has been made by two recent Acts, 50 and 51 Vic. State. cc. 10 and 11, for consolidating the Departments of Customs and of Inland Revenue in one, to be placed under the Minister of Trade and Commerce or under a Minister of Finance :
1. Secretary of State.
2. Public Printing and Stationery.
4. Inland Revenue.
7. Public Works.
8. Railways and Canals.
12. Marine and Fisheries.
13. Militia and Defence.
14. Indian Affairs.
15. High Commissioner.
1. DEPARTMENT OF SECRETARY OF STATE.
This department was constituted by the 31 Vic. c. 42. It is presided over by the Secretary of State, who is assisted in the discharge of his duties by an Under-Secretary.
The department has charge of the state correspondence General and keeps all state records and papers not specially transferred to other departments.
A special branch of the department called the Register Register Branch is charged with the registration of all writs of summons, proclamations, commissions, letters patent, letters patent of land, writs and other instruments and documents issued under the Great Seal, and all bonds, warrants of
extradition, warrants for the removal of prisoners, leases,
The Secretary of State is Registrar-General, but the
2. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC PRINTING AND STATIONERY.
Up to 1866 the supplying of stationery to the different departments of state fell within the duties of the Secretary of State, but by the 49 Vic. c. 22 a new department was constituted to deal specially with printing and the supply of stationery.
The department is presided over by the Secretary of State or by such other member of the Privy Council as the Governor-General in Council shall direct. The Minister is assisted in his duties by the Queen's Printer, who is Deputy Head, by a Superintendent of printing and by a Superintendent of stationery.
The following matters must always be transacted through this department:
1. Printing, stereotyping or electrotyping, lithography or binding work, required for the use of the Senate, the House of Commons, and the several departments of state.
2. The purchase and distribution of all paper, books and all other articles of stationery.
3. The distribution and sale of all books or publications issued by order of either House or of any department.
4. The auditing of all accounts for advertising required for the public service.
All printing, electrotyping, stereotyping, lithography and binding required for the service of the Parliament or Government of Canada is done at the Government Printing