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wasted the Force of so extensive an Empire. It is a cheap Calculation to fay, that the Persian Empire, in its Wars, against the Greeks and Scythians, threw away at least sour Millions of its Subjects, to faynothing of its other Wars, and the Losses sustained in them. These were their Losses abroad ; but the War was brought home to them, first by Agejilaus, and afterwards by Alexander. I have not, in this Retreat, the Books necessary to make very exact Calculations; nor is it necessary to give more than Hints to one of your Lordship's Erudition. Your will recollect his uninterrupted Series of Success. You will run over his Battles. You will call to mind the Carnage which was made. You will give a Glance of the Whole, and you will agree with me; that to form this Hero no less than twelve hundred thoufand Lives must have been facrificed; but no sooner had he fallen himself a Sacrifice to his Vices, than a thoufand Breaches were made for Ruin to enter, and give the last hand to this Sceneof Misery and Destruction. His Kingdom was rent and divided; which served to employ the more distinct Parts to tear each other to Pieces, and bury the whole in Blood and Slaughter. The Kings of Syria and of Egypt, the Kings of Pergamus and Macedon, without Intermission, worried each other for above two hundred Years, until at last a strong Power, arising in the West, rushed in upon them and silenced their Tumults, by involving all the contending Parties in the fame Destruction. It is little to fay, that the Contentions between the Successor of Alexander
depopulates depopulated that Part of the World of at least two Millions.
The Struggle between the Macedonians and Grct.'s, and before that, the Disputes of the Greek Commonwealths among themselves, for an unprofitable Superiority, form one of the bloodiest Scenes in History. One is astonished how such a small Spot could furnish Men sussicient to facrifice to the pitiful Ambition of possessing five or six thoufand more Acres, or two or three more Villages : Yet to see the Acrimony and Bitterness with which this was disputed between the Athenians and Lacedemonian!; what Armies cut off; what Fleets funk, and burnt ; what a Number ©f Cities facked, and their Inhabitants slaughtered and captivated ; one would be induced to believe the Decision of the Fate of Mankind, at least, depended upon it ! But these Disputes ended, as all such ever have done, and ever will do, in a real Weakness of all Parties; a momentary Shadow, and Dream of Power in some one; and the Subjection of all to the Yoke of a Stranger, who knows how to profit of their Divisions. This at least was the Cafe of the Greeks; and sure, from the earliest Accounts of them, to their Absorption in the Roman Empire, we cannot judge that their intestine Divisions and their foreign Wars consumed less than three Millions of their Inhabitants.
What an Aceldama, what a Field of Blood, Sicily
has been in ancient Times, whilst the Mode of it*
Government was controverted hetweea the rcpubli
C 4 can can and tyrannical Parties, and the Possession struggled for by the Natives, the Greeks, the -Carthaginians, and the Romans, your Lordship will easily re, collect. You will remember the total Destruction of such Bodies as an Army of 300,000 Men. Yoi* will find every Page of its History dyed in Blood, and blotted and confounded by Tumults, Rebellions, Massacres, Assassinations, Proscriptions, and a Series of Horror beyond the Histories perhaps of any other Nations in the World; though the Histories of all Nations are made up of similar Matter. I once more excuse myself in point of Exactness for want of Books. But I shall estimate the Slaughters in this Island but at two Millions; which your Lordship will find much short of Reality.
Let us pass by the Wars and the Consequences of them, which wasted Gracia-Magna, before the Roman Power prevailed in that Part of Italy. They are perhaps exaggerated; therefore I fliall only rate them at one Million. Let us hasten to open that great Scene which establishes the Reman Empire, and forms the grand Catastrophe of the antient Drama. This Empire, whilst in its Infancy, began by ,ian Effusion of human Blood scarcely credible. The neighbouringlittle States teemed for new Destruction: TheSabines, the Samniles, the Æqui, the Volsci, the Hetrurians, were broken by a Series of Slaughters which had no Interruption, for some Hundreds of Years; Slaughters which upon all Sides consumed more than two Millions of the wretched People. The Gauls, rushing into Italy about this Time, ad.ded the total Destruction of their own Armies to those of the antient
tient Inhabitants. In shirt, it were hardly possible to conceive a more horrid and bloody Picture, is that which the Punic Wars that ensued soon after did not present one, that far exceeds it. Here we find that Climax of Devastation and Ruin, which seemed to shake the whole Earth. The Extent of this War, which vexed so many Nations, and both Elements, and the Hivock of the human Species caused in both, really astonishes beyond Expression, when it is nakedly considered, and those swatters which are apt to divert our Attention from it, the Characters, Actions, and Designs of the Persons' concerned, are not taken into the Account. These Wars, I mean those called the Punic Wars, could not have stood the human Race in less than thrœ Millions of the Species. And yet this forms but a Part only, and a very small Part, of the Havock caused by the Roman Ambition. The War with Mithridatcs was very little less bloody? that Prince cut off at one Stroke 150,009 Romans by a. Massacre. In that War Sylla destroyed 300,000 Men at Cheronea. He deseated Mithridates's Army under Dorilaus, and flew 300,000. This great and unfortunate Prince lost another 300,000 before Cyzicum. In the Course of the War he had innumerable other Losses; ,and having many Intervals of Successhe revenged them severely. He was at last totally overthrown; and he crushed to Pieces the King of Armenia, his'Ally, by the Greatness of his Ruin. Ail who had Connections with him (hared the fame Fate. The merciless Genius of Sylla had its full Scope; and the Streets of Athens were not the only ones which ran with Blood. At this Period, the Sword, glutted with foreign Slaughter, turned its Edge upon the Bowels of the Roman Republic itself; and presented a Scene of Cruelties and Treasons enough almost to obliterate the Memory of all the external Devastations. I intended, my Lord, to have proceeded in a fort of Method in estimating the Numbers of Mankind cut off in these Wars which we have on Record. But I am obliged to alter my Design. Such a tragical Uniformity of Havock and Murder would disgust your Lordship as much as it would me; and I consess I already seel my Eyes ake by keeping them so long intent on so bloody a Prospect. I shall observe little on the Servile, the Social, the Gallic, and Spanijh War; nor upon those with Jugurtha, nor Antiochus, nor many others equally important, and carried on with equal Fury. The Butcheries of Julius Casar alone, are calculated by some body else; the Numbers he has been a means of destroying have been reckoned at j,200,000. But to give your Lordship an Idea that may serve as a Standard, by which to measure, in some Degree, the others, you will turn your Eyes on Judea ; ' a very inconsiderable Spot of the Earth in itself, though ennobled by the singular Events which had their Rise in that Country,