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3. Dactylic of three feet.
Evěr sing | mērrily, | mērrily.

4. Dactylic of four feet.
Boys will anticipate, lavish ånd dissipăte.

§ 295. ANAPÆSTIC VERSE. Remark. In this verse the accent is laid on every third syllable. The first foot of Anapæstic verse may be an lambus.

1. Anapæstic of one foot.

But in vain

They complāin.
2. Anapæstic of two feet.
When I look | on my boys
Thěy raise | all my joys.

3. Anapæstic of three feet.
O, yě woods | spread your brân chěs apăce.

4. Anapæstic of four feet.
Máy I gõvẽm my passions with absolute sway
And grow wisser and better as life I wears awāy.

PRONUNCIATION. $ 296. Pronunciation consists in expressing words or sentences by the vocal organs.

Pronunciation comprehends accent, emphasis, pause, and inflection.

1. Accent consists in laying a peculiar stress of voice on a particular letter or syllable in a word to distinguish it from others.

Every word which has more than one syllable, has one of its syllables accented; as, miserable.

In a very long word a secondary accent is given to another syllable, for the sake of harmony and distinction; as, 'Amplificàtion.

2. Emphasis consists in laying a peculiar stress of voice on one or more words in a sentence to distinguish them from others,

3. Pause, in reading or speaking, denotes a cessation of the voice a longer or shorter period, according as the sense requires.

4. Inflections are peculiar variations of the voice, made in passing from one note into another. The passage

of the voice from a lower to a higher note, is called the rising inflection. The passage of the voice from a higher to a lower note is called the falling inflection.

5. Tones are those modulations of the voice which depend very much upon the feelings of the speaker, and the sentiments he expresses. In order to be impressive, they should be natural and adapted to the nature of the subject and the occasion.

FIGURES. 297. Figures are intentional deviations from the regular form, construction and application of words. These figures may relate either to Etymology, Syntax, or Rhetoric.

FIGURES OF ETYMOLOGY. $ 298. There are six principal figures of Etymology, Aphæresis, Syncope, Apocope, Tmesis, Diæresis, and Synæresis.

1. Aphæresis is the taking away a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word; as, "tis 'gan,for “it is began.”

2. Šyncope is the omission of some letter or syllable in the middle of a word; as, groc'ries, medcine.

3. Apocope is the omission of the final letter of a syllable or a word; as, tho', th, for though and the.

4. Tmesis is the insertion of a word between the parts of a compound word; as, “ What course soever he may pursue.

5. Diæresis shows that two vowels coming together, should not be considered a diphthong; as, preëminent, coagulate.

6. A Synæresis denotes the contraction of syllables usually separated, into one; as, loved, lov-ed.

FIGURES OF SYNTAX. $ 299. There are three figures of Syntax; Ellipsis, Pleonasm, and Hyperbaton.

1. Ellipsis is the omission of some word or words in a sentence, which are necessary to complete the construction, but not to express the meaning of the sentence; as, “The joys and (the) sorrows of life;" “What is your name ? (it is) John.

2. Pleonasm is using a greater number of words than is necessary to express the meaning; as, “ He spake with his voice."

3. Hyperbaton is a transgression of the common order of words and clauses; as, Whom do men say that I am ?” “He wanders earth around.”

REMARK. This figure may be introduced into animated discourse, with much force, elegance, and propriety; but an emphatic repetition of the same idea, in ordinary sentences, should in every case be avoided.

“ The

FIGURES OF RHETORIC. $ 300. A rhetorical figure is an intentional deviation from the regular application of words. Figures of this kind are called tropes. There are fourteen rhetorical figures, Metaphor, Simile, Metonomy, Synechdoche, Allegory, Irony, Hyperbole, Personification, Apostrophe, Interrogation, Ecphonesis, Vision, Antithesis, Climax.

1. “A Metaphor is the transferring of a word from the object to which it properly belongs, and applying it to another to which that object has some analogy ;” as, field smiles ;” “I will be unto thee a wall of fire round about, and a glory in the midst of her;" “ Thou art my rock and fortress.

2. Simile or comparison denotes that the resemblance between two objects is expressed in form, and extends farther than a metaphor admits; as, “ As the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the Lord is round about his city;" “ The actions of princes are like those great rivers, the course of which every one beholds, but their springs have been seen but by few.”

3. Metonomy is substituting the name of one object for that of another to which it sustains certain relations ; as, the cause for the effect, the container for the thing contained, the property for the substance, the sign for the thing signified,

and their contraries; as, They read Milton.” The cause put for the effect, “Gray hairs should be honored.

6. The kettle boils,” the container for the thing contained.

4. Synechdoche is putting a genus for a species, the whole for a part, a singular noun for a plural, the material for the thing made of it, and their contraries; as, “A fleet of twenty sail. Here sail is put for ships. The waves are often put for the sea.

5. An allegory denotes a continued series of metaphors, used to represent and illustrate one subject by another which resembles it; as, “Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt. Thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it. Thou preparedst room before it, and didst cause it to take deep root and it filled the land. The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs thereof were like god lly cedars. She sent out her boughs into the sea, and her branches into the river.” -Bible. Here the people of Israel are represented under the image of a vine.

6. Irony denotes the intentional use of words expressing meaning contrary to that which the writer or speaker intends to convey, not to deceive, but to give force to expression; as,

Cry aloud : for he is a god: either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be waked.”Bible. Here the prophet Elijah challenged the priests of Baal to prove the truth of their deity, and addressed them as above in ironic language. “O excellent interpreter of the law! master of antiquity! corrector and mender of our constitution !- Cicero for Balbus-deriding his accuser.

7. Hyperbole is magnifying or diminishing a subject beyond the truth; as,

"Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath and infinite despair?

way I fly is hell, myself am hell,
And in the lowest depth, a lower deep
Still threatening to devour me, opens wide,

To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. “I saw their chief tall as a rock of ice, his spear as a blasted fir, his shield the rising moon; he sat on the shore like a

cloud of mist on the hill." -Ossian's description of the leader . of an enemy.

8. Personi fication represents inanimate things as acting and speaking, and dead as alive and present; as, “The earth

smiles with plenty ;” “The ground thirsts for rain;" “The mountains skipped like rams, and the little hills like lambs.” -Bible.

The following is a description of the effects of eating the forbidden fruit :

"Earth trembled from her entrails as again
In pangs, and nature gave a second groan;
Sky lowered, and, mult'ring thunder, some sad drops

Wept at completing of the mortal sin.”—Milton. 9. Apostrophe is turning from the regular course into an animated address; as, “Death is swallowed up in victory;" “O death! where is thy sting? O grave! where is thy victory ?"--Bible.

io. Interrogation denotes an earnest question, and generally implies a strong affirmation to the contrary; as, “ Hast thou an arm like the Almighty ?” “Who by searching can find out God ?“Who can find out the Almighty unto perfection ?Bible.

11. Ecphonesis is a pathetic exclamation denoting a strong emotion of the mind; as, O that

my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people !"--Bible. “O

liberty ! O sound once delightful to every Roman ear!” -Cicero.

12. Vision is a figure by which the speaker represents the objects of his imagination as if they were actually passing before his eyes; as, “I seem to myself to behold this city, the ornament of the earth, and the capital of all nations, suddenly involved in one conflagration.”—Cicero.

13. Antithesis is placing things in opposition, to produce a greater effect by contrast; as,

“Tho' deep, yet clear; tho' gentle, yet not dull.” you wish to enrich a person, study not to increase his stores, but to diminish his desires."

14. Climax is a figure in which the sentiment increases by successive degrees and becomes more and more interesting and important, or descends to the minutest particulars; as, is a crime to put a Roman citizen in bonds, it is the height of guilt to scourge him, little less than parricide to put him to death : what name then shall I give to the act of crucifying him !"--Cicero,


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