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would make a personage by geometrical proportions, the other, by taking the best parts out of divers1 faces, to make one excellent. Such personages, I think, would please nobody but the painter that made them—not but I think a painter may make a better face than ever was, but he must do it by a kind of felicity (as a musician that maketh an excellent air in music), and not by rule. A man shall see faces, that if you examine them part by part you shall fiud never a good, and yet altogether do well. If it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion, certainly it is no marvel2 though persons in years seem many times more amiable: * Pulchrorum autumuus pulcher'3—for no youth can be comely but by pardon, and considering the youth as to make up the comeliness. Beauty is as summer-fruits, which are easy to corrupt, and cannot last, and, for the most part, it makes a dissolute youth, and an age a little out of countenance; but yet certainly again, if it light well, it maketh virtue shine, and vices blush.

1 Divers. Many. 'For that divers of the English do maintain and succour sundry thieves, robbers, and rebels, because that the same do put them into their safeguard and counsel . . . '—Statutes and Ordinances made in the 4th year of Henry VI., befcre tho Most Reverend Kiehard, Archbishop of Dublin, and Lord Justice of Ireland, A.d. 1440.

2 Marvel. A wonder. 'No marvel; for Sutan himself is transformed into an angel of light.'—7 Cor. xi. 14.

3 'Tho autumn of the beautiful is beautiful.'

ESSAY XLIV. OF DEFORMITY.

DEFORMED persons are commonly even with nature; for as nature hath done ill by them, so do they by nature, being for the most part (as the Scripture saith) ' void of natural affection:'1 and so they have their revenge of nature.* Certainly there is a consents between the body and the mind, and * where nature erreth in the one she ventureth in the other' (' Ubi peccat in uno, periclitatur in altero'): but because there is in man an election touching the frame of his mind, and a necessity in the frame of his body, the stars of natural inclination are sometimes obscured by the sun of discipline and virtue; therefore, it is good to consider of deformity, not as a sign which is more deceivable, but as a cause which seldom faileth of the effect. Whosoever hath anything fixed in his person that doth induce contempt, hath also a perpetual spur in himself to rescue and deliver himself from scorn; therefore, all deformed persons are extreme* bold—first, as in their own defence, as being exposed to scorn, but in process of time by a general habit. Also, it stirreth in them industry, and especially of this kind, to watch and observe the weakness of others, that they may have somewhat to repay. Again, in their superiors, it quencheth jealousy towards them, as persons that they think they may at pleasure despise; and it layeth their competitors and emulators asleep, as never believing they should be in possibility of advancement, till they see them in possession; so that upon the matter,5 in a great wit, deformity is an advantage to rising. Kings, in ancient times (and at this present, in some countries), were wont1 to put great trust in eunuchs, because they that are envious towards all are obnoxious * and officious towards one: but yet their trust towards them hath rather been as to good spials3 and good whisperers than good magistrates and officers; and much like is the reason of deformed persons. Still the ground is, they will, if they be of spirit, seek to free themselves from scorn, which must be either by virtue or malice ; * and therefore, let it not be marvelled,' if sometimes they prove excellent persons; as was Agesilaas, Zanger the son of Solyman, iEsop, Gasca, president of Pern; and Socrates may go likewise amongst them, with others.

1 Rom. i. 31.

5 'Then since the Heavens have shaped my bndy so,
Let Hell make crook't my mind to unswer it.'

Shakespere's Richard III. * Consent. Agreement.

'With one consent, let all the earth
To God their cheerful voices raise.'—Tate's Vereion of Fsalm c.

4 Extreme. Extremely.

4 Matter. Whole. (' Upon the matter'—On the whole.) 'He grants the delugo to have come so very near the mailer, that but very few eocaped.'—Tillutson.

ANNOTATION.

Bacon is speaking principally of original deformities; not such as result from accident or disease. And it is very remarkable how much less tendency these latter have, than the other, to produce such effects as he is speaking of.

1 Wont. To be accustomed. 'Now at the feast the governor was wont to release unto them a prisoner.'—Matt, xxvii. 15.

'I this night, have dream'd. If dream'd, not as I oft am wont, of thee.'—Milton. * Obnoxious. Subject; submissive. 'The writings of lawyers, which are tied and obnoxious to their particular laws.'—Bacon.

3 Spials. Spies.

'The Prince's spials have informed me.'—ShoJcespere.

4 Malice. Vice . (Not, as now, restricted to malevolence.) 'In malice be ye children.'—1 Cor. xiv. 20. 'Not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness.'1 Pet. ii. 16.

6 Marvel. To wonder at. 'Marvel not that I said unto thee, ye must be born again.'—John iii.

ESSAY XLV. OF BUILDING.

HOUSES are built to live in, and not to look on; therefore, let use be preferred before' uniformity, except where both may be had. Leave the goodly fabrics of houses, for beauty, only to the enchanted palaces of the poets, who build them with small cost. He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat,* committeth himself to prison—neither do I reckon it an ill seat only where the air is unwholesome, but likewise where the air is unequal; as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap3 of ground, environed with higher hills round about it, whereby the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth as in troughs : so as * you shall have, and that suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. Neither is it ills air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets; and if you consult with Momus, ill neighbours. I speak not of many more; want of water, want of wood, shade, and shelter, want of fruitfulness, and mixture of grounds of several natures; want of prospect, want of level grounds, want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting, hawking, and races; too near the sea, too remote; having the commodity6 of navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their overflowing; too far off from great cities, which may hinder business; or too near them, which lurcheth' all provisions, and maketh everything dear; where a man hath a great living laid together, and where he is scanted;! all which, as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is good to know them, and think of them, that a man may take as many as he can; and, if he have several dwellings, that he sort3 them so, that what he wanteth in the one he may find in the other. Lucullus answered Pompey well, who, when he saw his stately galleries and rooms so large and lightsome, in one of his houses, said, 'Surely, an excellent place for summer, but how do you in winter ¥ Lucullus answered, 'Why do you not think me as wise as some fowls are, that ever change their abode towards the winter ¥ 4

1 Preferred before. Preferred to.

'O Spirit that dost prefer
Before all temples, the upright heart and pure,
Instruct me.'—Milton.

2 Scat. Site. 'It remaincth now that we find out the seat of Eden.'—Raleigh.

3 Knap. A prominence; a knoll.

• Hark, on knap of yonder hill, Some sweet shepherd tunes his quill.'—Brown. * As. That. See page ib. i Dl. Bad.

'There some sH planet reigns.'—Shalcespere. 1 Commodity. Advantage; convenience. Sec pago 442.

To pass from the seat to the house itself, we will do as Cicero doth in the orator's art, who writes books De Oratore, and a book he entitles Orator; whereof the former delivers the precepts of the art, and the latter the perfection. We will therefore describe a princely palace, making a brief model thereof; for it is strange to see, now in Europe, such huge buildings as the Vatican and Escurial, and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair5 room in them.

First, therefore, I say, you cannot have a perfect palace, except you have two several6 sides; a side for the banquet, as is spoken of in the book of Esther, and a side for the household; the one for feasts and triumphs,7 and the other for dwelling. I understand both these sides to be not only returns, but parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though severally partitioned within; and to be on both sides of a great and stately tower in the midst of the front, that, as it were, joineth them together on either hand. I would have, on the

1 Lurch. To absorb. (From I'ourche—a game in which iho sfcikes arc put into a box, whore the loser is obliged to leave them. Henco perhaps the expression 'to be left in the lureh.')

2 Scanted. Limited; restricted. 'I am scanted in the pleasure of dwelling on your actions.'—Dryden.

1 Sort. To choose.

'To sort some gentlemen well skilled in music.'—Shakespere. * Plui Vit. Lucull. 30. 4 Fair. Handsome.

'Carry him to my fairest chamber.'—Shakespere. "Several. Separate. 'He dwelt in a several house.'—2 Kings xv. 5. 7 Triumpha Shows on festive occasions. See page 414.

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