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THE NORTHERN STAR.
No. 13.--For JUNE, 1818.
Topography, Picturesque Scenery, &r.
AN ACCOUNT OF SHEFFIELD.
4.>40-40-10cno-goodoo SHEFFIELD, or SheAFFIELD, a town of considerable note for its mánu: factures, in the deanery of Doncaster, in the diocese and west-riding of the county of York, is pleasantly situated upon an eminence, at the confluence of the rivers Sheaf and Don, over each of which is a stone-bridge. That over the Don is called Lady’s-bridge, consisting of three arches, (and leads to Barnsley to the N. and Rotherham to the N. E.,) supposed to be so named from a religious house which anciently stood near it, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which was afterwards converted into almshouses for poor widows : but when the bridge was widened in 1768, these houses were pulled down. The Sheaf-bridge, rebuilt by His Grace Edward Duke of Norfolk, in 1769, consisting of one arch, leads to Sheffield Park, Handsworth, and other places to the east.
At the N.E. part of the town where the two rivers meet, anciently stood the Castle, which with the lordship of Sheffield (as appears by an ancient record) was granted to Thomas Lord Fournyvale, 39 Edward III., to be held by homage and knight-service, and the payment to the King and his heirs of two white hares yearly, on the feast of St. John the Baptist. This castle was demolished in the civil wars. A copy of the capitulation by one Saville, the governor, is still preserved.* There are very few vestiges of this ancient fabric now remaining, except that the streets and places thereabout still retain their original names, as Castle-hill, Castle-field, Castle-fold, Castle-green, Castle-lathe, &c.
• After the surrender at York, the Earl of Manchester marched down to Doncaster, and from thence sent Col. John Lilburn to take Tickhill Castle, which surrendered upon summons. The arms found in it were, one iron cannon mounted, and 100 muskets.
On August the first, the said Earl sent Major-General Crawford, and Col. Pickering, with part of his forces, viz. 1200 foot, and a regiment of horse, to Sheffield Castle. The castle was a place of great strength, both for its natural situation and fortifications ; for it stood on a triangle, guarded on two sides by the rivers Dun and Sheafe; a strong breast-work before the gates, which were palisadoed with a trench twelve feet deep, and eighteen feet wide, which was full of water; and a wall round of five yards thick. The Parliament forces being come near, fired three great shots, which did some execution in the Castle. Then they summoned them to surrender by a trampeter ; but
The river Don, which, being joined with the Sheaf, runs from hence to Rotherham, is navigable within about three miles of the town; and from thence, to, and above the town, a great number of works are erected upon it for forging, slitting, and preparing the iron and steel for the Sheffield manufactures; and for grinding knives, scissors, &c.
The public affairs of the town are under the inspection of seven of the principal in habitants, who are stiled Town-Collectors ; four of whom are of the established church, the other dissenters; and are elected by the freeholders.
The Corporation here concerns only the manufactory, and is stiled The COMPANY of CUTLERS of HÅLLAMSHIRE. It is governed by a master, two wardens, and two assistants.
The master is elected annually on the last Thursday in August, after having passed the inferior offices; and a remarkable venison-feast is given by him the first Thursday and Friday in September.
From the town-seal and other circumstances, it is probable Sheffield has been the staple for iron manufacture ever since the year 1297, especially for falchion heads, arrow piles, and an ordinary sort of knives, called Whittles; but in process of time, other material implements being invented, Sheffield and the neighbourhood prosecuted the cutlery trade, which consisted of various sorts of sheaths, knives, scissors, scythes, and sickles, with wonderful success.
they shot at him three times, and brandishing their swords cried out,“ they would have no parley," whereupon the Parliament forces advanced into the town, and lay there that night; in which and the next day they raised two batteries, within sixty yards of the enemy's outworks ; whereon the ordnance began to play, but doing no great execution, and the Castle standing out very resolutely, they were obliged to send to Lord Fairfax for an iron demi-cannon, and that great piece called the Queen's Pocket Pistol, which being brought and mounted, did the work so effectually, that on the 10th of August the garrison beat a parley, and the following articles were agreed on. Articles of Agreement, between the commanders authorised by Major-General Craw
ford, and Major Thomas Beaumont, Governor of Sheffield Castle, for surrendering
the same to the Right. Honourable the Earl of Manchester. ART. I. The Castle, with all the fire-arms, ordnance, and ammunition, all their fur. niture of war, aud all their provisions (except what is in the following articles), to be delivered to Major-General Crawford to morrow, by three o'clock in the afternoon, being the 11th of this instant August, without any diminution or embezzlement.
ART. II. That the Governor, and all other officers, shall march out of the Castle upon the delivery thereof, with their drums and colours, and each his own horse saddled, sword and pistol, to Pomfret Castle, or wheresoever they please, with a sufficient convoy or pass, for their security; the common soldiers to their own home, or where they please.
ART. III, That all officers and soldiers, so marching out, on this agreement, shall have liberty to carry with them their wives, children, and servants, with their own goods, properly belonging to them, and shall have all convenient accommodation for carrying the same away.
ART. IV. That the Lady Savill, and her children and family, with her own proper goods, shall and may pass with coaches, horses, and waggons to Thornbill, or elsewhere, with a sufficient guard, befitting her quality, and without injury to any of their persons, or plundering any of their goods or otherwise. She, they, or any of them, to go or stay at their own pleasure, until she or they be in a condition to remove themselves.
ART. V. That the gentlemen in the Castle being no soldiers, shall march out with each his own horse saddled, sword and pistot, and shall have liberty to remove their
About the year 1600 begun an ordinary sort of tobacco-boxes, and a silly sort of musical instrument called a jew-trump. In the reign of K. James I. anno 1624, an act of Parliament was obtained, constituting the present corporation and regulating the trade. In 1638 the cutlers' Hall was built, and files and razors first manufactured; in 1640 clasp or spring knives began to be made with iron handles, which in a little time they covered with horn, tortoise-shell, &c. In this century steel was made at Rotherham, and brought here.
A sermon was first preached at the cutlers' feast in 1709, and in 1726 the Hall was rebuilt in its present form.
“By a survey of the towne of Sheffield, the second daie of Januarie 1615, by twenty-four of the most sufficient inhabitants there, it appeareth that there are in the towne of Sheffield
goods, and to live in their own house, or elsewhere, without molestation; they con. forming to the ordinances of Parliament, and they shall have protection of the Earl of Manchester and Lords. And all officers and soldiers, who chuse to lay down their arms, shall have the same protection.
Art. VI. That the governor, officers, soldiers, gentlemen, and all others who are by this agreement to carry their own goods with them, shall have a week's time for removing the same; and in the mean time they are to be in the Castle, and secure from embezzlement. And this article is to be understood of all such goods as are at present within the Castle, or under the absolute command thereof.
ART. VII. That Kelm Homoe, now living in the Castle, shall have liberty to remove bis goods into the town, or elsewhere, without molestation.
ART. VIII. That the governor, officers, gentlemen, and all other persons, shall (according to the articles above-mentioned) march out without injury or molestation.
ART. IX. That hostages, such as Major Crawford shall approve, shall be delivered by the governor, upon signing the articles for delivery of the Castle, and safe return of the envoy; which hostages shall be returned safe, upon the performance hereof, unto such place as they desire. Signed by ns, Commissioners authorised by Major CRAWFORD,
at Sheffield, this i1th of August 1644.
Thos. ROBSON. Lady Savill was carried to Wentworth Wood bouse, bat delivered of a child in the coach on the road, from a fright on the night before, by the terrible fire made against the Castle,
The governor marched the next day out of the Castle, with 200 men. The booty they got in the Castle was sixteen thousand and fifty-nine granades, a great quantity of round shot, from the cannon to the minion, twelve barrels of powder, eight iron cannons, two mortars, five hundred arms, and four hundred pounds worth of provisions.
The country hereabouts gave the Parliament's army 500 pounds, for their good services against the place, and a party of soldiers under Col. Bright was left to keep it.
August the 17th, 1645, Mr. Edward Gill was governor of Sheffield Castle.--Mr. John Bright of Carbrook, was a colonel of foot, governor of York, and one of the committee for the west riding of Yorkshire.- Henry Westby of Bamfield, and William Blyrh of Norton-Lees, were captains in the Parliament army.
“2207 people, of which there are
“ 725 which are not able to live without the charity of their neighbours ; these are all begging poore.
6 100 Householders which relieve others; these (though the best sort) are but poore artificers, among them is not one which can keep a teame on his own land, and not above tenn who have grounds of their own that will keep
6160 Householders not able to relieve others; these are such (though they beg not) as are not able to abide the storme of one fortnight's sickness, but would be thereby driven to beggary.
1222 Children and Servants of the said householders, the greatest part of them are such as live of small wages, and are constrained to work sore, to provide them necessaries...
"AN ACCOUNT TAKEN IN THE YEAR 1736. Families.
.246" The parish of Sheffield is divided into three districts, viz. the township of Sheffield ; the chapelry of Ecclesall, which contains the townships of Upper Hallam, Nether Hallam, and Ecclesal Byerlow; and the chapelry of Attercliff, which contains the township of Attercliff eum Darnall and Brightside Byerlow. It extends about 9 miles from N.E. to S.W. and about 6 miles from E. to W. and 5 miles from N. to S. It is bounded towards the S.W. and W. by the Moors of Derbyshire, and the chapelry of Bradfield ; to the N. W. and N. and N.E. by the parish of Ecclesfield; to the N.E by E. and E. by Tinsley and the parish of Handsworth; and to the S. E. and S. by the parishes of Beighton and Norton.
It has two chapels of ease under Trinity Church, viz. at Attercliff, 1} mile N. E., and Ecclesal, 3 miles S. W.
Perhaps there is no town in the British empire, that is comparable in point of magnitude and extent to Shefield, which cannot boast of a greater number of public buildings. Surrounded by a country that abounds with beautiful and romantic scenery, it possesses few of those internal attractions which are objects of curiosity or interest to the eye of the artist. Many circumstances might be enunerated in the history of this town to show, that it is neither owing to a want of taste for the fine arts nor to any narrow and selfish feelings, that it is so deficient in this respect. Though it is a place of the first importance as a manufacturing town, wealth has never, we believe, been considered as one of its characteristics
. Perhaps its inland situation may have been unfavourable to the acquisition of those splendid and overgrown fortunes which are to be found in several of the surrounding manufac
turing districts. This circumstance alone is sufficient to account for the ab'sence of those architectural decorations for which many rich and opulent towns are eminent. Amongst those which it does possess, the following are 'worthy of notice :-
"TRINITY CHURCH. This Church was built in the reign of King Henry I. about the year 1100. and (in the records of York called St. Peters) is a very handsome Gothic structure. Within, it consists of a nave, two side-aisles, and a large chancel ; on the north side of the altar is the vestry and library; on the south are three monuments of the Earls of Shrewsbury, of the Talbot family, viz. one nearest the altar, in the Gothic taste, made of composition of plaster, ‘upon which are the effigies in alabaster of George, fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, in his installation rodes, and his two wives, one on each side, their heads upon cushions, and their hands in a praying posture.
On a narrow brass plate all round the top of the tomb, is the following inscription in Latin :HERE IS INTERRED THE ILLUSTRIOUS MAN GEORGE EARL SHREWSBURY,
WESHFORD AND WATERFORD, LORD TALBOT, FURNIVAL, VERDON AND STRANGE, AND ALSO LORD CHIEF STEWARD OF THE KING'S HOUSEHOLD TO THE INVINCIBLE KING HENRY THE 'VIII. AND KNIGHT OF THE MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER.
Here also lieth THE BODYS OF THE LADY'S ANNE AND ELIZABETH, HIS TWO WIVES,
ONE OF WHICH WAS DAUGHTER OF LORD HASTINGS FIRST LORD OF THE BEDCHAMBER TO THE MOST SERENE KING EDWARD THE IV. THE OTHER WAS DAUGHTER OF SIR RICHARD WALDEN KNT.
THIS GEORGE DIED IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD MDXXXVIII. Opposite to the above is a lofty monument erected against the south wall, for George the sixth Earl of Shrewsbury (grandson to the last-mentioned George); this also is a composition of plaster : on the base part lieth the effigy of the Earl in a coat of mail. This monument was erected in the Earl's life-time, and the long inscription in Latin, now much defaced, is dedicated TO CHRIST, THE BEST AND GREATEST; it was chiefly intended to vindicate his innocence of a suspected familiarity with the captive Queen of Scotland, who was delivered to him in the year 1568, in whose custody (as a prisoner at large) she was entertained honourably and splendidly till the war in 1584; not without great expense to himself, and anxious care, hardly to be expressed, who under Divine providence, in so difficult an affair, so connected with the public utility, acquitted himself so to his praise, that envy herself ought to judge him faithful, as well as circumspect and cautious. Though he often heard himself evil spoken of by envious and spiteful men, on account of a suspected familiarity with the captive Queen, yet he was so far remote from such baseness, that when the said Queen came to be tried at Fotheringay Castle, Queen Elizabeth nominated him one of the peers to try and punish her supposed guilt, and after judgment passed assigned to him the execution of the same sentence, Her Majesty's order, guarded with the great seal of England, being given him for that purpose.