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straight line, along a road of which there appear to be some traces still

left. 13

supportaretur] the subjunctive is used because this is a subordinate relative clause. supportabatur would have been equally correct, but then the clause qui...supportabatur would have been an independent remark of the writer, not influenced by the rest of the sentence. It should be noticed how often the preposition sub adds the notion of 'assistance to the simple verb, e.g. subvenire 'to come to one's assistance', supportare 'to carry to one's assistance', succurrere, suppetere,

submittere, subministrare etc.: cf. subsidium. 23 genus hoc erat pugnae] a similar practice obtained among the Gauls:

cf. VII. 18. 26 cum his versabantur] 'with these they were associated'. 27 si quid erat durius] cf. v. 29 si nihil esset durius, tr. 'in case of any

difficulty'. 29 si quo] quo is the adverb of direction.

CHAP. 49. p. 30. 2 idoneum locum] this locality is probably to be sought between the

little Doller and the great Doller, on some rising ground about half way between the villages of Nieder Aspach and Michelbach, about two miles south of Caesar's original camp (cf. 43) called castra maiora to distinguish it from this the castra minora.

acie triplici instructa] cf. n. on 24. 3 primam et secundam... iussit) a similar distribution of forces is men

tioned in B. C. 1. 41 prima et secunda acies in armis permanebat, post

hos opus in occulto a tertia acie fiebat. 5 passus sexcentos] this is an accusative of extent with abesse (cf. n. on

41) and is not governed by circiter which is used independently as in the similar expression above circiter passus DC ab eis locum delegit, and in the next sentence circiter hominum numero XVI milia where milia is nominative. In the next chapter circiter governs the accusative

meridiem. 8 secius] for the derivation of this word cf. n. on iv. 17.


CHAP 60. ad vesperum] vesperum is more common than vesperam in such phrases as this, though vespera is more frequent than vesper. 73 matresfamiliae] cf. Tac. Hist. IV. 61 vetere apud Germanos more quo

plerasque feminarum fatidicas et augescente superstitione arbitrantur deas ; Germ. 10 vidimus sub divo Vespasiano Veledam diu apud plerosque numinis loco habitam, sed et olim Albrunam et complures alias venerati sunt non adulatione nec tanquam facerent deas. Schweizer-Sidler qu. Thierry "dans un état exalté de l'âme il arrivait souvent aux femmes Germaines de prendre la parole en vers improvisés ou dans un langage plus poétique et plus modulé que le simple discours. On en trouve une foule d'exemples dans les sagas, qui sont le monument le plus complet des anciennes meurs Germaines'.

sortibus] for their method of proceeding cf. Tac. Germ. 10: the marks cut upon the twigs were no doubt runes, as Kraner suggests. 24 ex usu] 'advantageous': cf. R. § 1941 where a number of similar phrases are collected.

CHAP. 6. 28

alarios] 'auxiliaries': the sociï were usua distributed on the wings of two combined legions, and so consisted of an ala dextra and an ala sinistra: the men composing an ala are called alarii. Caesar put forward his auxiliaries en masse to mask his weakness in regular

troops. 33 generatim] 'according to their tribes': so in VII. 19 the Gauls were

generatim distributi in civitates. p. 31. I Harudes] cf. n. on 31.

Marcomanos] the name Marcomani does not appear to denote a distinct people: the word is said to mean “border-warriors'. 'When Caesar mentions Marcomanni among the peoples fighting in the army of Ariovistus, he may in this instance have misunderstood a merely appellative designation, just as he has decidedly done in the case of the Suebi'. Mommsen IV. 232 n.

Triboces] the Triboces, ‘hillmen', appear to have dwelt between the Vosges and the Rhine. Breucomagus (Brumat) was one of their strongholds.

Vangiones] this tribe dwelt in the neighbourhood of Worms, the old name of which was Vangiones, and still earlier, Borbetomagus.

Nemetes] this people is said to have inhabited the left bank of the Rhine about Spires.

Sedusios] little or nothing is known as to the locality of this tribe.
Suebos] cf. iv. I, and Mommsen quoted above.

redis et carris] reda is a fourwheeled, carrus a twowheeled, vehicle. Both words are Keltic. 4. eo] “thereon', cf. 42. 5 passis manibus] 'with outstretched hands'; some late editions have

crinibus. Cf. 11. 13, VII. 48.


CHAP. 2. 6 singulis] Caesar means that, of his six legions, one was commanded

by a quaestor and each of the remaining five by a legatus. It was only under the Empire that the legion was regularly commanded by a legatus. The quaestor was properly a financial functionary; Caesar had only one

at a time with him in Gaul: cf. v. 25: supra 21. 8 eam partem] i.e. the part of the enemies' lines opposite his own

right wing, in other words, their left wing.




ita] ita is not used to connect this sentence with the preceding ('and so '), but is to be taken closely with acriter and is the antecedent to ut : our men charged so vigorously... that'etc.

procurrerunt] the form procurri is more frequent than procucurri. 15 reperti sunt] this incident reminds one somewhat of the patriotism of the Swiss hero Arnold von Winckelried.

desuper vulnerarent] I imagine the meaning to be that the Roman literally leapt upon his antagonist, tore aside his shield with one hand, and with the other inflicted a downward blow with his short sword (gladius). See appendix.

P. Crassus) son of M. Licinius Crassus the triumvir.



CHAP. 58. 25 quinque] this is the reading of the mss. Napoleon (followed by

Kampen) relying on the testimony of Orosius and Plutarch reads quir. quaginta, supposing that the Germans did not take the direct route to the Rhine which is nearly 20 miles from Cernay but followed the valley of the Ill, in which direction they had come, and crossed the Rhine somewhere near Rhinau. Göler on the contrary retains quinque,

and imagines Caesar to mean the Ill which is a tributary of the Rhine. 28

Ariovistus] we learn from V. 29 that Ariovistus died soon after this. 30

duae uxores) polygamy was rare among the Germans. Tac. Germ. 18 says prope soli barbarorum singulis uxoribus contenti sunt, exceptis admodum paucis qui non libidine sed ob nobilitatem plurimis nuptiis

ambiuntur. 33 duae filiae] the plural is subdivided by altera...altera, and the verb

capta est is constructed with the second altera ; thus duae filiae is almost a nominativus pendens. Caesar might equally well have written ex

duabus harum filiis altera occisa altera capta est. See appendix. p. 32. 2 trinis] 'triple'. 7 neque...quicquam]=et quod nihil, “and because fortune had not di

minished aught of the great pleasure and congratulation consequent on the victory by any injury to him'.

CHAP 54 14 quos Ubiz] on the text of this passage cf. appendix. 17 maturius] Napoleon's calculations make it probable that the defeat

of Ariovistus took place in September. 19

citeriorem Galliam] Gallia cisalpina.

ad conventus agendos] this is usually Caesar's professed object in visiting Italy during the intervals of his Gallic campaigns; his real object was of course to watch political events at Rome. Cf. my n. on v. I and VII. Plutarch Caesar 20 says “having effected these things he left his forces to winter among the Sequani, while he himself,


anxious to observe events at Rome, went down (katéßn i.e. from the Alps) into Gaul around the Padus, which formed a part of the consular province given him. For the river Rubicon separates the rest of Italy from the Keltic land beneath the Alps. There he stationed himself and courted popular favour (tonuarúyel), while many persons visited him, whose several requests he granted, and sent them all away either already possessed of his benefits or hoping to receive them. And throughout the whole course of his campaign, unsuspected by Pompey, he was ever at one time overthrowing the enemy by the arms of the citizens, at another, taking and subduing the citizens by money drawn from the enemy'.


p. 33.



CHAP. 1. 3 certior fiebat] 'he was from time to time informed'; the imperfect of repeated action like afferebantur.

dixeramus] the perfect tense is more usual in expressions of this kind, as above, demonstravimus; cf. however 24, 28, iv. 27. For the

statement in question cf. 1. I, with notes. 6 omni Gallia) all Keltic Gaul: the abl. abs. is equivalent to si omnis Gallia pacaretur.

ferebant] one would have expected ferrent and below studerent and possent, the verbs of subordinate relative clauses in or. obl. being usually in the subjunctive, but Caesar is here gradually and as it were insensibly passing from or. obl. to or. rect., for it will be noticed that above quod (because) is followed first by the subjunctive sollicitarentur but afterwards by the indicative occupabantur.

mobilitate et levitate animi] Caesar frequently alludes to the fickle character of the Gauls: with this passage cf. iv. 5. 13 conducendos] conducere is here to hire', in the next chapter it is

used in its ordinary sense of 'gather together': the present passage shows how easily the one meaning passes into the other.

eam rem] i.e. kingly power.

imperio nostro] 'if our rule were established': ablative of attendant circumstances, cf. 1. 18 imperio populi Romani.

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CHAP. 2. 16 duas legiones] these legions were the milith and xivth. 17 inita aestate] Kraner remarks that Caesar never has ineunte aestate.

qui deduceret] for the position of the relative which here precedes its logical antecedent Q. Pedium legatum cf. I. 21 qualis esset natura

montis...qui cognoscerent, misit. 18 Q. Pedium)

. Suetonius (Caes. 83) says that Q. Pedius was a grandson of Caesar's sister.. Napoleon says that he was her son and yet refers to Suetonius as his authority. Mr Long thinks, on chronological grounds, that Suetonius is wrong and that Pedius was Julia's son. He was consul B.C. 43 and died during his tenure of office.

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