Page images

§ 160. Tepl Tŵy trapel navbótwy, which we know all about, and twv medlóvrwv, which are yet absolutely uncertain. The strong point in this argument of Demosthenes consists in Leptines having allowed exceptions in the past, and leaving no room for them in the future. He would probably have answered that his exception was a concession to popular feeling, but that even under similar circumstances he would be for granting no such exemption in the future.

P. 53, § 161. 6ti vn Ala. This is the regular formula for introducing a supposed argument of an antagonist which it is presently intended to answer.

TOLOÛTÓV Th, such as the tyranny of the Peisistratidae. μηδείς αν νεμεσήσαι, “we may be sure that no one would view with jealousy ;' referring to the jealousy with which the gods were supposed to look on anything that savoured of arrogance or self-confidence in men. μηδείς, not ουδείς, because the principle is represented as actuating the legislator in framing his laws.

πάντα ανθρώπινα ηγείσθαι, to consider that there is no change of fortune to which man is not liable.'

εις τοιαύτα πράγματα, sc. into such a humiliating position as they had occupied since the battle of Leuctra, in B.C. 369.

Eupakóolol. The democracy at Syracuse lasted from the expulsion of Thrasybulus, in B.C. 466, till the appointment of Dionysius, originally a clerk in a public office, to the post of sole general, which he soon converted into a tyranny in B.C. 405. Their supremacy over Carthage dated from the victory of Gelon at Himera in B.C. 480. The victory over the Athenian fleet was the discomfiture of the Sicilian expedition in B.C. 413.

8s útrimpérns hv. These words are rejected by Reiske as a gloss. They would express the status of Dionysius, the post of γραμματεύς being a υπηρεσία, or salaried ofice, not an αρχή.

$ 162. ó vûv v Alovúolos. The younger Dionysius, who succeeded his father in B.C. 367, was driven from his throne in B.C. 357 by Dion, who seized upon Syracuse in his absence with a force consisting of two merchant vessels and less than 1000 mercenary troops. Dionysius was assassinated in the year after this trial.

8 163. φυλάττετε και μέμνησθε. Two synonymous words are combined to add weight to the injunction. So in § 167 Qulášate kal umuovevete. The time during which they were to bear the point in mind is there specified, έως αν ψηφίσησθε.

Tà KpelTTW. Their verdict really involved the choice between two rival propositions, of which Demosthenes had already pointed out, in § 89, that it was the duty of the judges åkoúo avras ελέσθαι τον κρείττω. .

P. 54, § 164. os forw, 'as I am content there should be.'

ir pòs amavras, 'in the face of all ; ' differing from Tapà Tâouv in the following sentence, as implying that the city would be in a position to look all critics full in the face.

8 165. τοσαύτην βλασφημίαν, so great a slur upon your character.'

των περιεστηκότων, like τους περιεστηκότας έξωθεν και ακροωMévovs, de Cor., p. 293, 23, of the audience, standing outside the limits of the court, to hear the trial.

των καθημένων, “who sit in judgment.' οι καθημένοι is the regular expression for the audience before whom an orator is pleading, whether it be the judges in a court, or the people in their ekkinola. It is used in the latter reference in Phil. ii. p. 66, 12; cp. de Cor. p. 285, 2.

bilav@pwala mpos povov kth. Wolf compares Cic. Cat., ii. 11, 25, 'Denique aequitas temperantia fortitudo prudentia virtutes omnes certant cum iniquitate luxuria ignavia temeritate, cum vitiis omnibus. Postremo copia cum egestate, bona ratio cum perdita, mens sana cum amentia, bona denique spes cum omnium rerum desperatione confligit.

§ 166. Tois Beltlool, sc. benevolence, justice, and the other virtues.

κάν τις άρ' έλθη. άρα implies that the hypothesis to which it is attached is looked on as very improbable, or at least to be deprecated.

us toti Slkala, 'how the truth stands with regard to them,' SC. τα πολλά.

åpupénte, 'you let yourselves be deprived of the information.

[ocr errors]

8 167. φυλάξατε και μνημονεύετε. For the change of tense see on § 87.

το νόμισμα κτλ. . The same comparison is worked out at greater length on the authority of Solon, in Timocr., p. 765, 23.

Toyov duoete, you will admit to plead before you.' So Tóyou tuxeîv, “to obtain a hearing,' de Cor. p. 229, 14.

ου δήπουγε, sc. δώσετε.

Oůk old 8 ml krd. This is a favourite form of ending a speech, both with Demosthenes and other authors. See Isaeus de Apollodori Sorte, and de Cironis Sorte ; Lysias de Frumentariis ; Dem. pro Phorm., adv. Nausim., in Cononem.


Λειτουργίαι. .

1. In ordinary times at Athens there was no such thing as direct taxation of the citizens. It was considered fair and reasonable that the resident aliens (uétolKOL) should pay a polltax (Metoiklov) in consideration of the protection they received from a State on which they had no claim by birth ; but citizens were supposed to have a right to the free use of their lives and property, exempt from all taxation; and direct taxation levied upon them, except in times of emergency, was thought in Greece to be essentially a mark of despotic and unconstitutional government. Even during war such burdens were only to be imposed as a last resource, and consequently we do not find at Athens that any property-tax (eio popà) was ever levied till the revenues of the State began to be crippled by the revolt of Mytilene in B.C. 428. The exceptional nature of the tax is further seen in the fact that no exemptions from it were ever allowed, even to the descendants of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, or to minors, or to those who were actually performing the service of the Tριηραρχία. .

2. But it was considered part of the duty of the wealthier citizens to perform certain special services for the State at their own expense, perhaps consideration of the higher political privileges which in the earlier times of the republic they enjoyed. These would give an opportunity for honourable distinction, and appear, as a general rule, to have been sought after, and carried out with a magnificence that more than satisfied the requirements of the law, though in times of depression, or in the case of the poorer citizens who were liable to undertake them, the burden which these involved was severely felt. They may be compared to offices such as those of high sheriff or mayor or county magistrate among ourselves, where, even if any salary is attached to the office, it is commonly understood to be quite inadequate to the expense involved, and the officer practically gives his time and money as a contribution to his country which his position requires at his hands.

3. At Athens such services were called Xeltovpylaı ; and they were of two classes, the one recurring regularly in peace and war alike, the other making partial provision for the extraordinary expenses of the State in war. The former were called &YKÚK ÕL lecTovpylal; for the latter there is no specific name, perhaps because the tpinpapxia is the only variety of service which, strictly speaking, falls within the class.

4. The éykÚk col deltoupylai comprised four kinds of office, which every citizen who possessed a capital of three talents (about £720), and had no special exemption, might be called upon in turn to fill. These were xopryla, the furnishing a chorus for a dramatist contending at any of the festivals of Dionysus; yuuvaolapxia, involving the maintenance and pay of those who were in training for the public games ; åpxidewpla, the superintendence of the sacred embassies, especially to Delos; and Estlaois, the entertainment of the members of each tribe at a public banquet. Of these the xopnyia was the most important, and the name xopnyla is not unfrequently used in a generic sense to include all the four ordinary deltoupylal. The concrete xopryds is more especially so applied to designate the holder of any of these offices, the word lectoupy's not occurring in classical Greek. A fifth delovpyla is sometimes introduced under this head in the lautadapxia, or superintendence of the torch races; but this was rather a branch, and in later times the main branch, of the γυμνασιαρχία than a separate λειτουργία.

5. Under the head of extraordinary lectoupylai are sometimes reckoned both the clo popá and the Tpimpapxla ; but the former had really nothing in common with the 'liturgies,' being an ordinary tax on property involving no personal responsibilities on the part of those who paid it. Its classification with the trierarchy seems to arise partly from the fact that they were each a special means of providing for war expenses ; partly from the employment for the trierarchy in its later phases of machinery closely resembling that in use for the collection of the εισφορά. .

6. The trierarchy appears to have existed from the time of Solon as a means of equipping and maintaining the triremes belonging to the State. The hull and mast of the vessel were furnished at the public expense, and the sailors were paid their necessary wages from the treasury, but the trierarch was required to equip the ship and keep it in repair, and commonly gave extra pay (émipopàs) to secure a serviceable crew. At first each ship was thus maintained by a single trierarch, who also acted as its captain ; and there seems to have been no difficulty in obtaining a sufficient number of wealthy men to undertake the burden till after the failure of the Sicilian expedition in B.C.

« PreviousContinue »