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sed] 'but all their strength lies in their infantry'.

teneris...interiectis] I adopt Schneider's text, which Long follows, and to a certain extent his explanation. The trees had their tops lopped off when young (teneris); this made the branches grow out thickly sideways (crebris in latitudinem ramis enatis), these branches were then interlaced (inflexis. Schneider says inflexis quod de binis binarum arborum sibi adversis et in semet incurrentibus ramis accipiendum eandem significationem habet quam implicatis seu implexis: the interweaving of the branches of two opposite trees cannot at least be inferred from Caesar's account), the intervals were then filled up with thornbushes by which a compact and impenetrable hedge was formed. See appendix.

21 non modo non] some editors omit the second non. It should be remembered that non modo can only stand for non modo non when a negative follows, as here ne quidem. Madv. on Cic. Fin. I. 10.

instar] instar is probably an indeclinable noun in apposition to munimenta. See appendix.

CHAP. 18.


loci] it is generally agreed that the high ground between the villages of Neuf-Mesnil on the north, and Hautmont on the south, bank of the Sambre, about two miles south-west of Maubeuge, was the spot selected for the Roman camp. On the right or south bank of the river between the villages of St Remi-mal-Bâti and Louvroil is another hill named after the village of Hautmont.




acclivitate] as Mr Long says, acclivitas denotes the upward, declivitas the downward, slope of a hill.

adversus huic et contrarius] opposite to this and corresponding to it'. contrarius does not add much to the idea contained in adversus.


infimus] at its base'. Caesar means, I think, that the slope was bare of trees for the first 200 paces, not that there was an extent of open ground 200 paces in width before one came to the slope.


introrsus perspici] for perspici with adverb of direction (introrsus =introversus), cf. 17 quo non modo non intrari sed ne perspici quidem posset.



silvas] a considerable part of the hill is still occupied by the Bois du Quesnoy.

stationes] outposts', 'videttes'.

videbantur] a true passive of video, 'were seen'.

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CHAP. 19.

p. 42.

I ratio ordoque] 'general method and arrangement', cf. 22 rei militaris ratio atque ordo.

aliter ac Belgae detulerant] 'different from what the Belgae had told', 'different from the description given of it by the Belgae'.

hosti] see appendix.


9 identidem] 'repeatedly'.


quem ad finem] = ad eum finem ad quem. tr. lit. nor did our men venture to pursue them in their retreat further than to the limit to which the stretch of open ground (loca aperta porrecta, the open ground outstretched) extended'. ad finem follows both porrecta and pertinebant. See appendix.






duae legiones] the XIIIth and xivth, cf. 2; for the funditores and sagittarii cf. 10.

CHAP. 20.


vexillum] the vexillum, a red flag, was raised on or near the general's tent as a signal for the men to hold themselves in readiness: cf. B.C. III. 89 se vexillo signum daturum, bell. Alex. 45 vexillo sublato quo pugnandi dabat signum (Kraner).



in silvas] these words must be taken with abditi and not with latebant: who having hidden themselves in the wood were lying concealed'.

ut constituerant] 'just as they had formed in line', 'with the very formation that they had adopted within the woods and according to their mutual resolve': the sentence scarcely admits of a literal translation; the general sense is 'they sallied forth (provolaverunt) just as they were', i.e. without altering their formation. Cf. 23 ut constiterant. See appendix.

in manibus nostris] we should say 'close at hand', 'just upon us'. Cf. Verg. G. I. 45 in manibus terrae.



milites cohortandi] the exhortation was, if possible, never omitted; cf. Cic. Phil. v. 11 faciam igitur ut imperatores instructa acie solent: quanquam paratissimos milites ad proeliandum videant, ut eos tamen


signum tuba dandum] this was a signal for the soldiers to fall in.

aggeris] agger is here used of the material of which the earthwork was constructed; for this meaning cf. B. C. 1 42 quod longius erat agger petendus; in Greek xoûs as opposed to xŵua the completed mound.

signum dandum] the signal for the battle to commence: cf. 21 proelii committendi signum dedit.

temporis brevitas] in 21 and 33 we find temporis exiguitas.

subsidio] almost = 'remedy'. Kr. qu. B. C. 111. 70 his tantis malis haec subsidia succurrebant.

p. 43. 1 legatos] it should be remembered that the legati were not at this time permanently attached to the legions as they subsequently became. quae videbantur] 'what appeared (to them) needful' 'the needful operations'.

CHAP. 21.


necessariis rebus imperatis] 'having issued instructions for the necessary measures'.



devenit] devenio expresses coming by chance', cf. below quam quisque in partem casu devenit.


suae] 'their well-known'.





quam in partem fors obtulit] cf. VII. 87 cohortes quas ex proximis praesidiis deductas fors obtulit. quam in partem=in eam partem quam. The IXth and xth legions were on the left, cf. 23.


quam quo]=quam ut eo.


adigi] so Madvig (Adv. 11. 251 sqq) for the adiici of the MSS: cf. n. on IV. 23.




sustinerent] ut must be supplied with this verb from the preceding clause; for the structure of the sentence cf. V. 34 ut coniciant neu... accedant et...cedant; B. C. III. 92 ut...exciperent neve...moverent aciemque...paterentur.

alteram partem] the opposite direction', opposite, that is, to the direction in which he had gone before. He now came to the XIIth and VIIth legions: cf. 23.

pugnantibus occurrit] 'he finds them already in action".

insignia accommodanda] 'putting on ("fitting') their decorations'. induendas] when on the march the Roman soldier carried his helmet suspended from his arm or over his back.

tegimenta detrudenda] 'thrusting off the coverings'. Both the Greeks and Romans had leather coverings for their shields, cf. Xen. An. 1. 2 16, Cic. N. D. 11. 37.

CHAP. 22.


deiectusque collis] cf. 8 collis lateris deiectus habebat. deiectusque collis is merely a farther definition of loci natura as Kraner points out and is not a separate independent enuntiation; this is sufficiently shown by the que. The student should remember the following rule when three or more coordinate words or clauses have to be stated, either (i) no conjunction is put as A, B, C, or (ii) each is connected with the preceding, as A et B et C, or (iii) the conjunction is omitted with the first members and que is annexed to the last as A, B, Cque: thus A, Bque et C would be quite unclassical, at least in prose. R § 2202.

tempus defuerit] 'they had found no time'; the perfect defuerit cannot be adequately represented except by a pluperfect in English. A soldier entering upon an engagement may say to himself 'the enemy are so near that I have found no time to put on my helmet' or 'the enemy are so near that I find no time, etc.; so a subsequent narrator of the event may say 'the enemy were so near that the soldier has found (defuerit, 'had found' suits the English idiom better) no time', etc. or the enemy were so near that the soldier found no time', etc., in this latter case he would write deesset, which Caesar might very well have done here.


diversae legiones] see appendix. for diversas in the sense of 'scattered' 'parted' cf. 24 diversos dissipatosque.

quid opus esset] cf. n. on I. 42.

CHAP. 23.


acie] this is probably a genitive after parte. that Caesar in his book de analogia expresses his tives die and specie should be used. cf. R. § 357. well be an ablative here in line' 'in their ranks'.

A. Gellius IX. 14 says opinion that the geniBut acie might very


transire non dubitaverunt] cf. n. on 2 dubitandum non existimavit quin.

p. 44. 3 diversae] apart from each other'.


ex loco superiore] to be taken with profligatis.


summam imperii] the chief command', cf. n. on I. 41.

11 summum castrorum locum] the height occupied by the camp.

CHAP. 24.



quos pulsos dixeram] Caesar means who had been repulsed, as I have said' but by a slight confusion of thought and expression he writes whom I had described as repulsed'. This, no doubt correct, explanation of the pluperfect is given by Kraner and Vielhaber, cf. 1, 28, IV. 27 quem demonstraveram praemissum 'who had been sent forward as I have shown?.




fugam petebant] fugam petere, as Schneider shows, is more common in poetry than in prose. Cf. Liv. IX. 23.

calones] 'suttlers' 'camp-followers'.

decumana porta] the Roman camp was always constructed on definite principles. It was in the form of a square through which ran the via principalis terminating in the porta principalis dextra and the porta principalis sinistra; the gates on the other two opposite sides were called respectively the decumana and the praetoria porta. In the present case the decumana porta was on the side of the camp farthest removed from the river.

adversis hostibus occurrebant] it would appear that before the Roman cavalry who had engaged the enemy on the right bank of the river and had been thrown into disorder and dispersed (19) could recross the river and return to the camp, the Nervii had already crossed the stream lower down and were attacking the camp on the high ground (summum castrórum locum 23), consequently the cavalry on their return met (‘ran up against' adversis occurrebant) the enemy who had crossed before them.



transisse conspexerant] 'had seen that they had crossed'.

20 qui cum impedimentis veniebant] it will be remembered that the impedimenta were coming up under the convoy of the two recently levied legions the XIIIth and XIVth; it was when they first appeared in sight that the enemy began their attack, 19.

quorum...singularis] 'whose valour is in high repute among the Gauls': cf. 8 propter eximiam opinionem virtutis.

CHAP. 25.

30 Caesar...profectus] the narrative takes us back to 21 where we read atque in alteram (i.e. dextram) partem item cohortandi causa profectus pugnantibus occurrit.


32 signis] apparently the colours of the several cohorts; see below on signiferoque interfecto.

ad pugnam impedimento] cf. n. on I. 25, where the same phrase



p. 45. 1 omnibus centurionibus] there were 6 centuriae in a cohort, each commanded by a centurio.

signiferoque interfecto] it is concluded from this passage that every cohort had a special signum, though the fact is not elsewhere mentioned in writers before the Empire (Kraner): cf. Nipperdey on Tac. An. I. 18. Each manipulus had a signum of its own, cf. Varro 1. lat. v. 88 manipulos exercitus minimas manus, quae unum sequuntur signum.

6 deserto loco] 'having quitted their posts': see appendix. ab novissimis in the rear', so again, a few lines on.

primipilo] the first centurion of the first cohort was called primipilus. Baculus was not killed, as we learn from III. 5.

7] so in Greek oυTe...Te are often used, 'the enemy did not cease...and were pressing'.


vidit] this, like the vidit in line r, follows on ubi. The greater part of this chapter from the beginning to uti possent consists of one long sentence made up of a protasis ubi suos...submitti posset and an apodosis scuto...uti possent, to which also belong the words Caesar...profectus at the beginning of the chapter: thus the second vidit would have been sufficient by itself, but the insertion of the first vidit makes the sentence easier to understand.



IO ab novissimis militi] 'from a soldier in the rear ranks': see appendix.


manipulos laxare] 'open out the ranks of the maniples'.

operam navare] navare originally gnavare means 'to make known 'to exhibit'; operam navare, lit. 'to exhibit zeal', may be translated 'to do one's best': the word is connected etymologically with yyvwokw and its kindred words, cf. ignavia=äyvola. Cf. Liv. VII. 16 fortiter in acie operam navaturos. Tacitus with his usual audacity of expression ventures on bellum navare, Hist. v. 25.

CHAP. 26.

septimam legionem] this was one of the legions on the right wing exposed to the assaults of the Nervii.


conversa signa] cf. I. 25. Caesar placed the two legions back to back, as it were, so that they fronted opposite ways; hence the words conversa signa though applied to the two legions are only strictly applicable to ne of them. This is Schneider's explanation, accepted by Kraner but

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