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After a review of the town, the history of its larbour, piers, shipping, whale-fishery, and customi-house succeed.
Although Whitby was a fishing-town of great note at the time of the dissolution of its abbeỹ, yet its piers and harbours appear to have been in a very imperfect state till ibe year 1702, since which period, by various duties imposed by acts of parliament, its fapds have enabled the town wonderfully to improve botb “ The shipping of Whit. by, like the town itself, has made astonishing progress during the two last centuries.” To this effect, the improvement of the harbour and the erection of the alum-works have greatly contributed. The vumber of vessels belonging to this town in 1776 amounted do no less than 251, their aggregate burden being reckoned 55,000 tons; since that peridd, they have been stationary.- The ship-building forms another important feature in the history of this place. The strength and durability of the ships huilt here have long been famed ; and the extent of business in this line may be inferred from a statement for the last 17 years, in which the number built amount to 331, yielding a general ave: rage of 20 ships, of 4582 tons for each year, and 285 tons for each ship.
Sail-making, and sail-cloth manufactories, also, appear carried on to considerable extent. The foreign trade to the Baltic and Norway, and the Greenland Fishery, are next touched upon : on the latter head, it is stated, “ the Whitby ships engaged in the fishery bare obtained during the last 14 years no less than 1443 whales, producing 12971 tons of oil. This success has been of immense benefit, not only to the owners, but to the town a1 large ; for a full ship is estimated to spend in the town, in one way or another, about £3000. The outfit is very expensive, the Whitby ships being remarkably well farnished ; and hence an unsuccessful voyage is attended with great loss. To compensate for this risk, a bounty of 20s. per ton (formerly 40s.) on the tonnage of each vessel is , allowed by government.”
We pass over several heads to extract a few of the author's observations on Poor-rates, which, though more immediately applicable to Whitby, may too truly, we fear, bave a general relation throughout the kingdom :
“ Perhaps there are few places where the poor are better provided for than at Whitby; yet our poor-houses, and poor-houses in general, appear to admit of great improvements. I do not allade to any mismanagement on the part of the masters, or of the overseers, but to general regulations which are not wholly under their control. A poorbonse, as pow conducted, is often a receptacle for vice, rather than an asylum for honest poverty. The door is open, indeed, for the industrious poor ; but it admits with equal facility characters the most abandoned and worthless, with whom the virtuous abhor to associate. The most numerous tenants of the poor-house too often consist of such as have reduced themselves to poverty by idleness and drunkenness ; lewd girls, with their illegitimate offspring; and others who are the very dregs of society. What is the consequence ? The many hundreds that are annually levied on industrious tradesmen and worthy citizeus, are chiefly expended in supporting the lazy and profligate, while the real objects of charity pine away in private, and bear up almost to the last extremity, under the pressure of old age, affliction, and distress, rather than herd with wretches so depraved. It is cruel to force the deserving poor, either to starve, or to be thrust into the company of thieves, drunkards, and prostitutes. Far be it from me to insinuate that the guilty poor should be abandoned; yet they qught not to be suffered to contaminate the sober, or wound the feelings of the pious. Surely some remedy might be found. Might not a workhouse be made at once a house of correction for the bad, and a com:
fortable asylum for the unfortunate? Might not each house be divided into two or more compartments, and the poor, under the direction of the overseers, churchwardens, &c. distributed into them according to their character? Were the deserving placed in bet. ter apartmenis, with rooms for eating, sleeping, and working, separate from those of the worthless; were the latter not only secluded from the society of the good, but treated with more strictness; and were some intermediate probationary rooms allowed to those of a middling character, and the hope of promotion held out as a stimulus to good behaviour, the institution would not only give more satisfaction to the public, but might serve to diminish the sum of profligacy, which in its present state it seems calculated to augment.”
Our limits now compel us to close the volume; the latter division, therefore, namely, the “Statistical Survey,” which comprises a vast mass of information on the topography, antiquities, mineralogy, zoology, fisheries, and biography of the district, to the distance of twenty-five miles around the town, we do not dwell upon, though abounding with interesting matter. We can only say, in general terms, that great iudustry in collecting the materials, and ability in arranging them, are obvious throughout the whole work ; and possessing such merits, its cheapness as a topographical production will be a further recommendation with those who relish antiquity.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
rondondo. Mineralogy.- Mr Laidlow, the naturalist men following the profession of civil enwho left Scotland about a year ago, and gineers, for the purpose of mutual commuaccompanied Sir John Malcolm to India, nication on the many important topics has, we are informed,commenced bis scien- immediately, or more remotely, conuected tific labours in the East. Immediately on with their professional pursuits. The prinbis arrival at Calcutta, he was appointed ciple of their association is the diffusion of by the Marquis of Hastings to investigate useful knowlege among all the members ; the natural history, and particuiarly the on which account the Society is restricted mineralogy of Nepaul, and was ordered to to practical engineers, and to such stu. connect bis investigations and operations dents of general science as have especially with those of the gentlemen now employed directed their attention to those subjects in constructing maps of that striking coun which particularly concern the civil engitry. Mr. Laidlow's appointment is, wenn
The meetings are held once a week derstand, extremely liberal, and reflects during the winter season ; business comthe bighest honour on the India Directors, mences with the reading of an original es. and the illustrious Governor-General. We say, to which succeeds the discussion of a consider the grand career of mineralogical topic previously agreed upon at a former discovery as thus most auspiciously opened meeting : information relative to projects, in our Indian empire. Bit in so great a inventions, public works in progress, &c. field there must be many cultivators; we closes the sitting. A Society so constituted therefore trast, that the highly bonourable and sustained witb spirit, cannot but prove and liberal views entertained by the Go- of great advantage, both to the individual vernor of India, will induce those destined members and to the public at large. for that coantry to study with zeal and ar
Interesting Remains.- About six weeks dour tbe different brancbes of natural history, in order that they may be prepared Hicks, bart, while digging up the roots of
ago some men, in the employ of Sir W. to assist in the grand and magnificent plans an old ash tree, at Cooper's Hill, about wbich must be in agitation for the investi- four miles from Gloucester, struck, on & gation of the physical condition of that co- large stone; and on removing it tbey dislossal empire.
covered a flight of steps, leading to an Civil Engincers.-A Society has recently apartment, in the centre of which was a been instituted in London, by some young cistern about a yard square ; in cleaning
the room the skulls of a buffalo and a bul. ments are tesselated, and in good condi. lock, with horns, and the remains of a fire- tion. One of them in a large room is perplace, with a quantity of wood-ashes, were fect. The tessere are so exactly laid tolikewise found. Last week four more gether, so beautifnlly varied, and the apartments were discovered; in one of pattern so correct and elegant, that the which is a very curious tesselated pave- 'best floor-cloth is not painted with more ment, also the remains of several urns and accuracy or Beauty. The pattern is one, figured tiles of Roman pottery. The walls wbich frequently appears on our modern of one of the apartments, and also the pas- floor-cloths. The baths are completely sages, are painted io fresco, with alternate excavated, and the hypocausts and flues, stripes of purple, yellow, and scarlet, all by which they warmed the rooms, in the of which are beautifully shaded, and curi. manner we have adopted for bot-bouses, ously ornamented with scrolls, and a bor- are apparent. The largest rooms seem to der.
be about 30 or 25,- one is exactly 28 by Roman Villa in Oxfordshire. -(Extract 24; a proportion, in which the length from a Letter.)—“A few days ago I made exceeds the width much less than in moan interesting excursion to the Roman dern rooms. Nothing has yet been found Villa, discovered near Stonesfield, 11 miles to fix the precise date of the villa ; the from Oxford. It was first pointed out in
coins collected are those of CONSTANTINE 1816, by the Rev. Mr. Brown, the Vicar the GREAT, who was CÆSAR in 308, and of that parish. By the assistance of that AUGUSTUS from 308 by 337. The Dake gentleman, and of the Duke of MARL- of MARLBOROUGH shows a due regard to BOROUGH, on whose estate the villa stands, these valuable remains of antiquity. At extensive discoveries have been made. The present, the remains of pillars and the tesbuilding encloses about three acres of land; selated pavements are covered with mould, the peristyle, on every side of the qua- to protect them from frosts, which aré drangle, is very evident, as are the divi- particularly injorious to the latter by sions of forty-seven rooms. The pave- loosening the tessere.
Mr. D. B. Warden has issged proposals serings of the crew, and the varions occurfor a Statistical and Historical Account of rences on board tbe raft, in the desert of the United States of America, from the peQuassa, at St. Louis, and at the camp of riod of the first establishments to the pre- Daccard, &c., by J. B. H. Savigny and A. sent day, on a new plan. The work will Correard, is preparing for publication. be illustrated with engravings, and com The Rev. J. C. Latrobe will speedily prised in four octavo volumes.
publish a Narrative of his late Tour in Dr. Spier will shortly publish, General South Africa ; together with some account Views relating to the Stomach, its fabric, of the Missions of the United Brethren in functions, &c.
that country. The work will make a 4to. Baldwin, Cradock and Joy propose to volume, and be embellished with engravpublish a Compendium of the Holy Serip- ings. tures, intended for the use of families; by Dr. Macculloch, president of the Geoloa Layman of the Church of Engtand. This gical Society, has prepared a work on the work will be published in seven or eight Geognosy of the Hebrides, particularly the parts, medium 4to. price eight shillings outer range of these interesting islands. each.
Thomas Bowdler, esq. is preparing a Mr. Morrison, of the Mercantile Acade- Family Shakspeare; containing all Shakmy, Leeds, will publish ahout midsummer, speare's Plays, with the omission of all exa Key to the “Commercial Arithmetic." pressions uot proper to be read aloud in a
A fall and authentic Life of the late Mr. family. Curran, by his son W. H. Curran, esq. of Dr. A. Brown, Professor of Rhetoric in the Irish bar, is in preparation.
the University of Edinburgh, has nearly A Narrative of a Voyage to Senegal in ready for the press a work of considerable 1816, undertaken by order of the French magnitude on the physical, moral, and pogovernment, comprising an account of the litical history of America. sbipwreck of the Medusa frigate, the suf
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