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A NEW AND GENERAL
ARNULPH or EARNULPH, or ERNULPH, bishop of
, , Rochester in the reign of king Henry I. was a Frenchman by birth, and for some time a monk of St. Lucian de Beauvais. Observing some irregularities among his brethren, which he could neither remedy nor endure, he resolved to quit the monastery; but first he took the advice of Lanfranc archbishop of Canterbury, under whom he had studied in the abbey of Bec. That prelate, who was well acquainted with his merit, invited him over into England, and placed him in the monastery of Canterbury, where he lived till Lanfranc's death. Afterwards, when Anselm came into that see, Arnulph was made prior of the monastery of Canterbury, and afterwards abbot of Peterborough, and to both places he was a considerable benefactor, having rebuilt part of the church of Canterbury, which had fallen down, and also that of Peterborough, but this latter was destroyed by an accidental fire, and our prelate removed to Rochester before he could repair the loss. In 1115, he was consecrated bishop of that see, in the room of Radulphus or Ralph, removed to the see of Canterbury. He sat nine years and a few days, and died in March 1124, aged eighty-four. He is best known by his work concerning the foundation, endowment, charters, laws, and other things relating to the church of Rochester. It generally passes by the name of Textus Roffensis, and is preserved in the archives of the cathedral church of Rochester. Mr. Wharton, in his Anglia Sacra, has published an extract of this history, under the title of “ Ernulphi Episcopi Rof. fensis Collectanea de rebus Ecclesiæ Roffensis, à prima' sedis fundatione ad sua tempora. Ex Textu Roffensi, VOL. III.
quem composuit Ernulphus.” This extract consists of the names of the bishops of Rochester, from Justus, who was translated to Canterbury in the year 624, to Ernulfus inclusive; benefactions to the church of Rochester; of the agreement made between archbishop Lanfranc, and Odo bishop of Bayeux; how Lanfranc restored to the monks the lands of the church of St. Andrew, and others, which had been alienated from them; how king William the son of king William did, at the request of archbishop Lanfranc, grant unto the church of St. Andrew the apostle, at Rochester, the manor called Hedenham, for the maintenance of the inonks; and why bishop Gundulfus built for the king the stone castle of Rochester at his own expence; a grant of the great king William ; Of the dispute between Gundulfus and Pichot; benefactions to the church of Rochester. Oudin is of opinion, our Arnulph had no hand in this collectiou; but the whole was printed, in 1769, by the late Mr. Thorpe, in his “ Registrum Roffense."
There are extant likewise, “ Tomellus, sive epistola Ernalfi ex Monacho Benedictino Episcopi Roffensis de Incestis Conjugiis," and “ Epistola solutiones quasdam continens ad varias Lamberti abbatis Bertiniani quæstiones, præcipue de Corpore et Sanguine Domini.” Bale, who confounds our Arnulph with Arnoul bishop of Lisieux, and with Arnoul abbot of Bonneval, and Arnulphus the presbyter, informs us, that Arnulphus went to Rome, where, inveigbing strongly against the vices of the bishops, particularly their lewdness, grandeur, and worldly-mindedness, he fell a sacrifice to the rage and resentment of the Roman clergy, who caused bim to be privately assassinated. But this was Arnulphus the presbyter, who, as Platina tells us, was destroyed by the treachery of the Roman clergy, in the time of pope Honorius II. for remonstrating with great severity against the corruptions of the court of Roine. Nor could this possibly be true of our Arnulph, in the time of that pope : for this bishop of Rochester died before Honorius. II. was raised to the pontificate. As to the works ascribed by Bale to Arnulphus, such as “De Operibus sex dierum,” &c. they were written either by Arnoul bishop of Lisieux, or by Arnoul abbot of Bonneval.
ARNWAY (Join), descended of a good family in the county of Salop, from which he inherited a considerable
estate, was born in 1601, educated in grammatical learning in his own country, and in 1618 became a commoner of St. Edmund's hall, in Oxford, where he remained till he had taken his degrees in arts, and had also received holy orders. He then went down again into Shropshire, where, in process of time, he obtained the rectories of Hodnet and Ightfield, which he enjoyed to the breaking out of the civil war. He was a man of much learning and very extensive charity, so that though his income was considerable, yet he laid up very little. It was his custom to clothe annually twelve poor people according to their station, and every Sunday he entertained as many at his table, not only plentifully, but with delicate respect. His loyalty to his prince being as warm as his charity towards his neighbours, he raised and clothed eight troopers for his service, and always preached warmly against rebellion. The parliament having a garrison in the town of Wem, a detachment was sent from thence who plundered him of every thing, besides terrifying him with the cruellest insults.
In 1640 he repaired to Oxford, to serve the king in person, and there was created doctor in divinity, and had also the archdeaconry of Coventry given him, on the promotion of Dr. Brownrig to the bishopric of Exeter. His former misfortunes did not hinder Dr. Arnway from being as active afterwards in the king's service, which subjected him to a new train of hardships, his estate being sequestered, and himself imprisoned. At length, after the king's murder, he obtained his liberty, and, like many other loyalists, was compelled by the laws then in being to retire to Holland. While at the Hague, in 1650, he published two little pieces ; the first entitled “ The Tablet; or, the Moderation of Charles I. the Martyr.” In this he endea-" vours to wipe off all the aspersions that were thrown on that prince's memory by Milton and his associates. The second is called “An Alarm to the Subjects of England,” in which he certainly did his utmost to picture the oppressions of the new government in the strongest colours; and in this. work he gives some very remarkable anecdotes of himself. His supplies from England failing, and his hopes in that country being also frustrated, he was compelled to accept an offer that was made him of going to Virginia, where, oppressed with grief and cares, he died, in 1653, leaving behind him the character of a pious, upright, and consistent loyalist. The tracts above mentioned were reprinted
in England, 1661, by the care of Mr. William Rider, of Merton College, who married a relation of the author, but this volume is very scarce.
AROMATARI (Joseph), a learned Italian physician, was born at Assisi, about the year 1586. His father, who was also a physician of character, spared nothing to give him an education suitable to the profession which he wished him to follow. He began his studies at Perugia, and meant to have completed them at Montpellier, but he was sent to Padua, where he attended the logical, philosophical, and medical classes. Having obtained his doctor's degree in his eighteenth year, he went to Venice and practised physic there for fifty years, during which he refused very advantageous offers from the duke of Mantua, the king of England, and pope Urban VIII. and died there July 16,1660. He had collected a copious library, particularly rich in manuscripts, and cultivated general literature as well as the sciences connected with his profession, in which last he published only one tract, to be noticed hereafter. His first publication was “ Riposte alle considerazion di Alessandro Tassoni, sopra le rime del Petrarca,” Padua, 1611, 8vo, to which Tassoni replied under the assumed name of Crescenzio Pepe; “Avvertimenti di Cres. Pepe a Guiseppe degli Aromatari, &c.” 1611, 8vo. Aromatari answered this by “ Dialoghi di Falcidio Melampodio in riposta agli avvertimenti date sotto nome di Cres. Pepe, &c.” Venice, 1613, 8vo. But the work which has procured him most reputation was a letter on the generation of plants, addressed to Bartholomew Nanti, and printed for the first time, prefixed to his (Aromatari’s) “ Disputatio de rabie contagiosa," Venice, 1625, 4to, Francfort, 1626, 4to, and the Letter was afterwards printed among the “ Epistolæ selectæ” of G. Richt, Nuremberg, 1662, 4to. It was also translated into English, and published in the Philosophical Transactions, No. CCXI, and again reprinted with Jungius's works, in 1747, at Cobourg. His opinions on the generation of plants were admired for their ingenuity, and if his health and leisure had permitted, he intended to have prosecuted the subject more minutely.'
ARON (Peter). See AARON.
ARPINO (JOSEPH D’), the son of a painter named Cesari at Arpino, was born at Rome in 1560. While yet in
| Biog. Britannica.---Ath. Ox, vol. II. 2 Biog. Universelle.- Vanget. Bibk Script. Med.--Haller.