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the Jew here, was attended by an almost entire Extirpation of all the former Inhabitants. Their own civil Wars, and those with their petty Neighbours, consumed vast Multitudes almost every Year for several Centuries; and the Irruptions of the Kings of Babylon and JJsyria made immense Ravages. Yet we have tlwir History but partially, in an indistinct confused Manner; so that 1 lhall only throw the strong Point of Light upon that Pait which coincides with Roman History, and of that Part only on the Point of Time when they received the great and final Stroke which made them no more a Nation; a Stroke which is allowed to have cut off little less than two Millions of that People. I fay, nothing of the Loppings made from that Stock whilst it stood; nor from the Suckers that grew out of the old Root ever since. But if, in this inconsiderable Part of the Globe, such a Carnage has been mad* in two or three short Reigns, and that this Carnage, great as it is, makes but a minute Part of what the Histories of that People inform us they suffered ; what shall we judge of Countries more extended, and which have waged Wars by far jnore considerable?

Instances of this Sort compose the Uniform of History. But there have been Periods when no less than univerfal Destruction to the Race of Mankind seems to have been threatened. When the Goths, the Vandals, and the Huns poured into Gaul, Italy, Spain, Greece, and Africa, carrying Destruction ber safe them as they advanced, and leaving horrid Desert*

farts every where behind them. Vaftum uli'qut stlentlum; secreti colles ; fumantia procul teSla; nema exploratoribus obvius, what Tacitus calls facies Victorite. It is always so; but was here emphatically so. From the North proceeded the Swarms of Goths, Vandals, Huns, OJirogoths, who ran towards the South into Africa itself", which sufsered as al: to the North had done. About this Time, another Torrent of Barbarians, animated by the fame Fury, and encouraged by the fame Success, poured out of the South, and ravaged all to the North-east and West, to the remotest Parts of Persia on one hand, and to the Banks of the Loire or further on the other; destroying all the proud and curious Monuments of human Art, that not even the Memory might seem to survive of the former Inhabitants. What has been done since, and what will continue, to be done whilst the fame Inducements to War continue I shall not dwell upon. I snail only in one Word mention the horrid Effects of Bigotry and Avarice, in the Conquest of SpaniJJ) America; a Conquest on a low Estimation effected by the Murder often Millions of the Species. I shall draw to a Conclusion of this Part, by making a general Calculation of the Whole. I think I have actually mentioned above thirty-six Millions. I have not particularized any more. I don't pretend to Exactness ; therefore, for the fake of a general View, I shall lay together all those actually slain in Battles, or who have perished in a na Jess miserable Manner by the other destructive Consequences of War, from the Beginning of the World

to this Day, in the four Parts of it, at a thoufand Times as much ; no exaggerated Calculation, allowing for Time and Extent. We have not perhaps spoke of the five-hundredth Part; I am sure I have not of what is actually ascertained in History; but how much of these Butcheries are only expressed in generals, what Part of Time History has never reached, and what vast Spaces of the habitable Globs it has not embraced, I need not mention to your Lordship. I need not enlarge on those Torrents of silent and inglorious Blood which have glutted the thirsty Sands of jffric, or discoloured the polar Snow, or sed the favage Forests of America for so many Ages of continual War; shall I, to justify my Calculations from the Charge of Extravagance, add to the Accounts those Skirmishes which happen in all Wars, without being singly of sussicient Dignity in Mischief, to merit a Place in History, but which by their Frequency compenfate for this comparative Innocence; shall I inflame the Account by those general Massacres which have devoured whole Cities and Nations; those wasting Pestilences, those consuming Famines, and all those Furies that follow in the Train of War? I have no need to exaggerate, and I have purposely avoided a Parade of Eloquence on this Occasion. I should despise it upon any Occasion ; else, in mentioning these Slaughters, it is obvious how much the whole might be heightened, by an affecting Description of the Horrors that attend the Wasting of Kingdoms, and Sackingof Cities, But 1 do not write to the Vulgar, nor to that which

enly only governs the Vulgar, their Passions. I go upon a naked and moderate Calculation, just enough, without a pedantical Exactness, to give your Lordship some Feeling of the Effects of political Society. I charge the wholeof these Effects on political Society. I avow the Charge, and I shall presently make it good to your Lordship's Satisfaction. The Numbers 1 particularized are about thirty-six Millions. Besides those killed in Battles I have faid something, not half what the Matter would have justified, but something I have faid, concerning the Consequences of War even more dreadful than that monsterous Car-, nage itself which shocks our Humanity, and almost staggers our Belief. So that, allowing me in my Exuberance one way, for my Deficiencies in the other you will find me not unreasonable. I think the Numbers of Men now upon Earth are computed at 500 Millions at the most. Here the Slaughter of Mankind, on what you will call a small Calculation, amounts to upwards of seventy times the Number of Souls this Day on the Globe. A Point which may furnish matter of Reflexion to one lesi inclined to draw Consequences than your Lordship.

I now come to shew, that political Society is justly chargeable with much the greatest Part of this Destruction of the Speices. To give the fairest Play to every Side of the Question, I will own that there is a Haughtiness and Fierceness in human Nature, which will cause innumerable Broils, place Men in what Situation you please ; but, owning this, I still insist in charging it to political Regulations, that

these these Broils are so frequent, so cruel, and attended 'with Consequences so deplorable. In a State of Nature, it had been impossible to find a Number of Men, sussicient for such Slaughters, agreed in the fame bloody Purpose; or, allowing that they might have come to such an Agreement, (an impossible Supposition) yet the Means that simple Nature ha* supplied them with, are by no means adequate to such an End; many Scratches, many Bruises, undoubtedly would be received upon all hands; but only a sew, a very sew Deaths. Society and Politics, which have given us these destructive Views have given us also the Means of fatisfying them! From the earliest Dawnings of Policy unto this Dav* the Invention of Men has been sharpening and improving the Mystery of Murder, from the first rude Essays of Clubs and Stones, to the present Persection of Gunnery, Cannoneering, Bombarding, Minin? and all those Species of artificial, learned, and refined Cruelty, in which we are now so expert, and which make a principal Part of what Politicians have taught us to believe is our principal Glorv.

How far mere Nature would have carried us we may judge by the Example of those Animals, ?wh» still follow her Laws, and even of those to whom she has given Dispositions more fierce, and Arms more terrible than ever she intended we should use It is an incontestable Truth, that there is more Ha^ vock made in one Year by Men, of Men, than has been made by all the Lions, Tigers, Panthers, Ounces, Leopards, Hyenas, Rhinoceroses, Elephants,

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