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night they left their straw pallets, and assembled in the church of the convent to prayers."
Complaints of a relaxation of discipline were made against many of the monasteries, long before their final dissolution. Abuses became at length 80 general and gross, that their fall was inevitable. The monastery of Kirkstall, though no charge was preferred against it of a criminal natore, shared the general fate. The last abbot, John Ripley, surrendered it into the hands of the King's commissioners, on the 22nd of Nov. 1540, in the 31st of the reign of Henry VIII.
The abbey was unroofed, at the time of its surrender, and the lead and timber taken away: its complete destruction was left to time, the general destroyer, and the dilapidations of the surrounding tenantry. It is probable that these ruins never presented to the eye of the contemplative visitor, at any preceeding period, a more interesting, or beautiful appear
The oak which has for centuries' waved its branches on the brow of the mountain, and in its age has been shivered by some tremendous npest-the face furrowed with wrinkles--the head covered with silver hairs -the body beat with age, affliction, and labour, strike and interest the mind as forcibly as the broken wall covered with ivy---as the roofless choir --as the threatening turrets of this one stately temple.
The ruins of Kirkstall Abbey, whether viewed as a whole or in detached parts, are exceedingly interesting and beautiful." The church of the monastery," (which the annexed engraving serves to illustrate,) says an historian of this abbey, to whose work the writer of this sketch has been considerably indebted, “is built in the form of a cross, † and over the intersection of the cross aisles with the body of the church, about fifty feet from the east end, a tower was erected, which according to the practice of the twelfth century was only carried a little higher than the church; but about the reign of Henry VII. the tower was raised to its present height, and was entire until the night of Jan. 27th, 1779, but one of the columns on which it rested, probably overloaded with the immense addition, suddenly gave way and precipitated to the ground two sides of the whole tower. Though it is impossible not to regret this circumstance, it is not thought to have materially diminished the effect of the ruins. The south and east sides of the tower still remain. : "The body of the church † ;8 divided into a nave and two aisles by a double row of massy columns, composed of a cluster of eight and twelve
• Since that period, forest-trees have grown to the girt of 12 feet, within the walls of the ruin, their trunks covered with ivy.
† A correct original ground-plan of the whole may be seen in BURTON's Eboracease, &c.
1 The length from the east window to the west door is 224 feet. The transept north and south extends from the side aisles 27 feet; add this to the width of the nave and aisles (80 feet) and it will make the length of the transept 114 feet, which crosses the nave, 45 feet from the east window. The pillars of the nave are 15 feet in girt, and of leet square at the base,
smaller ones alternately; the capitals are Saxon, and the pedestals square. These pillars support pointed arches, over which is a range of windows, the arches of which are circular; the doors are of the same order, and are adorned with rectangular mouldings. The west entrance is quite perfect, and uncommonly beautiful; over the centre of the arch are four niches, now unoccupied, but which were formerly filled with statues of the four evangelists. The south aişle is entire, but a considerable breach was made in the opposite one by the fall of two sides of the tower: this enormous ruin still remains in the body of the church, and has assumed the appearance of a natural mount.
- The high altar was situated at the east end of the churcb, and on each side of it were three smaller ones ; but to whom dedicated is not ascertained. 'To each altar a small distinct chapel was appropriated, and which still remain nearly entire; the excavations for the consecrated water in a recess in the wall are still distinctly visible. The principal window at the east end, is large, and, even in ruins, exhibits marks of a chaste design. The roof between the tower and the east end was adorned with fretwork and intersecting arches, the ribs of which are still visible.”
This part of the monastery, (the church) whether viewed early or late is highly picturesque and beautiful. Perhaps night, when the moon illuminates a clear sky, when every noise is hushed, and the mind, undisturbed from without, is solely occupied by the object of contemplation, will be selected by many persons as the season most favourable for enjoying its solitude, I have visited this venerable ruin at such a season : the moon was unclouded, and an awful stilloess prevailed, seldom disturbed by the breeze whispering along the dilapidated aisles. The ox, the horse, and the sheep were quietly reposing around the desolated walls. I had taken my stand one evening at the west door, from whence I had a full view of the fragments of the great tower which yet remain ; of the east; window where the high altar stood; of the rows of mouldering columns which feebly support the threatening roofs of the north and south aisles ;* and of the seemingly natural mount in the midst of the church, formed by those parts of the great tower which have sunk down.
While surveying this dreary scene, my mind was completely absorbed. I recurred to the times when the abbey was in all its strengh and beauty; when the altar was surrounded by its ministers, and the devout brotherhood; when tears of genuine penitence bedewed the faces of the assembly when fervent prayer and holy praise ascended to the skies from hearts sincere ; when Turgesius, the venerable Turgesius, officiated at the altar with streaming eyes. The reverie was of short duration : the scenes of former times suddenly disappeared, and I beheld the abbey in its real state, -the roof sunk down to the ground-ivy on the walls-grass springing
• The roof of the south aisle is much ruined, and is very dangerous to the unwary vi. sitor : there is an ascent to the top of it by stairs up the south-west turret. Admittance may be gained to the interior, on application to Matthew Balmforth, residing near the quins, who is agent to the Earl of Cardigan, the present possessor.
where holy feet once trod--rubbish in place of the altar-and heard the whisperings of the wind along the church instead of the accents of prayer and praise.
These ruins call to mind customs that once flourished, but are now no more. They remind us that in the revolution of a few ages the most stately edifices will have crumbled into dust ; that empires now in their glory will be almost forgotten, and that the world in which we live—and all its kingdoms-its people—and its works — with universal nature, shall siok into ruin and confusion,
“ The cloud-capt towers
R. B. H******
ACCOUNT OF BAKEWELL.
To the Editor of the Northern Star. BAKEWELL is situated in the Hundred of High-Peak, in the county of Derby, twenty miles N. N. W. of Derby, and 153 from London. Being seated on the banks of the Wye, there is by means of that river a considerable mart here for lead; it has a market on Fridays, and five fairs in the year for cattle and horses. Its name is taken from Bath-quelle, or the Bath-well : the Saxons called it Badecanwyllam, and Domesday has Badequella. This place was of some pote in Saxon times, as Edward the Elder, in the year 924, marched from Nottingham into Peaclond, as far as a place called Badecanwyllam, and ordered a town to be built and strongly fortified in the vicinity, the vestiges of which are still very visible. The same Edward also constituted this a borough in the year 920. After the Conquest this inanor belonged to Willian Peverell, whose son gave two parts of the tithes of Bakewell to Lenton Abbey, in Nottinghamshire. It was afterwards possessed by the Gernons, of Essex, and the Vernons, from whom it descended to the present owner, the Duke of Rutland. It is thus mentioned in Domesday: “ In Badequella with eight berewicks, King Edward had eighteen carucates of land to be taxed. Land to eighteen ploughs. The King has now there in the demesne seven ploughs, and thirty-three villages and nige bordars. There are two priests and a church, and under them two villanes and five bordars, having eleven ploughs. There is one knight having sixteen acres of land and two bordars. There is one mill of ten shillings and eight pence, and one lead mine, and eight acres of meadow. Coppice-wood one mile long and one broad. 1 Three caracates of that land belong to the church. Henry de Ferrieres claims one carncate in Hadane. These are berewicks of this
manor: Hadun, Holun, Reuslige, Bartune, Cranchesbury, Aneisc, Moneis, Hadupa."
The number of inhabitants in Bakewell is about 1400; 350 of whom are employed in the cotton-mill, erected by the late Sir Richard Arkwright, at the entrance into the town from Ashford ; some are also employed in the lead-mines. Two miles south of the town stands Haddon Hall, with its high turrets and embattlements. The buildings surround two quadranguJar courts ; the east tower appears to be of Edward IIId's reign, and the gallery was built in Queen Elizabeth's time. The north-west tower, on which are the arms of the Vernons, Pipes, &c. is of Henry VIth's reign. Over the entrance to the hall are the arms of Vernon, and Fulco de Pembridge, of Tong, in Shropshire, whose heiress married Sir Richard Vernon. At the upper end of the hall is a raised floor, for the lord and his principal guests.
On the south side of the hall is a door leading to a room, on the wainscot of which are carved the portraits of Henry VII. and his queen. On the south-east side is the great stair-case, communicating with the lung gallery and state-apartments. The long gallery is 100 feet loog, and 17 wide. The flooring is of oaken planks, said to have heen cut out of a single tree, which grew in the park. The wainscoting is also of oak curiously ornamented; and in the frieže "are boars' heads, thistles, and roses ; in the bow-windows are the arms of the Earl of Rutland, impaling Vernon, &c., encircled with the garter, and the arms of England surmounted with a crowp. In a room separated from the gallery by a passage, is the state-bed, and over the chimney is a bas-relief of Orpbeus charming the beasts, in rough plaister. Most of the rooms are hung with tapestry. In the entrance to the hall is a Roman altar, found near Bakewell, and dedicated to the god Mars, by Ossittius Cæcilian, a prefect. In the south-west corner of the first court, is the chapel, consisting of a body and two aisles. In the windows are some good remains of painted glass, and the date Millessimo CCCCXXVII. Haddon-hall was kept open with old English hospitality for twelve days after Christmas. In 1795, a basaltic celt was found near this hall; and in 1801, a glass vessel supposed to be a lachrymatory.
The manor of Haddon, after the Conquest, was possessed by the Avenells, whose co-heiresses married to Vernon and Basset, in Richard Ist's reign. Sir Richard Vernon was sole proprietor in Henry VIth's reign, who was governor of Calais, and Speaker of the Parliament at Leicester in 1425. The last heir of the Vernons, was for his hospitality, styled King of the Peak, and after his death, in Elizabeth's time, it came by marriage into the Manners' family.
Bakewell Church Is situated on an eminence, built in the form of a cross, with an octagopal tower, from which rises a lofty spire. Two priests and a church are mentioned in Domesday as being here at the Conquest, and it is supposed that the west end of the present church, where is a Saxon arch beautifully enriched with ornaments, is a part of the original structure. Part of the tithes, with the glebe and patronage of this church, was given by John, Earl of Montaigne, afterwards King of England, to the dean and chapter
of Lichfield. One of the Foljambe family founded a chantry here in the reign of Edward III. In the chancel is a beautiful alabaster table-tomb, with the following inscription on the edge, in very singular characters:“ Hic jacet Joh’es Veroon Filius et Hæres Henrici Vernon qui obiit xii die mensis Augusti Anno D'ni MmoCCCCLXXVII cui anime p’piciet D's.” In the chapel built by the Vernons is a fine table-tomb, with three recumbent figures upon it, and the following inscription in capitals : * Here lyeth Sr George Vernon Knyght deceassed ye day of 156ånd Dame Margeret bis wyffe daughter to Sr Gylbert Tayleboys deceassed ye-day of —-156-; and also Dame Maude his wyffe daughter to Sr Ralph Langfofot deceassed y'e ----day of 156—, Whose solles God pardon.” The blanks are found in the original. In the same chapel is a fine monument of the last heir of the Vernons, of Queen Elizabeth's time, and another for the Manners. In the vestry is the recumbent figure of Sir Thomas de Wednesley, who was killed in the battle of Shrewsbury, under Henry IV. He is in mail armour, and on his helmet is inscribed, IHC NAZAREN. There is also here a beautiful little monument to one of the Foljambe family. At the west end of the church is an ancient font and stone coffin. The chantry in the church-yard was repaired in Henry VIIl.'s time by Thomas Rawson, chantry-priest, and its value at the Dissolution was 41. When it was taken down many years ago, the following inscription was found upon it :-"D'us Thomas Rawson A.D. DCCCCCXVI. Can. 8. crucis de Bakewell.” In the church-yard is also a stone-cross, similar to one at Penrith, in Cumberland.
Bakewell parish is the largest in Derbyshire, and contains seven chapelries. At Ashford are extensive marble-works, and a moat which formerly surrounded a house belonging to the Nevilles, Earls of Westmoreland. Chatsworth-House*, the seat of the Duke of Devonshire, is also in Bakewell parish. Attempts have recently been made to make Bakewell a watering-place; by clearing out the ancient bath, (which Mr. Bray supposes to have been in use previously to the year 920,) making walks, &c. Lying in the bosomi of a country rich in romantic scenery, it combines many advantages for such a purpose ; but its water is not well adapted to the cases of those who require warm bathing, being (I believe) only 60° of Fahrenheit. There is an excellent inn, the Rutland Arms, under which have been máde baths. Near thë town there is also a well, called Peat-well, which runs oyer from a basin.
FURTHER ACCOUNT OF FOUNTAINS ABBEY.
[Concluded from p. 96.] AT the time of the general dissolution of the monasteries in England, durjog the reign of the arbitrary Henry VIH., the establishment of Fountains
• I shall be obliged to any of your readers who will farnish you with an account of