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ON THE ANTIQUITY OF THE MANSION AT NORTON-LÉES. (Mentioned in the ninth number of the Northern Star.)
bioboobroniki booboot THE engraving from the accurate and elegant pencil of Mr. Blore, that decorated the Northern Star for February, 'could not fail of being very acceptable to the friends of that publication." I beg leave to offer you a few remarks, arising from the historical account by which it was accompanied. The architecture of the ancient mansion at Norton-Lees appears of a much earlier date than the sixteenth century; and though undoubtedly the residence of a Blythe at that period, must have been built anterior to that family's residence there, the carved initials in the old dining-room referring to them being most probably added in alterations and repairs of the original buildings. Our Saxon ancestors built their dwellings entirely of wood, not excepting their churches: in the immediately succeeding periods, plaister was intermixed with wood, the basement story being built of stone; such is this old house.
In the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, houses composed of stone, or of stone and brick, became general, and the style of their architecture is too well known to need any description. Few alterations took place in the reign of the first Charles; the improvement made by his two predecessors in domestic architecture were too evident to require that patronage and support he so liberally bestowed upon the other arts. A further proof of the more remote antiquity of the house at Norton-Lees, than the modern era of the restoration, is the peculiar construction of the large barns on its west side, their whole structure being of wood, excepting the basement of stone, and their principal support deep flat beams of massy oak, naturally curved, and of which each pair seems to have been sawed from one tree; they spring from the ground, and form a bold gethic arch over-head; such timber-frames present specimens of the architec. ture of Edward I., a period when those spacious receptacles were destined to contain the fortunes of their owners, which principally consisted in the produce of their land, and in their cattle, when the portions of their daughters were paid in such produce. The wardrobe of a wife, that was then destined to last her life, was conveyed from the father's house to that of her husband in a richly carved oak-chest, drawn by the oxen that formed part of the dowry. I should therefore believe, that the old house at Norton-Lees bearing these evident demonstrations of a date anterior to that affixed in your magazine, was either built by a Parker, a person of good possessions in the reign of Richard II., after his marriage with Elizabeth de Gothem, only daughter and heir of Roger de Göthem, of Norton-Lees, son of Thomas de Gothem, son of Roger de Gothem, of the county of Derby, then bearing the name of Norton-Lees ; or have come to him by that marriage, from a family who evidently had resided as above at Norton-Lees three generations, and must have been possessors of heritable landed property in the reign of Edward III. From that 'event (the marriage of Elizabeth de Gothem) the Parkers, with their lineal descendants, continued to reside there, to the reiga of Henry VIII., from which we may conclude, it was a residence of more importance than their patrimonial home, which was at Bullwell, in Notte. John, the Parker, last-mentioned as a resident at Norton-Loes, was of fall
s such lineal
age in the 12th of Henry VI., and was certified, with his father, among the gentlemen of the county of Derby, who, pursuant to an aet of parliament, took oath for the observance of the laws for themselves and their retainers. Henry, the fourth son of the above-mentioned John Parker, was groom of the chamber to Henry VIII. Thomas Parker, second som to the same Henry, married a Parker of his own family : he had three sons, the second of which was situated at Nether-Lees. Is there such a place so called in the vicinity, or nearer to Norton, than Norton-Lees? In, the public records there is no further mention of the Parkers as a family of consideration residing in the north of Derbyshire; but in the first of George I., one of its descendants, the son of an attorney at Leek in Staffordshire, was elevated by his forensic talents to the chancellorship and subsequently to the dignity of an Earl, a circumstance conferring more ostensible distinction upon a family whose previous claims to respectable antiquity were already established. But it appears strange to one who considers al claims as conferring no less honour, that the Earl of Macelesfield should not have founded his newraised dignity upon the superstructure of his ancestorial consequence, and have revived the name of the heiress to whom they owed the possession of the estates at Norton-Lees, and whose name, as is the fate of those families whose possessions descend to daughters, become obscured or lost in that which they have enriched : but perhaps Baron de Gothem might have been too sapient a designation even for a Chancellor of Great-Britain! The old house, which has given rise to this paper yet stands, as faithfully delineated by Mr. Blore, and probably, thus stood when Sheffield itself was but a hamlet in the shire of Hallam. The floors of its upper rooms are no less curious than its exterior, being large and thick planks of timber bedded in mortar. The long range window in its principal apartment, so curiously formed of the dimunitive lozenge, deserves delineation, or a more certain preservation than its brittle material can ensure. With that consideration, by which our forefathers attended to the warmth and comfort of their habitations, the front faces a rising hill, whilst from the north it was sheltered by trees, whose junior descendants now form a fine colonnade that protects the venerable building and crowns the elevation on which it stands : from the west winds that prevail so much in this country, the huge barns were a strong barrier ; ::
and on the east, an antique yew, yet standing, was one perhaps of many more, that formed the ornar shade of the place.
Thus guarded on all sides, and warmed within by the immense fires that the abundance of fuel supplied, and the large hearths and wide chimnies admitted, the original inhabitant felt not the seasons' difference, and there scarcely can b ea more curious contrast than what their domestic economy and habits presented, to those of their descendants ; children of the same fathers, country, and climate, not differing more than the summer-houses now built by them, and the substantial halls of their forefathers, Ere another generation is gone by, even these their last relics will disappear. Such are the fashions of this world - such the fate of its children !
M. M. M.. Sheffield, April 21, 1818.
Miscellaneous Correspondence, &e.
To the Editors of the Northern Star. THE customs and manners of nations, as well as their laws and institutions, having arisen from c imate, religion, and other causes, or at least being much affected by them, producing the variety which we see established on the face, of the earth ; it is one of the most amusing results of the study of history to observe the occasional similarity of contrivance adopted by man in different countries, and in different ages, to attain his object, whether it be for the ac, complishment of his interest, or the gratification of his more malignant pas, sions.
The following tests of Nationality, or proofs of Alienism, have occurred to me, and may afford amusement to your readers:
We find in the book of Judges, (ch. xii.) that the men of Gilead were accused by those of Ephraim, of being fugitives from them. “ And the Gile. adites took the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites, and it was so that when those which escaped, said, Let me go over, that the men of Gilead said unto him, Art thou an Ephraimite? If he said nay, then said they unto him, say now Shibboleth : and he said, Sibboleth : for he could not frame to pronounce it right. Then they took him and slew him at the passages of Jordan."
In Dow's History of Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 69, we read, that Mahommed IV. having taken the city of Delhi, and ascended the imperial throne, A.D. 1390, “ ordered the elephants belonging to the slaves of Ferose, to be taken from them, and converted to his own use. Enraged at this injustice, they fled the city and joined his opponent. Mahommed upon this desertion, turned out a few who remained, ordering them on pain of death never to appear in the city. Many slaves, unwilling to leave Delhi, concealed them, selves: a search was ordered to be made, and such as were found were massacred. Some of these poor wretches upon this occasion, cried out for .mercy, affirming that they were originally Tartars. They were, upon this, ordered to pronoumce the word “Gurragurri," by which they were immé. diately distinguished. All who sounded it with the accent of Hindostan were put to death.”
It is a curious coincidence that about the same time the city of London should be disgraced by the commission of a similar atrocity. In the reign of Richard II. A.D. 1381, during the rebellion, the forces of Wat Tyler having entered the city of London, beheaded Richard Lyons, an eminent goldsmith and late sheriff, and having burnt and plundered the houses of the foreign merchants, they convicted them of alienism by making them repeat the words to read and cheese,” which they unhappily pronouncing with a transmarine accent, their deaths were inevitable, - Stow Iti. and Andrew's History of Great-Britain. vol. i. p. 396. 4to.
Similar instances may be found in Rabelais lib. 5. c. 19,--and in Bodin. Rep. lib. 5. c.l.
A TABLE OF ALL THE BATTLES THAT HAVE BEEN
FOUGHT IN GREAT BRITAIN,
Between whom the Battles were fought. The l'ictors, Killed. B.C.
55 Near Dover. The Britons and Romans under Julius Cæsar. Romans. 54 Banks of the Stour, Ditto.
Ditto. in Kent. 53|In Kent.
The Britons under Cassibelaunus & the Rom. Casibelaon. 53 Ditto.
The Britons and the Romans under Trebonius Romans. 52 St. Albans. Cassjbelaunus and Julius Cæsar.
Jul. Caesar. 52 in Kent.
The Britons under Cingetorix and the Romans Romans. A.D 46 In Oxfordshire. The Britons under Caractacus, and the Ro-Plautius.
mans under Plautius. 46 In Buckinghamshire The Britons under Togodumnus, and the Ro- Plautius.
mans under Plautius. 47 Banks of the Thames The Britons under Caractacus, and the Ro- Vespasian. in Surrey
mans under Vespasian. 47 Banks of the Thames Caractacus and Plautius.
Plautius. in Essex. 48 Ditto.
The Britons and the Romans under Claudius. Claudius. 50 In Suffolk.
The laeni and the Romans under Ostorius. Ostorius. 51 in North Wales. Caractacus and Ostorius.
The Britons) 52
in Worcestershire, 551
The Britons and Romans under Manlias Valens Ditto. 56
The Britons and. Venutius &Rom, und.Didius Venutius. 58 Isle of Anglesea. The Britons & Romans un. Suetonius Paulinus Suetonius. 61 Malden.
The Britons under Boadicea and the Romans. Boadicea 61 In Essex.
Boadicea and Romans und. Petilius Cerealis. Ditto. 70000 61 St. Albans. Boadicea and the Romans.
Ditto. 61 In Surrey. Boadicea and Suetonius.
Suetonius. 180400 69 in Yorkshire. Venutius and Cerealis.
Cerealis. 78 10 North Wales. The Ordovices & Romans und. JuliusAgricola Agricola. 83 10 Scotland. The Caledonians under Galgacus, and Romans Agricola.
under Agricola. 84 OntheGrampian Hills Ditto.
Ditto. 10350 116
The Caledonians & Romans under Antonius. Caledonia. 183
The Caledonians & Romans un. Ulp. Marcellus Marcellus. 294)
Alectus's army in Britain, and the Romans Constantius
under Constantius. 446\Ipswich
The Caledonians and Romans under Gallio. Gallio. 449 Market Deeping The Britons and tbe Scots and Picts.
Scots& Picts 455 4 ilsford
The Britons under Vortimer, and the Saxons Vortimer.
under Hengist and Horga. 478|In Sussex.
The Britons and the Saxons ander Ella. Ella, 489 Mexborough Ings. The Britons under Ambrosius, and the Saxons Ambrosius. 405 In the West of Engd. The Britons, and the Saxons under Cerdic. Cerdic. 520 Marshfield. Ditto.
Ditto. 543 Banbury. Ditto.
Ditto. 593 in Kent,
Ethelbert, King of Kent, and Ceaplin, King Ethelbert,
of Wessex. 611 Bindon, Dorset. The Britons and Kinegils, King of Wessex. Kinegils. 2062 612 In Northumberland, Ethelfrid, King of Northumber, and the Scots. Ethelfrid. 613 Near Chester. Ethelfrid and the Britons.
Ditto. 1200 014 Brampton, Devon. The Saxons and Britons,
Britons. 819 in Northumberland. Ethelfrid and Redwald, King of E. Anglia, Redwald.
Year Place. Between whom the Battles were fought. The Victors Killed. A.D. 62€ Cirencester Kinegils and Penda, King of Mercia, Indecisive.
SO 627 Hatfield, Yorkshire, Edwin, King of Northumber, and Penda, Penda. 633 York,
Osric, King of Deira, and Cadwalla, King of Cadwalla.
the Britons, 634 Halidown, Oswald, King of Northumber, and Cadwalla, Oswald. 642 Maserfelt, Oswald and Penda,
Penda. 652] Bradford, Wilts. Kenwal, King of Wessex, and his subjects, Kenwal, 658 Pine, Shropshire, Kenwal, and the Britons,
Ditto. 681 Pontesbury, Shrop. Kenwal, and Wulphur, King of Mercia, 670 In Northumberland Egfrid, King of Northumberl, and the Picts, Egfrid.101 673 Bedwin, Wiltshire. Escwin, King of Wessex, and Wulphur,
Escwin. 673 In Kent. Edric, King of Kent, and Lotharius,
Edric. 677 Andreswald, Sussex. Adelwalch, King of Sussex, and Cadwalla, Cadwalla. 684 In Scotland. Egfrid, and the Scots and Picts,
Scots &Pict 685 Ditto. Ditto,
001 705 Ebberston, York. Alfred, King of Northumb. and bis snbjects, Insurgents. 715 Woodenberg, Wilts. Ina, K. of Essex, and Coebred, K. of Mercia, Ina. 727
Ethelhard, King of Wessex, and Oswald, a Ethelhard.ro
competitor for that crown, 740
Cathred, King of Wessex, and his subjects Cathred.
under Edelhun, 741 Burford.
Ethalbald, King of Mercia, and Edelhun, Edelhun.
Ditto. 795 Rhuddlann, Flint. The Saxons, and the Welsh,
Saxons. 808|Camelford. Egbert, and the Britons,
Egbert. 823 Wilton, Wilts. Egbert, and Bernulf, King of Mercia, Ditto. 824 Bernulf, and the Inhabitants of E. Anglia,
E. Anglians 833 Charmouth, Dorset. Egbert, and the Danes,
Indecisive. 836 Hengesdown. Ditto,
JEgbert. 838|Southampton. Wulf heard, and the Danes,
Wolfheard. 838( Portland. Edelhelm, and the Danes,
Danes. 839 Romney. Herebert, and the Danes,
Ditto. 840 Appledore. Ethelwolf, and the Danes,
Ditto. 845 Banks of the Perrot, The English, and Danes,
Cerole. 851 Near Sandwich. Athelstan, and the Danes,
Athelstan. 851 In Kent. Alcher, and the Danes,
Alcher. 852 Oakley, Surrey, Ethelwolf, & Ethelbald and the Danes, Ethelwolf. 853 Isle of Thanet. Ealker, and Huda and the Danes,
Danes. 862 In Hampshire. Ofric, and the Danes,
Ofric. 867 Near York. Osbert, and the Danes,
Danes. 870/Thetford. Edmund, and the Danes,
Ditto. 871 Englefield, Berks. Ethelwulf, Earl of Berkshire, and the Danes, Ethelwulf, 871 Reading Alfred, and the Danes,
Danes. 871 Ashdown, Berks. Alfred, and the Danes,
Alfred, 872 Basingstoke. Alfred, and the Danes,
Danes 872 Merton, Surrey. Ditto,
Ditto. 872Wilton, Wilts. Ditto,
Ditto 878|Near Barnstaple. Odun, Earl of Devonshire, and the Danes, Odun, $1200 878 Yatenden, Hamp. Alfred, and the Danes,
Alfred, 892 Farnham, Ditto,
Ditto. 895 Badington, Montg. English and Welsh, and the Danes,
English. 905 Bury St. Edmuod's Edward the elder, and the Danes,
Danes. 911 Tetnall, Stafford. Ditto,
Edward 917_Hook Nortou. Edward and Elfleda, and the Danes, Ditto. 918 Banks of the Severn. The Militia of Hereford'and Gloucestersh. and Militia. Ako