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The Lows and Barrows, that so frequently occur in this now cheerless and denuded district, may probably justify the supposition, that it was once inhamoors have heretofore been fertile places, a conjecture which may require

a more particular attention, when traversing those parts of Derbyshire, where these burial places of the earliest ages are more frequently found. - The road from the summit of the East-Moor is carried with a gentle de scent along the brow of the hill to a steep rocky knoll, which may be regarded as the commencement of that lofty ridge of mountains denominated Froggatt Edge: thence it proceeds to Stoney Middleton, after first crossing the Derwent, near the village of Calver.

The view from this rocky elevation, in grandeur and sublimity, is unsurpassed in Derbyshire: indeed it would be difficult to find in one short mite of road, in any other part of the kingdom, a succession of scenery more richly and beautifully varied than is here presented The hills, which form the ca pacious dale of the Derwent, even when individually considered are noble objects ; they are beautiful in outline, and, in connexion with each other, they exhibit all the grace and majesty which rock, and wood, and heath, 'andi verdure, can possibly possess, when spread over a long chain of hills, sometimes rising boldly and abruptly into lofty and magnificent masses, at others declining into easy dales. The banks of the Derwent, from Stoke upwards, and throughont the whole of its windings, as far as the eye can trace its course, is every where luxuriantly wooded. Onione side of the piver the highest eminences are turreted with broken craggs of rock, which is the grand marking feature of every lofty projection from Froggatto Mill-stone Edge, and from thence to the vicinity of Hathersage; beyond which the blue misty hills of the Peak present a succession of faint and shadowy, outline, scarcely distinguishable from the clouds of heaven, of which they appear to form a part.

He who undertakës, in passing through a country, to describe the scenes he admires, and who hopes to excite a correspondent picture in the minds of his readers, will often have to lament, the inefficieney of the means he'is under the necessity of employing. The pencil, by an accurate delineation of Tornis, may speak to the eye, and the canvas may glow with the vivid tints of nature; but it is not through the medium of words, with whatever felicity they may be selected and combined, that an adequate idea of the finest fealures of a landscape can be communicated. The language, of description is likewise so very confined, and it phrases so extremely few, that similar appearances will often suggest a similarity of expression; hence the choicest terms become tireseme from repetition, and the impression they produce faint and imperfect,

Geology of Derbyshire. No part of the kingdom is better calculated to facilitate the study of miner·alogy, and geology, than the Peak of Derbyshire : it is here that nature, in

à peculiar way, lays bare her operations. The various strata here exhibited, in some places highly elevated, in others greatly depressed and broken into rents and chasnis, by frequent dislocations, unifokd the interior formation of the earth we inhabit, and carry the mind back to that era of time

when it was shaken and tumbled together, and the hills and dalés assumed their present form and positions.

Whitehurst, in his theory of the formation of the earth, has deduced his most powerful arguments from the strata of Derbyshire, which he contends, exhibit irrefragable testimony of their volcanic origin. St. Fond, who entertained a different opinion, professes his astonishment that a man so gifted as Whitehurst should discover any proofs in support of his peculiar theory, in a country where, as he remarks, “every thing is evidently of an aqueous origin."

Thus it is that the disciples of Werner and Hutton, the Neptunists and the Volcanists of the present Geological school, support their different theories from appearances strikingly similar, if not essentially the same. The basaltic stratum which, in various places alternates with calcareous rock, and which is provincially called toadstone, has furnished Whitehurst with bis most triumphant arguments : that it is obviously and indisputably lava, he maintains, cannot be denied. Wherever it occurs it occupies and fills up the space that intervenes between the different limestone strata ; and the manner in which it cuts off or intercepts the metallic veins ‘is, in his opinion, conelusive on the subject. u. It may be here remarked that though the toadstone of Derbyshire differs materially in its external appearance, it has one general prevailing character by which all its - varieties are decidedly marked. So indeed has lava. It breaks with an equal fracture in all directions : so does volcanic lava. It is likewise of various colours : so are the lavas' of Etna and Vesuvius. There is certainly a striking similarity in their internal structure and appearance, and both are said to resist equally the action of acids.

I have attentively examined more than a hundred specimens of lava, now in my possession, and have repeatedly compared them with the toadstones of Derbyshire, without being able to detect any thing like 'a characteristic difference; and I have now by me a tablet composed of nine varieties of each, which forcibly illustrates their general affinity.

The lavas of Etna' exhibit every degree of compactness and hardness, from the close texture of granite and marble to the most porous. The interior of the molten mass, being generally. in a more fluid state, when hot and flowing, differs in appearance from that which floated' on the surface, and the part which appears to have been iti immediate contact with the earth is, in many instances, but little more compact than half burnt clay. I have indeed observed only one specimen of lava that does not closely correspond with some one or other of the toadstones of Derbyshire : it is of a dark bluish-green colour, intermixed with streaks of a dirty earthy yellow, and it contains a great number of quartz crystals of various sizes, sometimes closely imbedded in the surrounding matter, and sometimes congregated together in small caverns.

Stoke Hall. The following morning we visited Stoke; the sun that set so gloriously the preceding evening, and seemed to give

“ The promise of a golden day to-morrow,

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Year Place.

Between whom the Battles were fought. The Victor: Killed. A.D.

Edward. 920 Sherwood nr.Chester Edward and the Danes, 940 Bromsbury, Athelstan, and the Danes and the Scots, under Athelstan.

Aplaff and Constantine, 941|Chester, Edmund, and the Danes under Anlaff,

Indecisive. 991 Ipswich,

Brithnoth, Duke of E, Anglia, and the Danes, The Danes. 993 London,

The Citizens of London, and the Danes, Citizens. 1004 in Norfolk, Sweyn, & Ulfketel, Governor of E. Anglia, Sweyo. 1016| Penne, Somerset, Edmund Ironside and Canute,

Edmond. 1016|Sceorstan, Glouces. Ditto,

Indecisive. 1016 Brentford, Ditto,

Edmund. 1016 Near Rochford, Ditto,

Cauate. 105410 Scotland. Malcolm, King of Scotland, and Macbeth, a Malcolm.

competitor for the Scotch Crown, 1066|In Lincolnshire, Earls of Northumberland, & Mercia & Tofti The Earls. 1066 Standford-Bridge, Harold, and Tofti and Harfagar,

Harold. 106) Hastings, Harold, and William Duke of Normandy,

William.

75000 1068 York,

English, Scotch, and Dapes, and William, Ditto. 1072 Isle of Ely, William and Hereward de Wake,

Ditto. 1975 Brecon, The English and Normans,

Normaps 1138 Northallerton, Stephen, and David, King of Scotland, Stephen. 1140 Lincolo,

Stephen, and the Duke of Gloucester, The Duke. 1141 Winchester, Matilda, and Henry, Bishop of Winchester, Henry. 1142 Oxford, Stephen and Matilda,

Stepben. 1158 Borders of Wales, Henry II. and the Welsh,

Henry II.

10000 1173 St. Edmund's Bory, The English, and the Flemings, under the English.

Earl of Leicester, 1174 The English apd Scots,

Ditto. 1262 Leves,

Henry III. and the Earl of Leicester, The Earl. (15000 1206 Kenilworth, Prince Edward and Montfort,

Edward. 1266 Evesham, Edward, and the Earl of Leicester,

Ditto. 1266 Chesterfield, The Earl of Derby, and the Earl of Cornwall, Cornwall. 1276 Llandilovawr, Edward I. and Llewellin Prnce of Wales, Edward. 1282 In Radnorsbire, Ditto,

Ditto. 1295 Near Dunbar, Edward I. and Baliol, King of Scotland, Ditto. 20000 1298][rvine,

The English, under the Earl of Surrey, and The Scots. 5000

the Scots, under William Wallace, 1299 Falkirk, The English and Scots,

English. 55000 1303 Near Edinburgb, The English and Scois,

The Scots. 1300 Methwin, nr Perth, The Eari of Pembroke and Bruce

Pembroke. 1307 Iu Scotland, Ditto,

Bruce. 1312 Baonuckburn, Edward II. and Bruce, King of Scotland, Ditto. 1322 Boroughbridge, Edward II. and the Earl of Lancaster, Edward II. 1327 Nordham, Sir Robert Manners, and the Scots,

Sir Robert. 13271 Banks of the Weir, Edward N1, and the Scots,

Edward III 1332 1. Fifeshire, English Barons, and Baliol and the Scots, The Barons 1334 Banks of the Earn, Ditto,

Baliol. 1333 Halidowa Hill, Edward III. and the Scots, 1335 Ditto,

Ditto! 1346 Neville's Cross, Philippa,Queen of Edward III. and the Scots, Philippa. 1388 Newcastle, Hotspur, and the Scots under Douglas, The Scots. 1388|Otterborn, Ditto,

Ditto. 1401 Halidown Hill, Ditto,

Hotspur.

17000 1403 Shrewsbury, Henry IV. and Hotepur, 1405 Carmarthen, Henry, Prince of Wales, and the Welsh, The Prince 1405 Monmouth, Ditto,

Ditto. 1406 Brambaw Moor, Sir T. Rokesby, and Earl of Northumberland, Rokesby. 1450 Sevenoaks,

The Royalists nuder Sir H. Stafford, and the lasurgents.

insurgents under Jobn Cade, 1450 Dartford,

John Cade, and the citizens of London, Indecisive.

40000 1000

12000 Edward III 30000

15000

(1200

Henry IV. 18500

Yearl

Place.

Between whom the Battles were fought. The Victors|Kille d. A.D. 1455 St. Albans, Henry VI. and Richard Duke of York, Yorkists. 800 1459 Blore Heath, Lord Audley, and the Earl of Salisbury, Ditto. 1460 Northampton, The Lancastrians, and the Earl of Warwick, Ditto. 1460 Wakefield, Margaret, and Richard,

Lancastria. 3000 1461 Mortimer's Cross, Edward Prince of Wales, and the Earl of Yorkists. 4000

Herefordshire, Pembroke, 1461 Bernard'sHeath, bear Margaret and the Earl of Warwick,

Lancastria. 2000 1461 Ferrybridge,

The Lancastrians, and Lord Fitzwalter, Ditto. 1461 Near Pontefract, The Lancastrians, and Lord Fauconbridge, Yorkists. 1461 Towton, The Lancastrians, and Edward IV.

Ditto. 36000 1 463 Hedgeley Moor, Sir R. Piercy, and Lord Montague,

Ditto. 1463 Hexham, Margaret, and Lord Montague,

Dilto. 1468 Northampton, The Lancastrians, and the Earl of Pembroke, Lancastria. 1 469 Banbury, Ditto,

Ditto. 1471 Barnet,

Edward IV. and the Earl of Warwick, Yorkists. 7000 1471 Tewksbnry, Edward IV. and Margaret,

Ditto. 1472 London,

Fauconbridge, and the Citizens of London, Citizens. 1485 Bosworth, Richard III. and the Earl of Richmond,

Richmond. 4000 1488 Stoke, Notts. Henry VII. and the Earl of Lincoln, Henry VII. 7000 1489 In Yorkshire,

Sir J. Egremont, and the Earl of Surrey, Surrey. 1497|Deptford,

Henry VII. and the Cornish Rebels, Henry VII. 2300 1513 Flouden,

James IV. K. of Scotland, and E. of Surrey, Surrey. 18000 1547 Pinkey, Scotland, The Duke of Somerset, and the Scots, Somerset. 13200 1549 Exeter,

Lord Russel, and the Devonshire Rebels. Russel. 1549 Mouse hole-Heath,

The Duke of Somerset, and the Norfolk Rebels Somerset. 2000 near Norwich, 1642 Oswestry,

The Royalists, and Parliamentarians, Royalists. 1642 Edgehill, Warw. Lord Lindsay, and the Parliamentarians, Indecisive. 1642 Brentford,

Charles I. and the Parliamentarians, Royalists. 1642 Montgomery, Ditto,

Parliament. 1643 Reading, Lord Essex, and Colonel Fielding,

Ditto. 1643 Thame, Lord Essex, and Colonel Urrey,

Royalists. 1643 Chalgrove, near

The Royalists, and Parliamentarians, Indecisive. Watlington, 1643 Stratton, Cornwall, Ditto,

Royalists. 1643 Lansdowu Hill, near The Royalists, and Sir W. Waller,

Ditto. Bath, 1643 Roundway Down, Lord Wilmot, and Sir W. Waller,

Ditto. near Devizes, 1643 Bristol,

The Royalists, and Parliamentarians, Ditto. 1643 Bisshill, near New- Charles I. and Lord Essex,

Indecisive. bury, 1643 Selby,

Sir T. Fairfax, and Colonel Bellasis, Parliament. 1643|Hopton Heath, Charles I. and the Parliamentarians, Royalists. 1643 Middlewich, Lord Byron, and the Parliamentarians, Royalists. 1643 Nantwich, Lord Byron, and Sir T. Fairfax,

Parliament. 1644 Newark,

Prince Rupert, and Sir J. Meldrum, Royalists. 1644 Marston Moor,

6000 Prince Rupert, and Sir T. Fairfax,

Parliament. 1644 Alresford, Lord Hopton, and Sir W. Waller,

Ditto. 1644 Crupredy Bridge, Charles I. and Sir W. Waller,

Ditto. near Banbury, 1644 Newbury, Charles I. and Lord Essex,

Indecisive 1644 Lest withiel, The Royalists, and Parliamentarians, Royalists. 1645 Islip, Oliver Cromwell, and the Royalists,

Parliament. 4002 1645 Naseby, Charles I. and Oliver Cromwell,

Ditto. 5000 1645 Lamport, Lord Goring and Sir T. Fairfax,

Ditto.

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Years Place.

Between whom the Battles were fought. | The Victors Killed. A.D. 1645 Chester, Charles I. and the Parliamentarians,

Parliament. 1645 Sherborn, Lord Digby and Colonel Copley,

Ditto. 1650 Between Edinburgh Oliver Cromwell, and the Scots,

Cromwell, 3000 and Leith, 1651 Worcester, Charles II. and Oliver Cromwell,

Ditto. 1885 Sedgeley Moor, near Duke of Monmouth, and Feversham,

Feversham Bridgewater, 1715 Preston,

General Wills, and the Scotch Rebels, Wills. 1715 Sheriff Muir, near Duke of Argyle, and the Scotch Rebels, Indecisive.

Domblain, 1745 Preston Pans, Sir J. Cope and the Scotch Rebels,

The Rebels 500 1746 Falkirk,

General Hawley, and the Scotch Rebels, Ditto. 1746\Culloden,

!Duke of Camberland, and the Scotch Rebels, Cumberland' 3000

Total 580719

It is observable, that in 40 battles out of 210, upwards of 580,000 human beings have been sacrificed to gratify that insatiable passion, "The love of rule, or thirst of power”; and such is the picture of misery presented to the thinking world by “restless ambition,” that all whose bosoms are not tainted with “ that sin by which the angels fell,” must shrink with horror from the ghastly colouring. Such, however, is the unwarrantable custom, the perverted principle, and the prevailing popular opinion, that “One murder makes a villaio : millions, a bero.”

John Baines, jun. Nottingham, January 5, 1818.

COMPARISON OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES OF ANCIENT

AND MODERN TIMES.

convince 40-40

To the Editor of the Northern Star. IN the study of history scarcely any thing suggests itself more readily to the mind than a comparison of the principal cities of ancient and modern times. Simple or primitive ideas are immediately received through the senses; but those of a complex nature, which constitute the mass of our knowledge, are formed and combined chiefly from description, and regulated by reflexion and analogy. When we read of those celebrated cities which at different periods have been the principal theatres of human action and the seats of human power and magnificence, the idea of London, Paris, Madrid, or some other large European capital with which we are acquainted, is ready to rush into the

mind. “But all the descriptions of the famous cities of antiquity are very imperfect : the extent of many of them is given by historians; and some of their public edifices are generally described, mentioned; but in regard to their population, it is seldom that any estimate of it can be made, except by collecting and comparing a variety of hints occasionally dropped and thinly scattered in the works of different authors. And in regard to the means by which their inhabitants were supported, their modes of private life, we are wholly left in the dark, unless we can grope

or at least

as well as

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