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This illustrious man by birth, but more so from a faithful discharge of his public posts--of the greatest fame both abroad and at home, of remarkable loyalty to his Sovereign and country, and in the highest honoar with all ranks of men; on the 18th of November 1590, with calmness and tranquillity, having a firm belief in Christ, resigned his life to the eternal God who gave and prolonged the same to a ripe old age.
Betwixt the two former, is a plain tomb, without any inscription, but supposed to have been designed for some branches of the Shrewsbury family, as on the south side of it are Gilbert's arms, empaled with his wife's Mary, daughter of Sir William Cavendish of Chatsworth. Again, Gilbert's arms empaled, with a plain shield.
On the north side are the arms of Francis, eldest son of George the 6th Earl (who died in his father's life-time, without issue), empaled with his wife's arms, daughter to William Earl of Pembroke.
The following inscription, in raised capital letters, is upon the lead in which the body of Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury is wrapped, in the vault underneath:
THE, BODY. OF.
TALBOT. COMYN. OF. BADENAGH.
OF. CORFHAM. FVRNIVAL. VERDON. A.
EYRE. TRENT. NORTHWARD: WHO.
DIED. Y. 7. OF. MAY. 1616. AGED. 64. Henry Howard, Esq. by order of His Grace Edward Duke of Norfolk, in the year 1774, got a new oak-coffin made, in which the above is now enclosed.
The most ancient epitaph now to be met with in this church is upon plate near the communion-table, in the following words :-Here lyeth Elizabeth doughter of Thomas Erle of Ormond and Lore his wyf somtyme wyf to the Lord Mountjoye which Elizabeth deceased the xx day of February the year of our Lord Mcccccx On whose soul then have mercy men.
In 1700 was interred here William Walker, who from strong circumstances, there is reason to believe, was the executioner of King Charles I. (See Gentleman's Mag. vol. xxxvii. p. 548. and vol. xxxi. p. 10.
On the north side of the chancel is a monument to the memory of Judge Jessop, and his Lady, of Broomhall, near this town, and on the south side is another to the memory of George Bamforth, Esq. of High-house.
On a flat stone in the west end of the church-yard is the following singular epitaph, in rude characters, without any date :- This is John Bate his stone. J. B. M. B. R. B. B. A. H. In memory of John Bate, ye
best Mettil Button Caster.
At the east end of this church-yard, on a small flat stone, is recorded the following memento of longevity Here lies the body of William Congreve, who died Nov. 17. 1757, aged 111 years 8 moitths.
Near the church, on the north side, is the following curious epitaph: " In memory of Richard Smith, who died April 6, 1757, aged 52.
“At thirteen years I went to sea
To try my fortune there;
To all my interest there.
Then, Lord, have mercy on us all.”
“ Here is interred, Joseph Newton, who wished to live peaceably with all men. Born July 12, 1682, died June 10, 1767. He lived in the reigns of 12 crowned heads of England,
“ Learn, o deluded man! before too late,
Short is the date of youth, of life the date;
And think each day you live you live to die." On the north side of the church-yard is recorded the following inscription : “ Here lieth the body of John Burgin, (he was bellman of this town day and night 30 years,) who departed this life March 19, 1752, aged 63.
"To death we must all submit,
There is nothing can us save,
Can keep us from the grave.' The vicar's income chiefly depends upon the small tythes, Easter dues, and fees for marriages, churchings, and burials; there being but little glebe belonging to the church. He has three assistants, who are elected by the twelve capital burgesses (as they are stiled), as being trustees for Queen Mary's donation, whose office, according to the grant, was to assist the vicar in sacramentis et sacramentalibus in parochiali ecclesia Sheffieldnsis, et parochianis ibidem.
ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL. St. Paul's chapel is an elegant modern structure, in the Grecian style. It was begun to be erected in 1720: but, through some unhappy misunderstanding, was not consecrated till 1740. It was founded through the
benefaction of £1000, from Mr. Robert Downes, a silversmith in this, town, together with the subscriptions of several other gentlemen in the town and neighbourhood. It was finished in 1771. It has a tower at the west end with a small bell. Within, it has a good organ, erected in 1755, by Mr. Snetzler ; the galleries are supported by two rows of pillars in the Corinthian order. It is a chapel of ease to Trinity-church.
(for an Engraving of which, see Frontispiece,) Is a very handsome long stone-building, and has two wings, with a semicircular projection in front and a square one behind. It is finely situated, half a mile to the north-west of the town, and commands a beautiful view of the Old Park wood, and the valley below, and looks in an oblique direction over Bridgehouses. As yet, there are not many buildings in the immediate vicinity, but it is probable that if the state of trade should improve in this town, it would soon extend itself so far as to bring the Infirmary within its precincts. It was began to be erected in the year 1793. On Wednesday Sept. 3d, the first stone was laid by Richard Swallow, Esq. of Attercliffe, as deputed by Mrs. Fell, of New Hall, a lady who generously gave one thousand pounds towards the institution. On this occasion a grand procession of the friends of the Infirmary, the various public bodies, &c. moved slowly on through an amazing concourse of people, who hailed the day as secured to the best purposes of humanity. Every feeling of mind glowed with delight, and blessed the benevolent promoters of this institution for the relief of suffering indigence. When the procession reached the ground, the plate on which was the following inscription, was deposited under the stone, which was suspended by pullies for that purpose :
“ Sheffield General Infirmary, for the reception of sick and lame poor of any county. Richard Swallow, Esq. deputed by Mrs. Fell, of New-Hall, near Sheffield, laid the first stone, the fourth day of September, in the year of our Lord MDCCXCIII. John Rawstorne, Architect. Glory be to God on High; and on Earth Peace. Good-will towards Men.”
Prayer was afterwards solemnly offered up to Almighty God on the occasion by the Rev. James Wilkinson, vicar of Sheffield, and the Rev. Mr. Chadwick, then master of the Free Grammar-School in this town.
Several of the neighbouring nobility honoured the patrons of the institution with their presence on this occasion.
The following are the present officers of the institution :-President, His Grace the Duke of Norfolk.-Vice Presidents, His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, the Right Hon. Earl Fitzwilliam. ---Treasurers, Messrs. Parker, Shores, and Blakelock, Messrs. Walkers, Eyre, and Stanley-Dr. Benjamin Wainwright, Honorary Physician for Life. Hugh Cheney, M. D. Honorary Surgeon for Life.-Physicians, Dr. William Younge, Dr. Arnold James Knight.-Surgeons, Mr. William Staniforth, Mr. Charles Hawksley Webb, Mr. William Staniforth, jun.--House Surgeon and Apothecary, Mr. Robert Ernest.--Matron, Mrs. Mary Margrave.-Secretary, Mr. John Dawson.
Among the benefactors and patrons of distinction whose names are found in the reports of the institution, are, His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, His
Grace the Duke of Devonshire, His Grace the Duke of Leeds, the Right Hon. Lord Eardley, the Right Hon. Earl Fitzwilliam, the Right Hon. Lord Milton, the Right Hon. Earl of Harewood, the Right Hon. Lord Viscount Galway, the Right Hon. the Earl of Scarborough, the Right Hon. H. Lascelles, the Right Hon. Earl Manvers, Sir Sitwell Sitwell, Bart., Sir Montague Burgoyne, Bart., and Sir W. C. Bagshaw, Bart.
Since the first establishment of the Infirmary, many of its most strenuous supporters have gone to their long home, but it would give us great pleasure to be able to record some more lasting tribute to their memories than that which oral tradition will be able to supply.
It is impossible in this place to pass over the name of the late Dr. Brown, whose name will be remembered by those of our readers who knew him, with emotions nearly allied to religious veneration, as connected with this invaluable establishment, over whose birth as well as every stage of its progress to maturity, so long as he lived, he presided with paternal cure. His unwearied energy of mind, the great benevolence of his heart, the engaging suavity of his disposition, and the urbanity of his manners, gave him peculiar qualifications for becoming very extensively useful as a medical practitioner and a public-spirited citizen. Indeed such was his indefatigable attention to whatever was connected with the prosperity and happiness of his
own town, that he has been called, not inappropriately, the Howard of Sheffield.
A very neat marble bust of him, executed by F. L, CHANTREY, Esq., is placed in the committee-room of the Infirmary.
Nothing, we are persuaded, is necessary but to mention as another most invaluable friend to the Infirmary the name of the Rev. James Wilkinson, to excite recollections of high interest and pleasure in the inhabitants of Sheffield generally. He for many years acted with great ability, candour, impartiality, and decision in the capacity of a magistrate for this town, and by his ready attention to and cordial co-operation in support of every charitable undertaking, has left indelible impressions of respect on the minds of his раrishioners of every class and condition in life.
It is now twenty-one years since the Sheffield General Infirmary was opened for the sick and lame poor of every nation. The experience of that period has proved the inestimable value of such an institution in this populots neighbourhood ; and, in proportion to the means afforded by its patrons, the benefits derived from it by many thousands of sufferers may be said to have justified all reasonable expectations of its success. It is true that in this magnificent structure, planned with a foresight which anticipated the increasing wants and increasing liberality of generations to come, there are accommodations for a larger number of patients than have at any time been recommended for admission, yet the average of persons received into the house, for relieved as out-patients, has been limited only by the funds of the charity itself. Meanwhile it is the regular practice of the establishment to give every patient the utmost advantage of medical or surgical assistance, with every necessary personal comfort, for whatever length of time the case may repuire.
SUBTERRANEAN FOREST ON HATFIELD CHACE, &c.
-.-.-om rudo.qos HATFIELD CHACE, extending over a space of 180,000 acres, in the counties of York, Lincoln, and Nottingham, was considered the largest in VOL, II.
England. Formerly half of it was entirely waste, being covered with water of so great a depth as to be navigable for large boats laden with corn or plaster ; but by the extraordinary exertions of Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, a native of Holland, and his followers, in the reign of Charles I., it has been, with the exception of two large morasses, converted into good arable land, interspersed with numerous farm-houses. One of these morasses or mosses, (as they are denominated by the Rev. R. Rennie, *) containing about 10,000 acres, is situated a little to the eastward of Hatfield; and the other, which is nearly as extensive, almost adjoins to the town of Thorne on the north-east. The level of the latter is considerably above that of the surrounding land, and yet it is so soft and rotten as to be almost impassable in the driest weather. In the middle of it are several large pits of water, one of which has been ascertained to be thirty feet deep to the solid ground. By means of drainage, however, it appears that this moss is gradually becoming lower and firmer ; for within the memory of some of the inhabitants of Crowle, in the Isle of Axholme, the church at Thorne was totally hid from their view by it; but now it is visible from thence, almost to the base. It may, therefore, be rationally expected that by perseverance in drainage, this, as well as the Hatfield waste, will eventually become so firm as to be capable of cultivation, and thereby yield considerable benefit to posterity.
Cranberries, of a very fine flavour, are found on these moors, though they are but thinly scattered. A sweet-smelling herb called gale also grows on them, and a plant named silk or cotton-grass, from its white tuft on the top resembling the finest cotton-wool, which is used by some people as a sube stitute for feathers, to stuff their beds.
The peats or turves which are dug here, when thoroughly dried, afford fuel to the poorer inhabitants ; and being conveyed by water to York and other places, are sold at a high price for the purpose of lighting fires.
Surrounded by the Hatfield waste, and about two miles distant from the village, is a remarkable place called Lindholme, which was formerly the abode of an ancient hermit named William of Lindholme, who passed among the superstitious peasantry for a cunning man or conjuror, and of whom many wonderful anecdotes are yet related. This solitary spot stands in the midst of about sixty acres of firm sandy ground, capable of producing barley, oats, or peas.
It is said that sparrows are never seen here; with what truth, it is not easy to determine. A very circumstantial account of this place, written by George Stovin, Esq. of Crowle, and dated August 31, 1727, may be seen by referring to Miller's History of Doncaster, or the Gentleman's Magazine of 1747, page 23. Various have been the opinions of authors respecting the origin of peat
them to be coeval with the deluge, while others ascribe to them a much later date.t The Hatfield moss has been unquestionably formed on the ruins of a forest which was destroyed by the Romans
, The amazing quantity of large trees, roots, leaves, acorns, fir-cones, and hazel-nuts that are continually found buried therein, the Roman coins and axes that have been discovered at the very bottom of it, and its near vici
• See his “ Essays on the Natural History and Origin of Peat Mosa,!' which contain much curious and interesting matter.'
+ It is generally allowed, however, that peat moss is either a congeries of ligneous or aquatic plants or of both. : “To these two sources," says Reppie, “all the mosses in the north of Europe may be traced.”