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From the British Museum Educational Series (Catalogue).

1. III. B. 28. Of Thebes. Obv. Boeotian shield. Rev. OE (=Oeißnwr). Infant Hêrakles strangling serpents. Fourth century B.C. Wt. 187 grs. Cf. N. 1. 39–47.

2. II. C. 16. Of Akragas. Obv. Two eagles with hare. In field horned head of a young river-god. [Rev. AKPATANTINON.] End of fifth century B.C. Wt. 267.8 grs. Cf. N. 3. 80, 81.

3. II. B. 24. Of Aegina (Xeláv). Obv. Al. Land tortoise (symbol of Astarte, Phoenician goddess of commerce). Rev. Incuse square divided into five compartments, with N, I, and dolphin in the three whole squares. Earlier than B.C. 459. Cf. N. 6. 66.

Wt. 189 grs.

4. I. C. 25. Of Katana. [Obv. Man-headed bull (river-god); above, water-fowl; beneath, river-fish.] Rev. KATANAION (IOVKATANA). Winged Nikê with wreath in right hand moving quickly to the left. Before 480 B.C. Wt. 266-8 grs.

5. II. C. 28. [Obv. MEEEANION. Hare; beneath it dolphin.] Rev. 'Annun ; winged Nike about to crown charioteer. In exergue two dolphins. Fifth century B.C. Type adopted by Anaxilâos.

GoWt. 266.9 grs. Cf. 0. 5. 3.




My explanation of N. 7. 72, 73 differs materially from that of Prof. Gardner and Dr Pinder (Der Fünf kampf der Hellenen, Berlin, 1867), and my view of the nature of the pentathlon is to a great extent new.

I had anticipated Prof. Gardner's view of the ephedros in my note on 0. 8. 68. I also agree with Prof. Gardner and Dr Pinder that victory in only three contests was necessary to win the prize (in spite of Aristides, Panathen. p. 341).

But I hold that the competitors all contended at once in leaping, running, and discus-hurling, and also in spearthrowing, save that all competitors who were beaten by one competitor (or more) in the first three contests may have at once retired as beaten, in some cases at any rate. Similarly all wrestled, or at least those who had not been beaten by any one competitor in three out of the first four contests.

The qualification for ultimate victory was TO DEFEAT EACH AND ALL OTHER COMPETITORS IN SOME (NOT NECESSARILY THE SAME) THREE CONTESTS OUT OF THE FIVE. Thus I do not, like Dr Pinder, force the meaning of vikav, but only distribute its application.

It follows from my hypothesis that the first in wrestling, if there was any, would generally win. But cases of equality as to the mere order of placing according to the rough and ready method propounded might arise ; for instance, if A beat

; all in two contests and B and C each beat all in one contest out of the first four, then if B or C win the wrestling we have two winners in two contests apiece. In such cases it is reasonable to suppose that the judges would decide which of the competitors had shown himself the best all-round man.

But still a winner could not, as Prof. Gardner urges, in objection to Dr Pinder's scheme, “be very inferior in the first three contests."

It must be assumed that a minimum of proficiency was required in all the contests. If a competitor were absolutely first in the first three contests or in three out of the first four contests he would only have to satisfy the judges as to his proficiency in the last two contests or in wrestling alone, while the other candidates would still compete, at any rate those who had a chance, in case the winner of three contests were after all disqualified.

Dr Pinder narrows the circle of competitors after the second contest, not after the first (Fünfkampf, pp. 77, 79) to four, three, two successively in the last three contests.

This view seems at once untenable, because

A who was successively 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 might win from B who was 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, a case which is at variance with common sense and (as Prof. Gardner shows) with all the slight testimony given by antiques and by writers.

In Flavius Philostratos' Argonautic pentathlon (de Gymn. § 3) my hypothesis, according to Prof. Gardner's view of the heroes' merit, gives the subjoined simple scheme.

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If the larger of the alternative numbers be chosen or excluded, all five competitors remain in for the wrestling.



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I need not make any assumption as to the numbers in the case of Tisamenos. Pausanias says of him, 3. 11. 6, oŮtw πένταθλον Ολυμπίασιν άσκησας απήλθεν ηττηθείς, και τοι τα δύο γε ήν πρώτος και γαρ δρόμω τε εκράτει πηδήματι Ιερώνυμος "Ανδριον, καταπαλαισθείς δε υπ' αυτού και αμαρτων της νίκης, κ.τ.λ. Ηer. 9. 33 tells us that Tισάμενος παρά έν πάλαισμα έδραμε νικάν Ολυμπιάδα Ιερ. τω Α. ελθών ες έριν. If these were the only competitors, and Hierônymos was first in spear-throwing and discus-hurling, Pausanias seems to say too much and too little. Bacchylides, 9. 32 to 36, says that Automedes won with discus and spear and in the wrestling, and in 1. 7, 8 Melas is distinguished for running and wrestling.

Theoretically any number of competitors might stay in for the wrestling, as for example if the order of n-1 competitors A, A, &c. (n being greater than 2) in the first four contests were A,, 1, 1, n-1, n-1; 4,, 2, 2, n – 2, n – 2 ; ...; Am, n-1, n-1, 1, 1.

But practically there would almost always be some competitors already beaten after the 3rd and 4th contests; and often, no doubt, the ultimate victor would be absolutely first in three out of the first four contests.

My hypothesis avoids the following difficulties :

Firstly. If two competitors were each first twice, or if 3, 4, or 5 competitors were each first once, we have on these assumptions no means of determining the final decision.

Secondly. Prof. Gardner's difficulty (p. 221) “ that at first sight” Xenophon's language, Hellenica, 7. 4, “would seem to imply that the running contests of the pentathlon took place all at once.”

Thirdly. The apparently necessary assumption that seven competitors is an extreme case, and that one can only fit in the three heats required in this case “provided, of course, that they went on at the same time as other contests." There happens to be a little indirect evidence on this point. 0. 8. 38 tells us that from eleven to sixteen boys competed in

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