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the hands and dispositions of the master, wardens, and assistants, of that fraternity, "Two or three of Seneca his tragedies "." These, if printed after 1581, cannot be new impressions of any single plays of Seneca, of those published in Newton's edition of all the ten tragedies.

Among Hatton's manuscripts in the Bodleian library at Oxford", there is a long translation from the HERCULES Oetaeus of Seneca, by queen Elisabeth. It is remarkable that it is blank verse, a measure which her majesty perhaps adopted from GORBODUC; and which therefore proves it to have been done after the year 1561. It has, however, no other recommendation but its royalty.

t They are mentioned by Ames, with these pieces, viz. " Pasquin in a traunce. The hoppe gardein. Ovid's metamorphosis. The courtier. Cesar's commentaries in English. Ovid's epistles. Image of idlenesse. Flower of frendship. Schole of vertue. Gardener's laborynth. Demosthene's orations." I take this opportunity of acknowledging my great obligations to that very respectable society, who in the most liberal

manner have indulged me with a free and unreserved examination of their original records: particularly to the kind assistance and attention of one of its members, Mr. Lockyer Davies, Bookseller in Holbourn.

" MSS. Mus. BODL. 55. 12. [Olim HYPER. BODL.] It begins, "What harminge hurle of Fortune's arme," &c.


BUT, as scholars began to direct their attention to our vernacular poetry, many more of the antient poets now appeared in English verse. Before the year 1600, Homer, Musaeus, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Martial, were translated. Indeed most of these versions were published before the year 1580. For the sake of presenting a connected display of these early translators, I am obliged to trespass, in a slight degree, on that chronological order which it has been my prescribed and constant method to observe. In the mean time we must remember, that their versions, while they contributed to familiarise the ideas of the antient poets to English readers, improved our language and versification; and that in a general view, they ought to be considered as valuable and important accessions to the stock of our poetical literature. These were the classics of Shakespeare.

I shall begin with those that were translated first in the reign of Elisabeth. But I must premise, that this inquiry will necessarily draw with it many other notices much to our purpose, and which could not otherwise have been so conveniently disposed and displayed.

Thomas Phaier, already mentioned as the writer of the story of OWEN GLENDOUR in the MIRROUR FOR MAGISTRATES, a native of Pembrokeshire, educated at Oxford, a student of Lincoln's Inn, and an advocate to the council for the Marches of Wales, but afterwards doctorated in medicine at Oxford, translated the seven first books of the Eneid of Virgil*, on his

[* With this title: The seven first Bookes of the Eneidos of Virgill, converted in Englishe meter by Thos. Phaer, esq. sollicitour to the king and quenes

majesties, attending their honorable counsaile in the marchies of Wales. Anno 1558. xxviij Maij.-PARK.]

retirement to his patrimonial seat in the forest of Kilgarran, in Pembrokeshire, in the years 1555, 1556, 1557. They were printed at London in 1558, by Ihon Kyngston, and dedicated to queen Mary. He afterwards finished the eighth book on the tenth of September, within forty days, in 1558. The ninth, in thirty days, in 1560. Dying at Kilgarran the same year, he lived only to begin the tenth. All that was thus done by Phaer*, one William Wightman published in 1562, with a dedication to Sir Nicholas Bacon, "The nyne first books of

the Eneidos of Virgil conuerted into English verse by Thomas Phaer doctour of physick," &c.


["To the ende," says Phaer, "that like as my diligence employed in your service in the Marches, maie otherwise appeare to your Grace by your hon'ble counsaile there: so your Highness hereby may receiue the accompts of my pastyme in all my vacations, since I haue been prefered to your service by your right noble and faithful counsaillour William lord marquis of Winchester, my first bringer-up and patron."--PARK.] In quarto, bl. lett. At the end of the seventh book is this colophon," Per Thomam Phaer in foresta Kilgerran finitum iij Decembris. Anno 1557. Opus xij dierum." And at the end of every book is a similar colophon, to the same purpose. The first book was finished in eleven days, in 1555. The second in twenty days, in the same year. third in twenty days, in the same year. The fourth in fifteen days, in 1556. The fifth in twenty-four days, on May the third, in 1557, 66 post periculum eius Karmerdini," i. e. at Caermarthen. The sixth in twenty days, in 1557.


Phaier has left many large works in his several professions of law and medicine. He is pathetically lamented by sir Thomas Chaloner as a most skilful physician, ENCOм. p. 356. Lond. 1579. 4to. He has a recommendatory English poem prefixed to Philip Betham's MILITARY PRECEPTS, translated from the Latin of James earl of Purlilias, dedicated to lord Studley, Lond. 1544. 4to. For E. Whitchurch.

There is an entry to Purfoot in 1566, for printing "serten verses of Cupydo

The imperfect work was at

by Mr. Fayre [Phaier]." REGISTR. STATION. A. fol. 154. a.

[In his version of the Æneid, Phaer
was thus complimented along with se-
veral of his cotemporaries :-
Who covets craggy rock to clime

Of high Parnassus hill,
Or of the happy Helicon

To drawe and drinke his fill;
Let him the worthy worke surview,
Of Phare the famous wight,
Or happy phrase of Heywood's verse,
Or Turberviles aright:
Or Googe, or Golding Gascoine else,

Or Churchyard, Whetstone, Twyne,
Or twentie worthy writers moe,

That drawe by learned line, Whose paineful pen hath wel procured Ech one his proper phrase, &c. Ded. to Fulwood's Enemie of Idlenesse, 1598. And Hall, in the dedication to his abashed when he came to look upon translation of Homer, 1581, says, he was Phaer's Virgilian English in his heroical Virgil, and his own poor endeavour to learn Homer to talk our mother

tongue.-PARK.] bEx coloph. ut supr.

[In the poems of Barnabe Googe, written before March 1563, there is an epitaph on maister Thomas Phayre, the earl of Surrey, Grimaold, and Douwhich flatters him with having excelled glas (bishop of Dunkeld) in his style of translating Virgil, and expresses regret that his death, in the midst of his toil, had left a work imperfect which no other man could end.-PARK.]


In quarto. Bl. lett. For Rowland

length completed, with Maphaeus's supplemental or thirteenth book, in 1583[4], by Thomas Twyne*, a native of Canterbury, a physician of Lewes in Sussex, educated in both universities, an admirer of the mysterious philosophy of John Dee, and patronised by lord Buckhurst the poet". The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth books were finished at London in 1573€. The whole was printed at London in 1584, with a dedication, dated that year from Lewes, to Robert Sackville, the eldest son of lord Buckhurst, who lived in the dissolved monastery of the Cluniacs at Lewes. So well received was this work, that it was followed by three new editions in 1596", 1607, and 1620. Soon after the last-mentioned period, it became obsolete and was forgotten.

Phaier undertook this translation for the defence, to use his own phrase, of the English language, which had been by too many deemed incapable of elegance and propriety, and for the I believe, remains on a brass plate affixed to the eastern wall.

* [The joint translation of Virgil by Phaer and Twyne was first published in 1573.-RITSON.]

See supr. p. 112. His father was John Twyne of Bolington in Hampshire, an eminent antiquary, author of the Commentary DE REBUS ALBIONICIS, &c. Lond. 1590. It is addressed to, and published by, with an epistle, his said son THOMAS. Laurence, a fellow of All Souls and a civilian, and John Twyne, both THOMAS's brothers, have copies of verses prefixed to several cotemporary books, about the reign of queen Elisabeth. THOMAS Wrote and translated many tracts, which it would be superfluous and tedious to enumerate here. To his BREVIARIE OF BRITAINE, a translation from the Latin of Humprey Lhuyd, in 1573, are prefixed recommendatory verses, by Browne prebendary, and Grant the learned schoolmaster, of Westminster, Llodowyke Lloyd a poet in the PARADISE OF DAINTIE DEVISES, and his two brothers, aforesaid, Laurence and John.

Our translator, THOMAS TWYNE, died in 1613, aged 70, and was buried in the chancel of saint Anne's church at Lewes, where his epitaph of fourteen verses still,

Large antiquarian and historical manuscript collections, by the father JOHN TwYNE, are now in Corpus Christi li brary at Oxford. In his COLLECTANEA VARIA, (ibid. vol. iii, fol. 2.) he says he had written the Lives of T. Robethon, T. Lupset, Rad. Barnes, T. Eliot, R. Sampson, T. Wriothesle, Gul. Paget, G. Day, Joh. Christopherson, N. Wooton. He is in Leland's ENCOMIA, p. 83. e Coloph. ut supr. f In quarto. Bl. lett. For Abraham Veale.

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"honest recreation of you the nobilitie, gentlemen, and ladies, who studie in Latine." He adds, "By mee first this gate is set open. If now the young writers will uouchsafe to enter, they may finde in this language both large and abvndant camps [fields] of uarietie, wherein they may gather innumerable sortes of most beavtifull flowers, figures, and phrases, not only to supply the imperfection of mee, but also to garnish all kinds of their own verses with a more cleane and compendiovs order of meeter than heretofore hath beene accustomed1." Phaier has omitted, misrepresented, and paraphrased many passages; but his performance in every respect is evidently superior to Twyne's continuation. The measure is the fourteen-footed Alexandrine of Sternhold and Hopkins. I will give a short specimen from the siege of Troy, in the second book. Venus addresses her son Eneas.

Thou to thy parents hest take heede, dread not, my minde obey:

In yonder place, where stones from stones, and bildings huge

to sway,

Thou seest, and mixt with dust and smoke thicke stremes of reekings rise,

Himselfe the god Neptune that side doth furne in wondersTM wise;

With forke threetinde the wall vproots, foundations allto shakes, And quite from vnder soile the towne, with groundworks, all vprakes.

On yonder side with Furies most, dame Iuno fiercely stands, The gates she keeps, and from the ships the Greeks, her friendly bands,

In armour girt she calles.

Lo! there againe where Pallas sits, on fortes and castle-towres, With Gorgons eyes, in lightning cloudes inclosed grim she lowres.

See "Maister Phaer's Conclusion Virgil, by him conuerted into English to his interpretation of the Aeneidos of m wondrous.


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