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pore formosus, et quod aliter facta electio non valebit P." It is certainly a matter of no consequence, whether we understand these Minstrels of Henry the Sixth to have been singers, pipers, players, or posture-masters. From the known character of that king, I should rather suppose them performers for his chapel. In any sense, this is an instance of the same oppressive and arbitrary privilege that was practised on our poet.

Our author Tusser wrote, during his residence at Ratwood in Sussex, a work in rhyme entitled A HUNDRETH GOOD POINTES OF HUSBANDRIE, which was printed at London in 15579. But it was soon afterwards reprinted, with additions and improvements, under the following title, "Five hundreth pointes of good Husbandrie as well for the Champion or open countrie, as also for the Woodland or Severall, mixed in euerie moneth with Huswiferie, ouer and besides the booke of HusWIFERIE. Corrected, better ordered, and newlie augmented a fourth part more, with diuers other lessons, as a diet for the farmer, of the properties of windes, planets, hops, herbs, bees, and approved remedies for sheepe and cattell, with manie other matters both profitabell and not vnpleasant for the Reader. Also a table of HUSBANDRIE at the beginning of this booke, and another of HUSWIFERIE* at the end, &c. Newlie set foorth by THOMAS TUSSER gentleman"."

p Registr. Archiv. Eccles. Ebor. MSS. In the Salisbury-missal, in the office of EPISCOPUS PUERORUM, among the suffrages we read, "Corpore enim formosus es, O fili, et diffusa est gratia in labiis tuis," &c. In further proof of the solemnity with which this farce was conducted, I will cite another extract from the chapter-registers at York. "xj febr. 1370. In Scriptoria capituli Ebor. dominus Johannes Gisson, magister choristarum ecclesiæ Eboracensis, liberavit Roberto de Holme choristæ, qui tunc ultimo fuerat episcopus puerorum, iij libras, xvs. id. ob. de perquisitis ipsius episcopi per ipsum Johannem receptis, et dictus Robertus ad sancta dei evangelia per ipsum corporaliter tacta juravit, quod nunquam molestaret dictum dominum Johannem de summa pecuniæ prædicta." REGISTR. EBOR.

Quarto. Bl. lett. [This edition differs very materially from those which succeeded it. A reprint of it was given in the Bibliographer.-PARK.] In 1557, John Daye has licence to print "the hundreth poyntes of good Husserie." REGISTR. STATION. A. fol. 23. a. In 1559-60, jun. 20, T. Marshe has licence to print "the boke of Husbandry.” Ibid. fol. 48. b. This last title occurs in these registers much lower. [The writer was Fitzherbert.-HERBERT.]

* [In a tract entitled "Tom of all Trades," and printed in 1631, it is particularly recommended to women, to read the groundes of good Huswifery instead of reading Sir P. Sidney's Arcadia.-PARK.]

The oldest edition with this title which I have seen is in quarto, dated 1586, and printed at London, "in the

It must be acknowledged, that this old English georgic has much more of the simplicity of Hesiod, than of the elegance of Virgil: and a modern reader would suspect, that many of its salutary maxims originally decorated the margins, and illustrated the calendars, of an antient almanac. It is without invocations, digressions, and descriptions: no pleasing pictures of rural imagery are drawn from meadows covered with flocks and fields waving with corn, nor are Pan and Ceres once named. Yet it is valuable, as a genuine picture of the agriculture, the rural arts, and the domestic economy and customs, of our industrious acestors.

I must begin my examination of this work with the apology of Virgil on a similar subject,

Possum multa tibi veterum præcepta referre,

Ni refugis, tenuesque piget cognoscere curas'.

I first produce a specimen of his directions for cultivating a hop-garden, which may, perhaps not unprofitably, be compared with the modern practice.


Whom fansie perswadeth, among other crops,
To haue for his spending, sufficient of hops,
Must willingly follow, of choises to choose,
Such lessons approued, as skilful do vse.
Ground grauellie, sandie, and mixed with claie,
Is naughtie for hops, anie maner of waie;

now dwelling house of Henrie Denham
in Aldersgate streete at the signe of the
In black letter, containing 164
pages. The next edition is for H.
Yardley, London 1598. Bl. lett. 4to.
Again at London, printed by Peter
Short, 1597. Bl. lett. 4to. The last I
have seen is dated 1610. 4to.

In the Register of the Stationers, a receipt of T. Hackett is entered for licence for printing "A dialoge of wyvynge and thryvynge of Tusshers with ij lessons for olde and yonge," in 1562 or 1563. REGISTR. STAT. COMP. LOND. notat. A. fol. 74. b. I find licenced to Alde in 1565, "An hundreth poyntes VOL. IV.


of evell huswyfraye," I suppose a satire on Tusser. Ibid. fol. 131. b. In 1561, Richard Tottell was to print " A booke intituled one hundreth good poyntes of husboundry lately maryed unto a hundreth good poyntes of Huswiffry newly corrected and amplyfyed." Ibid. fol. 74. a.

[This was put forth by Tottell in 1562 and 1570. Augmented editions appeared in 1573, 1577, 1580, 1585, 1586, 1590, 1593, 1597, 1599, 1604, 1610, 1630, 1672, 1692, 1710, 1744. All but the last in 4to. Bl. lett.-PARK.] GEORGIC. i. 176.

Or if it be mingled with rubbish and stone,

For drinesse and barrennesse let it alone.

Choose soile for the hop of the rottenest mould,
Well doonged and wrought, as a garden-plot should;
Not far from the water, but not ouerflowne,

This lesson well noted is meete to be knowne.

The sun in the southe, or else southlie and west,
Is ioie to the hop, as a welcomed guest;

But wind in the north, or else northerlie east,
To the hop, is as ill as a fraie in a feast.

Meet plot for a hop-yard, once found as is told,
Make thereof account, as of iewell of gold:
Now dig it and leaue it, the sunne for to burne,
And afterward fence it, to serue for that turne.
The hop for his profit I thus doo exalt:
It strengtheneth drinke, and it fauoreth malt;
And being well brewed, long kept it will last,
And drawing abide-if ye drawe not too fast.


To this work belongs the well known old song, which begins,

The Ape, the Lion, the Fox, and the Asse,

Thus setts foorth man in a glasse, &c."

For the farmer's general diet he assigns, in Lent, red herrings, and salt fish, which may remain in store when Lent is past: at Easter, veal and bacon: at Martinmas, salted beef, when dainties are not to be had in the country: at Midsummer, when mackrel are no longer in season, grasse, or sallads,

t CHAP. 42. fol. 93. In this stanza, is a copy of verses by one William Kethe, a divine of Geneva, prefixed to Dr. Christopher Goodman's absurd and factious pamphlet against queen Mary, How superior Powers, &c. Printed at Geneva by John Crispin, 1558. 16mo.

Whom fury long fosterd by sufferance and awe,

Have right rule subverted, and made will their lawe,

Whose pride how to temper, this truth will thee tell,

So as thou resist mayst, and yet not rebel, &c. "Chap. 50. fol. 107.

fresh beef, and pease: at Michaelmas, fresh herrings, with fatted crones, or sheep: at All Saints, pork and pease, sprats and spurlings: at Christmas, good cheere and plaie. The farmer's weekly fish-days, are Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday; and he is charged to be careful in keeping embrings and fast-days". Among the Husbandlie Furniture are recited most of the instruments now in use, yet with several obsolete and unintelligible names of farming utensils *. Horses, I know not from what superstition, are to be annually blooded on saint Stephen's day. Among the Christmas husbandlie fare*, our author recommends good drinke, a good fire in the Hall, brawne, pudding and souse, and mustard withall, beef, mutton, and pork, shred, or minced, pies of the best, pig, veal, goose, capon, and turkey, cheese, apples, and nuts, with jolie carols. A Christmas carol is then introduced to the tune of King Salomon2.

In a comparison between Champion and Severall, that is, open and inclosed land, the disputes about inclosures appear to have been as violent as at present". Among his Huswifelie Admonitions, which are not particularly addressed to the farmer,

Chap. 12. fol. 25, 26. * Chap. 15. fol. 31, 32, 33. y Fol. 52.

* [Tusser, says Mr. Stillingfleet, seems to have been a good-natured cheerful man, and though a lover of œconomy, far from meanness, as appears in many of his precepts, wherein he shows his disapprobation of that pitiful spirit which makes farmers starve their cattle, their land, and every thing belonging to them; choosing rather to lose a pound than spend a shilling. He throws his precepts into a calendar, and gives many good rules in general, both in relation to agriculture and economy; and had he not written in miserable hobbling and obscure verse, might have rendered more service to his countrymen.-Mem. for Hist. of Husbandry in Coxe's Life of Stillingfleet, ii. 567.-PARK.] Z Chap. 30. fol. 37. of the lines.

These are four

Euen Christ, I meane, that virgins child,

In Bethlem born:

That lambe of God, that prophet mild,

Crowned with thorne!

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Mar. 4. 1559, there is a receipt from Ralph Newbery for his licence for printing a ballad called "Kynge Saloman.' REGISTR. STATION. COMP. LOND. notat. A. fol. 48. a. Again, in 1561, a licence to print " iij balletts, the one entituled Newes oute of Kent; the other, a newe ballat after the tune of kynge SOLOMON; and the other, Newes out of Heaven and Hell." Ibid. fol. 75. a. See Lycence of John Tysdale for printing "Certayne goodly Carowles to be songe to the glory of God," in 1562. Ibid. fol. 86. a. Again, Ibid. "Crestenmas Carowles auctorisshed by my lord of London." A ballad of Solomon and the queen of Sheba is entered in 1567. Ibid. fol. 166. a. In 1569, is entered an "Enterlude for boyes to handle and to passe tyme at Christi"Ibid. fol. 183. b. Again, in the same year, fol. 185. b. More instances follow.


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he advises three dishes at dinner, which being well dressed, will be sufficient to please your friend, and will become your Hall. The prudent housewife is directed to make her own tallow-candles. Servants of both sexes are ordered to go to bed at ten in the summer, and nine in the winter: to rise at five in the winter, and four in the summerd. The ploughman's feasting days, or holidays, are PLOUGH-MONDAY, or the first Monday after Twelfth-day, when ploughing begins, in Leicestershire. SHROF-TIDE, or SHROVE-TUESDAY, in Essex and Suffolk, when after shroving, or confession, he is permitted to go thresh the fat hen, and "if blindfold [you] can kill her, then giue it thy men," and to dine on fritters and pancakes. SHEEPSHEARING, which is celebrated in Northamptonshire with wafers and cakes. The WAKE-DAY, or the vigil of the church saint, when everie wanton maie danse at her will, as in Leicestershire, and the oven is to be filled with flawnes. HARVESTHOME, when the harvest-home goose is to be killed. SEEDCAKE, a festival so called at the end of wheat-sowing, in Essex and Suffolk, when the village is to be treated with seed-cakes,

b Fol. 133. Fol. 135. d Fol. 137.

I have before mentioned ShroveTuesday as a day dedicated to festivities. See supr. vol. iii. p. 214. In some parts of Germany it was usual to celebrate Shrove-tide with bonfires. Lavaterus of GHOSTES, &c. translated into F.nglish by R. H. Lond. 1572. 4to. fol. 51. Bl. lett: Polydore Virgil says, that so early as the year 1170, it was the custom of the English nation to celebrate their Christmas with plays, masques, and the most magnificent spectacles; together with games at dice, and dancing. This practice, he adds, was not conformable to the usage of most other nations, who permitted these diversions, not at Christmas, but a few days before Lent, about the time of Shrovetide. HIST. ANGL. Lib. xiii. f. 211. Basil. 1534. By the way, Polydore Virgil observes, that the Christmas-prince or Lord of Misrule, is almost peculiar to the English. DE RER. INVENTOR. lib. v. cap. ii. Shrove-Tuesday seems to have been sometimes considered as the last day of Christmas, and on

that account might be celebrated as a festival. In the year 1440, on ShroveTuesday, which that year was in March, at Norwich there was a 66 Disport in the streets, when one rode through the streets havyng his hors trappyd with tyn-soyle, and other nyse disgysyngs, coronned as Kyng of CRESTEMASSE, in tokyn that seson should end with the twelve moneths of the yere : aforn hym went yche [each] Moneth dysgusysyd after the seson requiryd," &c. Blomf. NoRF. ii. p. 111. This very poetical pageantry reminds me of a similar and a beautiful procession at Rome, described by Lucretius, where the Seasons, with their accompaniments, walk personified. Lib. v. 736. It VER et VENUS, et Veneris prænuntius

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FLORAquibus mater præspergens ante viai Cuncta coloribus egregiis et odoribus opplet.

Inde AUTUMNUS adit, &c.

[For an account of the several festivals

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