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perhaps be opposed to them; because he means to use his own judgment in each case; and what the decision of that judgment may be, they cannot foresee with any certainty. They set him down therefore as a man who may chance to be sometimes useful, but who is one not to be depended on.' And they usually attribute to him, as Bacon has observed, motives of pure self-interest.

From one or other of the above-mentioned causes, he is likely to be regarded by the most zealous party-men, with at least as much hostility as those of an opposite party. And accordingly, Thucydides, in describing the party-contests at Corcyra and other Greek States, remarks that those who held a middle course were destroyed by both parties.

And it is remarkable that party-spirit tends so much to lower the moral standard, that it makes men regard with less abhorrence what is wrong, not only on their own side, but even on the opposite. Their feelings towards those of the opposed party are very much those of a .soldier towards the soldiers of the hostile army. He fires at them for that reason alone, and expects that they should fire at him. If they fight bravely, or if they out-mancuvre him, he admires their courage or their skill. He does not think the worse of them for reckless plundering, ravaging, and slaughtering, just as he would do in their place, and as he does on the opposite side. Even so, the most thorough-going partizans attribute to every one who is, or is supposed to be (often without any good grounds) a member of the opposite party, such conduct as is in reality unjustifiable, without thinking at all the worse of him for it. It is only what they would do in his place: and though they dislike him for being of the opposite party, they dislike him for nothing else.

And as there is often a strong resemblance in character between the soldiers of two hostile armies, so, those whom some perhaps slight circumstance has enrolled in the ranks of opposite parties, will often be found to be very much alike in the most essential points of personal character. Thus, two similar mountain-streams near the summit of the great mountainridges which divide Europe, will sometimes be separated by a small fragment of rock, which sends the waters of the one into the Atlantic, and of the other into the Mediterranean.

And not only are the feelings of zealous party-men hostile

to one of moderate views, who keeps clear of opposite extremes, but their moral-judgment also—such as it is—condemns him. If, for instance, he has been raised to some high office without solicitation, and unconditionally, and afterwards refuses to vote through thick and thin with the Party of the Ministry that appointed him, against his own judgment, and without any regard for justice and the public good, he is likely to be denounced as an ungrateful traitor. And if he advocates some enlargement of popular rights, and also some wholesome restrictions, he will be reproached with inconsistency ;' just as the Satyr, in the Fable, rebukes the inconsistency of the traveller, whose breath warmed his fingers, and cooled his porridge.

The effects of party-spirit in lowering the moral standard are gradual, and usually rather slow. But it often happens, on the occasion of some violent party-contest, that an apparently sudden change will take place in men's characters; and we are surprised by an unexpected outbreak of unscrupulous baseness, cruel injustice, and extravagant folly. In such cases, however, there can be little doubt that the evil dispositions thus displayed were lurking in the breasts of the individuals before, unknown by themselves and by those around them; and are merely called into activity by the occasion; even as a storm of wind raises the dust which it did not create. According to the proverb,

•The pond that when stirred does muddy appear, Had mud at the bottom when still and clear.'

i See Proverbs and Precepts.

ESSAY LII. OF CEREMONIES AND

RESPECTS.

LE that is only real had need have exceeding great parts of 1 virtue, as the stone had need to be rich that is set without foil; but if a man mark it well, it is in praise and commendation of men as it is in gettings and gains; for the proverb is true, 'That light gains make heavy purses,' for light gains come thick, whereas great come but now and then ; so it is true, that small matters win great commendation, because they are continually in use and in note, whereas the occasion of any great virtue cometh but on festivals. Therefore it doth much add to a man's reputation, and is (as Queen Isabella said) like perpetual letters commendatory, to have good forms. To attain them, it almost sufficeth not to despise them; for so shall a man observe them in others, and let him trust himself with the rest; for if he labour too much to express them, he shall lose their grace, which is to be natural and unaffected, Some men's behaviour is like a verse, wherein every syllable is measured. How can a man comprehend great matters, that breaketh his mind too much to small observations ? Not to use ceremonies at all, is to teach others 'not to use them again, and so diminish respect to himself; especially they are not to be omitted to strangers and formal natures; but the dwelling upon them, and exalting them above the moon, is not only tedious, but both diminish the faith and credit of him that speaks; and, certainly, there is a kind of conveying of effectual and imprinting passages amongst compliments, which is of singular use, if a man can hit upon it. Amongst a man's peers a man shall be sure of familiarity, and therefore it is good a little to keep state ; amongst

Ceremonies and respects. Conventional forms of politeness, and rules of etiquette.

• The sauce to meat is ceremony;

Meeting were bure without it.'--Shakespere. • What art thou, thou idle ceremony ?

Art thou aught else but place, degree and form?'-Shakespere. The Duke's carriage to the gentlemen was of fair respects.'-- Wotton. ? Observations. Observances. He freed the christian Church from the external observation.'--White.

3 Imprinting. Impressive.

a man's inferiors one shall be sure of reverence, and therefore it is good a little to be familiar. He that is too much in any thing, so that he giveth another occasion of satiety, maketh himself cheap. To apply one's self to others is good, so it be with demonstration that a man doth it upon regard and not upon facility. It is a good precept generally in seconding another, yet to add somewhat of one's own; as if you will grant his opinion, let it be with some distinction; if you will follow his motion, let it be with condition ; if you allow his counsel, let it be with alleging farther reason. Men had need beware how they be too perfect in compliments; for be they never so sufficient? otherwise, their enviers will be sure to give them that attribute, to the disadvantage of their greater virtues. It is loss also in business to be too full of respects, or to be too curious? in observing times and opportunities. Solomon saith, 'He that considereth the wind shall not sow, and he that looketh to the clouds shall not reap.' A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds. Men's behaviour should be like their apparel, not too strait or point device, but free for exercise or motion.

ANTITHETA ON CEREMONIES AND RESPECTS.
PRO.

CONTRA. Si et in verbis vulgo paremus, •Quid deformius, quam scenam in quidni in habitu, et gestu ?

vitam transferre? If we accommodate ourselves to the What can be more disgusting than vulgar in our speech, why not also in to transfer the stage into common life?' our deportment ?

• Magis placent cerussatæ buccæ, et • Virtus et prudentia sine punctis, calamistrata coma, quam cerussati et velut peregrinæ linguæ sunt; nam vulgo calamistrati mores. non intelliguntur.

Rouged cheeks and curled hair are Virtue and wisdom without forms of less offensive than rouged and curled politeness are strange languages, for manners.' they are not ordinarily understood.'

• Puncti translatio sunt virtutis in linguam vernaculam.

Forms are the translation of virtue into the vulgar tongue.'

i Upon. In consequence of. See page 493.
2 Sufficient. Able. Who is sufficient for these things ?'—2 Cor. ii. 16.

3 Curious. Exact ; precise. Both these senses embrace their objects with a more curious discrimination.'-Holder.

+ Eccles. xi. 4. 5 Point device. Extremely exact (with the nicety and precision of a stitch [French point] devised or made with the needle). Everything about you should demonstrate a careless desolation ; but you are rather point de vise in your accoutrements, as loving yourself, than the lover of another.'- Shakespere.

ANNOTATIONS.

He that is only real had need have exceeding great parts of virtue.'

To attach as much importance (which a good many do) or more, to refined and graceful manners, than to more substantial qualities ;—to prefer, as it were, a Pumpkin to a Pine-apple, because it has a smoother coat-does, certainly, show a frivolous turn, and a lack of wisdom. But there is no wisdom in needlessly incurring the ill will or contempt of that numerous class, the frivolous and unwise.

Not to use ceremonies at all, is to teach others not to use them

again. Good manners are a part of good morals; and when form is too much neglected, true politeness suffers diminution: then we are obliged to bring some back; or we find the want of them. The same holds good in a higher department. Mankind are not formed to live without ceremony and form: the inward spiritual grace' is very apt to be lost without the external visible sign.' Many are continually setting up for the expulsion of ceremonies from this or that; and often with advantage, when they have so multiplied as to grow burdensome ; but, if ever they have carried this too far, they have been forced to bring back some ceremonies.

Upon the whole, we may conclude that ceremony and form of every kind derive their necessity from our imperfection. If we were perfectly spiritual, we might worship God without any form at all, without even uttering words; as we are not, it is a folly to say, “One may be just as pious on one day as another; in one place, or posture, as another,' &c.; I answer, angels may ; Man cannot. Again, if we were all perfectly benevolent, good-tempered, attentive to the gratifying of others, &c., we might dispense with all the forms of goodbreeding; as it is, we cannot; we are not enough of heroes to fight without discipline. Selfishness will be sure to assail us if we once let the barriers be broken down. At the same time it

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