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In 1710, the Course of Exchange was three Rubles ten Copeeks to the,Pound Sterling:, p' whereas the intrinsick Value is only about four Rubles and a half; for the Exportations exceeding the Importations near two thoufand Rubles Yearly, the national Credit of their Money is kept up, which would fall almost to the real Worth, if any considerable Sum above the Ballance of the Trade was to be remitted beyond Sea.
The Czar's Revenues may be about seven Millions of Rubles Yearly, arising chiefly;
From the Custom of Goods in Archangel, ant! the Duties on them when bought or *w ***' fold by Retail in the Country.
From Monopolies in the Czar's Hands; Pot-ad Yearly.to the Value of forty-thoufand Dollars; Wood-ash one hundred and twenty-five thoufand Dollars; Caviar, thirty thoufand Pieces of Eight, besides what is consumed in the Country; Rhubarb, about twenty thoufand Dollars; all which Commodities are never sold but for Specie Dollars; Tar, in 1706, forty thoufand Dollars, and another for ten thoufand Rubles; very little fold since.
From Island Monopolies; Salt, five hundred thousand Rubles; Tobacco, Boards and Bricks, which are only fold by the Czar's Ossicers, the Sums uncertain; Furs from Siberia in the Treasury; Brandy
and Beer, which in the Town os Mofco alone brin» in six hundred thoufand Rubles per Ann.
From the Mint by Re-coinage of Dollars, at one hundred and twenty per cent. Profit,.
Of Old MONEY at thirty per cent.
Of Brass Money at sixty-five per cent.
From the Chinese Trade, which, if well managed, would bring in about two or three hundred thoufand Rubles Prosit Yearly; the Cargoes thither are several Sorts of European Merchandize, but chiefly Furs, as Sables, Ermines, Black Foxes, and Grey Squirrels, from Siberia; The Returns are made in Damasks, Callicoes, blue Linen, Gold, Tapestry, China Wave, and Drugs: A great Part of these used to be sold in Lithuania and Poland, which Trade ;s now almost funk..
From the Persian Trade, whence Raw-silk, Carpets, Brocades, Sattins, Jewels, and Persia Leather are imported, chiefly by the Armenians, who only pay two per cent. Custom, for whatever they transport through the Czar's Dominions without breaking Bulk, according to an old Privilege.
From new Impositions on stamps. Paper; on all Law-suits, which pay ten percent, of the Value contested; Oven, or Chimney Money ; all hackney Horses and Carriages; all Bath-stoves, of which. $yery Village has one in Public, and every fashionable
House one in particular, are taxed at a Ruble a
From the Abbey Lands., which are very considerable, but have been taken into the Czar's Hands, and are managed by a secular Commission, a Competency being allowed each Cloister in Proportion to the Number of Monks.
From the Land Tax, and Royal Demalnes.
All the Czar's Expences are paid within the Year, which makes the present War fall very heavy on him; for, though he does not owe above two hundred thoufand Rubles on all Accounts, his Trea-> fury by ill Management cannot find Credit for ten thoufand Rubles; nor will the Merchants give any Bills of Exchange, till they have received the Money before hand.
Mines there are,
Of Iron, several in RuJJia indifferent; in Siberia very good, '-_
Of Copper, at Olonitz.
Of Brimstone, at Casatt, and in the Mountains which bound Siberia,
Hot Baths and Mineral Waters are found about Tefk't on the Caspian-Sea.
Salt-petre comes from Chioff and Rebena in the Ukraine, as good as any in the World.
In 1709, an Engineer, sent down into the Deserts between Jsoph and Chioff, found three Mines of difserent Ore, on the River Kundruczi which falls into the Don, above the Town of Circajky: On other little Rivers, which fall into the Donee, he found old melting Ovens, the Openingsof several Mines which had been worked on, all thought to be the Remains of the Genoese Colonies. He supposes some of them to have Vitriol, and Quick-silver, or good Tin.
The Czar's Forces, which areregimented,cloathed and disciplined, after the Foreign Man- „ , _
. ;...«• T» j- • Lair s Forces.
ner, including the separate Bodies in Poland, Lithuania, Livonia, and Ingria, with the several Garrisons along the Frontiers from Chioff to Wyburgh, consist of fifty-one Regiments of Foot, viz.
f The first of Guards, 2400
51 j Five more 1800 each, 9000
'Forty-five more 1200 each, , 54009
Fifty-one Companies of Grenadiers, 5100
One Company of Bombardiers, 150 Thirty-six Regiments of Dragoons, at 1000 1 ,gQ0Q
^Three Regiments of Horse Grenadiers, 3000