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a surgeon or physician of Maidstone in Kent, and author of many tracts in his profession, "Certayne chapters taken out of the proverbes of Solomon, with other chapters of the holy Scripture, and certayne Psalmes of David translated into English metre by John Hall." By the remainder of the title it appears, that the proverbs had been in a former impression unfairly attributed to Thomas Sternhold. The other chapters of Scripture are from Ecclesiasticus and saint Paul's Epistles. We must not confound this John Hall with his cotemporary Eliseus Hall, who pretended to be a missionary from heaven to the queen, prophesied in the streets, and wrote a set of metrical visions d. Metre was now become the vehicle of enthusiasm, and the puritans seem to have appropriated it to themselves, in opposition to our service, which was in prose *.

William Baldwyn, of whom more will be said when we come to the MIRROUR OF MAGISTRATES, published a Phraselike declaration in English meeter on the CANTICLES or SONGS OF SOLOMON, in 1549 †. It is dedicated to Edward the

There is an edition in quarto dedi cated to king Edward the Sixth with this title, "The Psalmes of David translated into English metre by T. Sternhold, sir T. Wyat, and William Hunnis, with certaine chapters of the Proverbes and select Psalms by John Hall." I think I have seen a book by Hall called the COURT OF VIRTUE, containing some or all of these sacred songs, with notes, 1565. 8vo. [16mo.] He has a copy of verses prefixed to Gale's ENCHIRIDION OF SURGERY, Lond. 1563. See John Reade's Preface to his translation of F. Arcaeus's ANATOMY.

Strype, ANN. i. p. 291. ch. xxv. ed.

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Syng to the Lord sum pleasant song,
Of matter fresh and newe:
Unto his churche it doth belong
His prayses to renewe. Psalme cxviii.



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Colophon : Imprinted at London ty William Baldwin,servaunt with Edwarde Whitchurche." Baldwin, in the dedication to his royal patron, expresses a pious wish that these swete and mistical songs may drive out of office "the baudy balades of lecherous love," which were indited and sung by idle courtiers in the houses of princes and noblemen. forward the same purpose, he tells us notable example,in causyng the Psalmes, his Majesty [Edw. VI.] had given a brought into fine Englysh meter, by his godly disposed servaunt Thomas Sternholde, to be song openly before his grace, in the hearyng of all his subjectes. Baldwin's metrical paraphrase of the Song of Solomon, exhibits a greater facility of versification than the psalmody of his predecessor, and the lyrical varie

Sixth. Nineteen of the psalms in rhyme are extant by Francis Seagar*, printed by William Seres in 1553, with musical notes, and dedicated to Lord Russel f.

Archbishop Parker also versified the psalter; not from any

ties of his metre render it far more pleasing. I extract a few short specimens from different parts of the volume.

Loe, thou my love art fayer;
Myselfe have made thee so:
Yea, thou art fayer, in dede,
Wherefore thou shalt not nede
In beautie to dispayer:
For I accept thee, lo,
For fayer.

For fayer, because thyne eyes
Are like the culvers, whyte;
Whose simplenes in dede,
All others doe excede :
Thy judgement wholly lyes
In true sence of [the] spryte,
Moste wyse.-Sign. B. 3. b.

In wysedome of the flesh, my bed,

love betweene Christ the spouse, and the Church or Congregation: first made by the wise prince Saloman, and now newly set forth in verse by JUD SMITH," &c. Printed by H. Kirckham, 16mo, b. 1. A single stanza may suffice.

Coine, wend unto my garden gay,
My sister and my spowse;
For I have gathered mirre with spice,
And other goodly bowes.

A fantastical and almost unintelligible pamphlet was printed in black letter, called "Beware the Cat," and was attributed to one Stremer: but in the library of the Society of Antiquaries, a black letter copy of verses is preserved, which ascribes the production peremptorily to the pen of BALDWIN in these cryer-like


Finde truste in wurkes of mannes devise, Wheras ther is a boke called Beware the

By nyght, in darkenes of the dead,

I sought for Christe, as one unwyse,

Whome my soule loveth.


The verie truth is so that STREMER made

not that:

I sought hym long, but founde him not, Nor no suche false fabels fell ever from

Because I sought hym not aryght;
I sought in wurkes, but now, I wot,
He is found by fayth, not in the nyght,
Whome my soule loveth.
Sign. E. 1. a.

Ye faythfull, would ye know
As full what one he is?
My wit and learnyng is too low
To shew that shape of his.-

My love is suche a gem,
My frende also is he:
Ye daughters of Jerusalem,
Suche is my love to me.
Sign. H. 3. a.

A more brief and much more prosaic version of Solomon's Canticum Canticorum was published, in 1575, by a rhymer hitherto unrecorded in these anuals, or in the typographical antiquities of Herbert. His book was entitled "A misticall devise of the spirituall and godly

his pen,

Nor from his hart or mouth, as knoe mani honest men.

But wil ye gladli knoe who made that boke in dede,

One WYLLIAM BALDEWINE-God graunt him wel to spede.-PARK.]

e In quarto. I have seen also "The Ballads or Canticles of Solomon in Prose and Verse." Without date, or name of printer or author.


[Sir Thomas Smith, the learned secretary to Edward VI. and to his sister Elizabeth, while a prisoner in the Tower in 1549, translated eleven of David's psalms into English metre, and composed three metrical prayers, which are now in the British Museum. MSS. Reg. 17. A. xvii.-PARK.]

f At the end is a poem, entitled "A Description of the Lyfe of Man, the World and Vanities thereof." Princ. "Who on earth can justly rejoyce?"

opposition to our liturgy, but, either for the private amusement and exercise of his religious exile, or that the people, whose predilection for psalmody could not be suppressed, might at least be furnished with a rational and proper translation. It was finished in 1557. And a few years afterwards printed by Day, the archbishop's printer, in quarto, with this title, "The whole Psalter translated into English metre, which contayneth an hundredth and fifty psalmes. The first Quinquagene 8. Quoniam omnis terræ deus, psallite sapienter. Ps. 14. 47. Imprinted at London by John Daye, dwelling over Aldersgate beneath Saint Martyn's. Cum privilegio per decennium "." Without date of the printer, or name of the translator. In the metrical preface prefixed, he tries to remove the objections of those who censured versifications of Scripture, he pleads the comforts of such an employment to the persecuted theologist who suffers voluntary banishment, and thus displays the power of sacred music.

The psalmist stayde with tuned songe

The rage of myndes agast,

As David did with harpe among
To Saule in fury cast.

With golden stringes such harmonie
His harpe so sweete did wrest,

That he relievd his phrenesie

Whom wicked sprites possest k.

Whatever might at first have been his design, it is certain that his version, although printed, was never published: and notwithstanding the formality of his metrical preface above

The second quinquagene follows, fol. 146. The third and last, fol. 280.

In black letter. Among the prefaces are four lines from lord Surrey's ECCLESIASTES. Attached to every psalm is a prose collect. At the end of the psalms are versions of Te Deum, Bencdictus, Quicunque vult, &c. &c.


Day had a license, June 3, 1561, to print the psalms in metre. Ames, p. 238. He thus remonstrates against the secular ballads,

Ye songes so nice, ye sonnets all,

Of lothly lovers layes,

Ye worke mens myndes but bitter gall
By phansies peevish playes.

mentioned, which was professedly written to shew the spiritual efficacy or virtue of the psalms in metre, and in which he directs a distinct and audible mode of congregational singing, he probably suppressed it, because he saw that the practice had been abused to the purposes of fanaticism, and adopted by the puritans in contradiction to the national worship; or at least that such a publication, whatever his private sentiments might have been, would not have suited the nature and dignity of his high office in the church. Some of our musical antiquaries, however, have justly conjectured, that the archbishop, who was skilled in music, and had formerly founded a music-school in his college of Stoke Clare*, intended these psalms, which are adapted to complicated tunes of four parts probably constructed by himself and here given in score, for the use of cathedrals; at a time, when compositions in counterpoint were uncommon in the church, and when that part of our choir-service called the motet or anthem, which admits a more artificial display of harmony, and which is recommended and allowed in queen Elisabeth's earliest ecclesiastical injunctions, was yet almost unknown, or but in a very imperfect state. Accordingly, although the direction is not quite comprehensible, he orders many of them to be sung by the rector chori, or chantor, and the quier, or choir, alternately. That at least he had a taste for music, we may conclude from the following not inelegant scale + of modulation, prefixed to his eight tunes above mentioned.

* [In the county of Suffolk. From the statutes of which college, as framed by Dr. Parker, Sir John Hawkins has given the following curious extract: Item to be found in the college, henceforth a number of quiristers, to the number of eight or ten or more, as may be borne conveniently of the stock, to have sufficient meat, drink, broth, and learning. Of which said quiristers, after their breasts (i.e. voices) be changed, we will the most apt of wit and capacity be helpen with exhibition of forty shillings, four marks, or three pounds a-piece, to be students in some college in Cambridge. Hist. of Music, iii. 508.PARK.

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t["This scale, however elegant,' says Mr. Ashby, "will not alone prove Archbishop Parker's right to this version of the psalms: because it is not only likely in general, that the translator would be a lover of music, but it so happens that the other claimant, John Keeper, had studied music and poetry at Wells." I presume that the following extract from the archbishop's diary will establish his claim to the performance. "This 6 August (his birth-day), Ann. Dom. 1557, I persist in the same constancy, upholden by the grace and goodness of my Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; by whose inspiration I have finished the Eook of Psalms, turned


The first is meke, devout to see,
The second sad, in maiesty:

The third doth rage, and roughly brayth,
The fourth doth fawne, and flattry playth:
The fifth deligth, and laugheth the more,
The sixt bewayleth, it wepeth full sore.
The seventh tredeth stoute in froward race,
The eyghte goeth milde in modest pace."

What follows is another proof, that he had proposed to inroduce these psalms into the choir-service. "The tenor of these partes be for the people when they will syng alone, the other partes put for the greater quiers, or to suche as will syng or play them privately 1.

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How far this memorable prelate, perhaps the most accomplished scholar that had yet filled the archbishoprick of Canterbury, has succeeded in producing a translation of the psalter preferable to the common one, the reader may judge from these stanzas of a psalm highly poetical, in which I have exactly preserved the translator's peculiar use of the hemistic punctuation.

Into vulgar verse. (Strype's Life of Archbishop Parker.) "Vulgar" here means vernacular; as in the ministration of baptism, the sponsors are directed to let the child be taught the creed &c. in the "vulgar tongue." And in the prefix to Drant's version of the Satires of Horace" I have englished thinges not accordyng to the vain of the Latin proprietie, but of our own vulgar tongue."-PARK.]

As the singing-psalms were never a part of our liturgy, no rubrical directions are any where given for the manner of performing them. In one of the PREFACES, written about 1550, it is ordered, "Whereas heretofore there hath been great diversitie of saying and singing in churches within this realm; some follow

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ing Salisbury use, some Hereford use, some the use of Bangor, some of York, some of Lincoln; now from henceforth all the whole realm shall have but one use. But this is said in reference to the chants, responds, suffrages, versicles, introites,kyrie-eleeysons,doxologies, and other melodies of the Book of Common Prayer, then newly published under lawful authority, with musical notes by Marbeck, and which are still used; that no arbitrary variations should be made in the manner of singing these melodies, as had been lately the case with the Roman missal, in performing which some cathedrals affected a manner of their own. The Salisbury missal was most famous and chiefly followed.

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