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admissible in English. 'In, I think, many of your transactions.' Cp. Plat. Rep., p. 564 A, & ołual tas åkpotátns élevθερίας. .
8 4. προβουλεύειν .. χειροτονείν. The technical words for passing a προβούλευμα and a ψήφισμα respectively.
το κυρίους ημάς είναι, sc. της δωρεάς, as in 8 5.
$ 5. αυτό καθ' αυτό, “should look at the question on its own merits.'
fatratnévtas Tu, ' being here and there deceived.'
åkúpous, 'deprived of all power to act in the matter ;' a rare use of the word, which generally is applied to things, in the sense of 'invalid.' This sense, however, equally follows from its opposition to κύριος. .
ÉK TOû . . Slóval, 'from offering,' rather than ‘from giving,' which would be έκ τού δούναι. .
8 6. δι' εκείνο, sc. εύροιτ' αν εκείνο μάλλον λυσιτελούν. His new reason is a yet more cogent one, that you cannot refuse to requite a benefit without baseness, which is infinitely worse than the simplicity shown in being deceived.
elval is not opposed to Sokeîv, but dependent on it. • It is better to have the reputation of being simple than of being base.'
P. 3, § 7. Karapeucóuevov, agreeing with tivá, as in $ 2.
τους χρησίμους όντας, “those who render rvice to the State.' In 88 115, 116, οι χρησίμου and oι χρηστοι are again practically identified, but the two words imply different points of view; men are χρηστοι as being excellent in themselves, χρησίμοι as being useful to their country.
TÒV TOÚTWV Wóyov, 'the representations of Leptines and his adherents.'
§ 8. un ouxl. Both negatives are redundant, the idea of denial being fully given in άντείποι. But it is usual in Greek to insert un after verbs of prohibition and denial, and to add où in combination with it when these verbs are themselves negatived. Both us and où are reflections of preceding negatives,
un reflecting the negative notion of the verb, où the negative particle which is prefixed to it.
éviauTÓv Slaluiráv. See Excursus I., $ 9.
τον ήμισυν .. του χρόνου. Probably for τον ήμισυν χρόνον του χρόνου. Cp. Τhuc. viii. 48, ο πλέων του στράτου. Hdt. i. 24, τον πολλών του χρόνου.
είτα .. αφελώμεθα, are we to take away from those who have done us good service that second half of this exemption which we have given them over and above what all possess ? ' αφελώμεθα is the deliberative conjunctive. ής, sc. ης ατελείας, implied in the preceding ατελής. .
aws,'on general grounds.'
8 9. κατά μεν την αγοράν. This clause is introduced by the figure called trapáraţrs, merely for the sake of its contrast with the co-ordinate clause introduced by de, without any real dependence of meaning on the principal clause. There was nothing disgraceful in a law forbidding falsehood in mercantile transactions, but its existence heightened the disgrace incurred by the city in proving false to its engagements. Mèv and de in such sentences may generally be best rendered by 'whilst' and 'yet.'
εφ' οίς belongs to εί τις ψεύδεται, through any falsehood in which matters.
την αυτήν επιτάξασαν ήτις αυτή επέταξεν, αυτήν being here the emphatic personal pronoun.
kal tahta, sc. Touñoal, as we say, "and this too.'
8 10. ει και δόξαν, sc. μή απόλλυτε, “whether you do not lose reputation, as well as money.'
κίνδυνον εξέστησαν, a construction κατά σύνεσιν, εκστηναι being practically equivalent to puyeîv, and so taking an accusative.
ταύτην, sc. την δόξαν.
P. 4, § 11. oi tpiákovra. The thirty tyrants, from whose tyranny, in B.C. 404, Thrasybulus and the leaders of the constitutional party took refuge in the Peiraeus.
Ας έν ήλθεν κτλ., “when unity was restored in the State and those troubles were settled.'
$ 12. λόγων δε γιγνομένων. This probably refers to a debate in the ēkkinola, in which the constitutional party were for making the adherents of the thirty tyrants bear the burden of the loan, whilst the others maintained that it should be looked on as a national debt.
τούτο is explained afterwards by κοινή διαλύσαι τα χρήματα. .
υπέρ του μη ψεύσασθαι, in support of the principle of keep
noelhoate. The second person marks the orator's sense of the unity of the Athenian people in successive generations, as few if any of his hearers would have taken part in the deliberations of nearly fifty years ago.
oúk åţr@, 'I think it an unworthy policy.'
P. 5, § 13. én adlwv mollôv, 'in many other points of view.'
ouSe déyw kth., nor do I allege any crime against him, nor am I privy to anything of the sort.'
πολύ τούτου κεχωρισμένον. The reserve of the orator is here very noticeable. He will not say anything against his opponent's character generally (rà ăla), and even when he criticises it from the evidence afforded by the law, he will not abuse it, but only says that it is very widely different from that of the State.
§ 14. Sokelv is omitted in some MSS., and seems to convey an unnecessary sneer, as though Leptines could not be brought into real harmony of feeling with the State. The antithesis, however, between dokelv and elval was so ich affected by the Greek writers as to be often introduced when its propriety and good taste seem questionable to us.
Tò hoos, the limiting accusative, 'in character.''
§ 15. tapd tô Shuwv, 'given by democratic governments.' This seems better than the other reading παρά του δήμου, ας making the sentence the expression of a general sentiment, instead of limiting it to the case of the Athenian people.
τη μεν γαρ χρεία, for it is by the material advantage bestowed on the recipients that tyrants can chiefly confer their favours ;' as contrasted with the honour and security attaching to the gifts of a free people. In other words, the tyrant can do much more for his favourite for the moment, but as he acts from caprice, his gifts confer no real distinction, and are liable to be arbitrarily withdrawn.
P. 6, § 16. lonyopla, the condition in which all have an equal right to speak before the people, is continually used as synonymous with ελευθερία. .
των καλών, neuter. Cp. 8 2, των αδίκων έστι.
ŠKOVTWV, perhaps without reluctance, since all admiration must be voluntary, in the strict sense of the word.
τον γούν άλλον χρόνον, « till now, at any rate.' ο άλλος χρόνος, as opposed to o λοιπός χρόνος, is rarely used of future time ; by Demosthenes perhaps only in the speech against Androtion, p. 594, 2, τουτονι πειράσομαι και νυν και τον άλλον άπαντα αμύνεσθαι χρόνον. .
§ 17. Kaltou Tŵv åragÔV kth., literally, 'and yet from whatever State throughout the world you take away the right of those who are loyal to be treated with the gratitude they deserve, you will be found herein to have taken away no small guarantee for their general security.' aŭtûv represents tôv πολιτειών, and ταύτην is το τους εύνους κομίζεσθαι χάριν, its gender being due to attraction into that of the predicate φυλακήν.
. § 18. táxa . . lows are not exactly synonymous, but may be rendered, 'perhaps Leptines might be likely to attempt.'
åtráywv, ' in the endeavour to put you off the scent.' ούτωσι μεν ακούσαι κτλ., if put in this way have some show of reason. The infinitive in such limiting propositions is more generally introduced by us, as in the common expression ws eineîv. So Plat. Euthypho, p. 3 B, ws outw w Åkoûvai. But Cp. Plat. Phileb. p. 12 C, έστι γάρ, ακούειν μεν ούτως, απλώς έν τι.
ai nolitikal, “the State burdens imposed on citizens,' as opposed to those devolving on the resident aliens (uÉT OLKOL). These latter not only paid an annual tax to the treasury (uetolKlov), but were also subject to the elo popá, or war tax upon property, and under certain limitations to the eykúkłcol lectoupglai. See Excursus I., $ 10.
Tois eúpnuévous, 'for those who have earned it.' This use of the (so-called) perfect passive in a middle sense, though found in early writers, is much more frequent in Attic of the period of Demosthenes.
εισφορών και τριηραρχιών, these being the special burdens imposed on the Athenians in times of war. See Excursus I., SS 1, 6.
ούς ούτος έγραψε, sc. ατελείς είναι, Leptines not having ventured to interfere with the time-honoured privileges enjoyed by the descendants of Harmodius and Aristogeiton.
These two, though their plot was unsuccessful, were always considered to have taken the first step in securing the freedom of Athens, by the assassination of Hipparchus, B.C. 514.
τους αφ “Αρμοδίου. In strict grammar this should be the nominative, being parallel to oŮdels ; but such an attraction of an antecedent into the case of a relative which precedes and explains it is common in Greek, and is even found in Latin.
§ 19. Xopnyoús. This word, properly applied to the man who had the charge and defrayed the expense of a chorus in the theatre, is commonly used, as here, in a wider sense, for one who bore the expense of any ordinary lectoupyla, the word λειτουργός not being classical. .
εις εκείνας, sc. those that admit of ατέλεια.
είσποιεί .. αφήσει. The only subject which will suit both these verbs is ó vóuos, since Leptines, who would be the natural subject of ciotolei, could scarcely be said to set any free from contributions (åpeîval) by his law being repealed. Wolf takes åpnoel in a forced sense, how many will he let free from his
Tpinpapxoûtes, “in virtue of their serving the trierarchy.'
åel is taken by Wolf as going with Tpinpapxoûvtes, “inasmuch as they are perpetually trierarchs ;' but it is much more natural to combine it with what follows, ' enjoy perpetual exemption.'
kráttw râv ikavæv, less than the amount (three talents) which renders them liable to any λειτουργία.'
Tpoo total. From these two classes we shall gain no new contributor, the one being exempt in virtue of undertaking the higher burdens, the other being too poor to be called upon at