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have “turned like the dog to bis (Ezekiel xxxiii. 18.) “ If thou forvomit, and like the sow that was sake him, he will cast thee off for washed to her wallowing in the ever.” (1 Chron. xxviii. 9.) Final mire.” The unclean spirit, with his apostasy, then, is possible. It will hellish train of attendants, has re hereafter bring upon its subjects entered them, and their last state has great and endless misery; and if become worse than the first." What there are degrees of misery in hell, are some of the probable causes of may we not conclude that that of this sad apostatizing from God ? Un- damned apostates will be most deep watchfulness, levity, the indulgence and poignant? O how will this reof a censorious spirit, an over-regard flection, among many others, for for the esteem of men, undue lean ever sting them to the quick! ing to worldly things and affairs, “ Once I was in the way to heaven, to the neglect of the means of grace, and might have been there; but I private communion with God, and wickedly relinquished the service of other duties. In what a deplorable my God. I basely trampled upon state must those individuals be who the blood of the blessed Saviour ! have entirely drawn back from the I perversely resisted the calls of the ways of God! If some of them are Spirit to return, and refused every altogether so unconcerned as that offer of restoring grace; and now little or no impression can now be I am a damned and miserable aposmade upon them, what is this but tate!” There " their worm will an awful numbness or insensibility never die, and the fire never be of spirit, from which, if they are quenched.” “ Such as turn aside not soon aroused here, they will be to their crooked ways, the Lord will shortly aroused in eternity to their lead them forth with the workers of unspeakable anguish and torment? iniquity.” How unhappy now must others of Reader, art thou a backslider ? them be, who have some degree of Hast thou foolishly and basely refeeling or sensibility left! This can- linquished thy Saviour's cause and not but be the case, since they have service? If so, thou art in danger incurred, as it were, double guilt of being doubly damned. Return, and criminality; and so are exposed or soon thou wilt sink into perdition! to a more than ordinary measure Be not stiffnecked and stubborn ; of God's displeasure, and final for thou must either hend or break! wretchedness. “ It is an evil thing Pray earnestly to God that he would and bitter that they have forsaken thoroughly affect and subdue thy the Lord their God." Some back heart; and that no rest inay be exsliders keep up their profession ; but perienced by thee until thou have it they show by their worldliness, neg- from the right quarter ; until, on ligence, and other things, that they thy, penitently returning to God, are in a fallen state. Some keep to- and again believingly receiving the lerably close to the form, who have, atonement, all thy backslidings are nevertheless, lost the "power of healed, and thou art once more godliness ;" for appearances may be made happy in his love! He says, kept up, and the instituted means of “ Return unto me, ye backsliding grace somewhat regularly attended, children, and I will heal all your backwhere all real delight in the worship slidings; and I will receive you graand service of God is gone.

ciously, and love you freely.” Here, There is an awful possibility of then, there is an opportunity for falling, not only foully, but finally. thee to return. If thou wouldest ra. Individuals once in a saved state, ther live than die for ever, embrace once fairly in the way to heaven, it without any further trifling or may draw back to perdition,-may delay. Every hour that is carelessly fall so far as to lose their souls. spent in a backsliding state renders “ When the righteous turneth from your case the more miserable and his righteousness, and committeth hazardous. iniquity, he shall even die thereby."

JOHN WESLEY BARRITT.

356

HORÆ BIBLICÆ. (No. XV.)

ST. PAUL'S SHIPWRECK. To the Editor of the Wesleyan-Methodist Magazine. Having recently had occasion to rian, Adria might suit any part of make some reference to Malta, the the waters between Crete and Sidisputed point, whether Melita cily. or Meleda was the scene of St. 2. Dr. Hale's second argument Paul's shipwreck, recurred to my concerns the tempest which he supmind. Now it might seem pre. poses to have come “ from the sumptuous in me to offer any argu- south-east quarter.” Many of Dr. ments on a question which has Shaw's and Dr. Clarke's remarks occupied the attention of so many concerning the tempestuous winds learned biblical critics, were it not called “ Levanters" correspond that practical experience frequently with what I have experienced in elucidates a geographical matter these parts. These winds vary from more satisfactorily than the most the north-east to the south-east, and profound researches made under blow through the whole sweep of other circumstances. It was my the Mediterranean. But when they fortune, or misfortune, to encoun rush down from the high mountains ter a tempest precisely similar to of Candia, they exercise a peculiar St. Paul's euroclydon, in the same influence upon that neighbourhood. sea, and also nearly to follow what To illustrate this by an example : I suppose to have been the track of Vessels sailing from Malta to Alexthe Apostle, to no great distance andria generally steer for Candia, from the place of his shipwreck. I and catching sight of it, pass to the find that Bishop, Pearce, Calmet, south, taking their departure from Dr. Shaw, Dr. Adam Clarke, &c., the little island of Gozzi (the ancontend for the generally received cient Claudia). In pursuing this tradition, that St. Paul was wrecked course, we had come within eighty at Melita (now Malta) ; whilst Mr. miles of Candia, sailing with a Bryant and Dr. Hales plead for north-west wind, when we Meleda ; and this latter opinion is en suddenly met by a tempest from the tertained by many in the present day. east-north-east. We sailed in an

With some observations upon the Austrian vessel, badly manned, and euroclydon, allow me to take up all with little cargo, of a slight struethe arguments of Dr. Hales, and ture, and exceedingly buoyant in endeavour to show that they cannot the water. In a very short time, stand the test of a strict ordeal. every inch of canyass was taken

1. His first argument relates to the down, and the vessel was “caught," Adriatic Sea. But “Adria" (the or borne away, by the storm. On word used by the writer of the Acts other occasions the seamen have of the Apostles) was not limited to put the ship's nose to the wind," the Gulf of Venice; for Lucan ap- and made her “ lie to." But as plies it (lib. v. 6, 14) to the lonian the sacred historian says, (Acts Sea; and another author to the Si- xxvii. 15,)." she could not bear up cilian. Thus also Ptolemy says, into the wind;” that is, “ face the (lib. iii., cap. 4,) “that Sicily was storm ;” and so we let her drive.” bounded on the east by the Adria- Such was precisely the case with us, tic; and (cap. 16) that Crete (now when we were about one hundred Candia) was washed on the west by miles east of the Apostle's situation. the Adriatic; and Strabo says, (lib. We“scudded with bare poles," at the vii.,) that the Ionian Gulf is a part rate of twelve or fourteen miles an of that which, in his time, was hour. It was in this predicament called the Adriatic Sea.” So that, that I first lifted my head above in an indefinite manner of speaking, the companion, to see what was like that used by the sacred histo- going on. Though it was then ten

were

.

was

;

o'clock in the forenoon, it appeared shoal-banks." I think the Doctor to be only twilight ; for the sea and is wrong in this last assumption ; heaven were mixed together. There for this was the fear of our Master, were no large waves, as in the At- though we were in a more open part lantic, on which a vessel majestically of the sea than St. Paul was, being rides, like a duck, now ascending considerably farther to the west. to the heavens, and then descending Besides, from the Apostle's situation to the bottom of the abyss ; but “under Crete,” he doubtless had the water appeared like a vast boil the blast still more from the north, ing caldron, occasioned by the which would have driven them distruggling of the former swell rectly towards the much-dreaded with the present storm. “ Do you quicksands of Africa. As soon as see that?" said the Master, a little the storm moderated a little, and Frenchman, in the utmost conster- long before they dared to turn about, nation. “ Yes," I replied ;

““ but I

our crew hoisted a little sail, in order think you might turn her head the to keep the vessel to the north, as other way, and not go back again the wind gradually veered round to to Malta.” Would you wish to that point. Where large latine sails drown us all ?” he shrieked out, in are used," slackening sail” (as the accents which forbade a reply; and Greek word imports) is still practised I thought it prudent to sound a in some places; the greater part of retreat, especially as there the canvass being then made fast some danger that a wave would upon deck, and one end of it hoisted force me downward more quickly a little in order to catch the wind. than I liked. It happened as I ex. It is thus indeed very loose, but pected; for the waves driven by the answers sufficiently to steer by; and blast soon gained the ascendancy, thus the Apostle's ship was proba. and beat upon us tumultuously. bly kept a little to the north of the Attempting to lie down in bed re- wind; and it is clear that a little resembled a gentle toss in a blan- sail may be carried when flying ket; for the vessel was like a cork before the wind, which would be dancing in a bubbling caldron. torn in pieces if in opposition to it. But ever and anon a terrible crash In this way we were driven till was heard, as a sea struck her within sight of Malta, though a quarter; and then the little little to the south of its latitude ; light given by the bull's eye whereas St. Paul, who was was changed into complete dark- “many days” in the foul weather, ness. Then there was the rushing got to the north, and was wrecked of water overhead; for the waves on a reef opposite to a bay which dow passed over in a sheet from still bears his name. The stern to stem, clearing the deck, seas” or currents meeting here have and forcing an outlet for themselves been easily accounted for. through the bulwarks; whilst the 3. Dr. Hales's third argument conshouts of the mariners, and the cerus the epithet "barbarous," which working of the pumps, all told me was not applicable to the celebrity that it was the euroclydon. How of Malta at that time.” But it has St. Paul's crew were able to “take up been clearly proved by the learned the boat,” (verse 17,) I know not; that “ barbarous” was a term apfor it was with the greatest difficulty plied to a foreigner, unacquainted that ours could be kept on board, with the polished languages of the though lashed to the deck and the day, and not to a savage, as we use two masts. Dr. Clarke does not it in the English. So it is employed understand what is meant by, “and by Ovid, Herodotys, and St. Paul fearing lest they should fall into the himself; (1 Cor. xiv. 11, &c.;) and so quicksands, (or syrts,) strake sail ; the Carthaginians (from whom the (verse 17 ;) because he says that it Melitans were descended) were called is wrong to suppose that the vessel “ barbarous” by the Romans. was driven “ down to the African 4. The Doctor's fourth argument coast, and near to the syrts, or is thus stated: “ The circumstance

out

" two

of the viper agrees with the damp plenty of wood lying about ? for the and woody island of Meleda, but shipwrecked crew could easily have not with the dry and rocky island of made one for themselves. And Malta, in which there are no ser- what the kindness of “receiving us pents now, and none in the time of all because of the present rain and Pliny." But we observe, (1.) That cold,” had it been only to allow them the viper inhabits sand and rocks as to stand round a fire in the open air? well as other places ; and is found Receiving” means, “ entertaining plentifully in “ dry and sandy” as a guest, * and is thus constantly Egypt. (2.) Though Pliny knew of used in the New Testament. This none, there still might be some barbarous or foreign people, there, especially as St. Paul's Bay is therefore, hastened to the shore, rein a lonely part, at a distance from ceived the shipwrecked crew, enterany town in the island. There not tained them in some large house or being any in the present day proves store-room, and made a fire, which nothing as to former times; for would be expensive, and which is selthere are no wolves now in England, dom needful in Malta “ because of though it was onceoverrun with them. the cold.” During the two most But, (3) It seems to have escaped wintry months of the year (in the notice of critics, that there is which I was on the island) we did neither soil nor space for fire-wood not light a fire except for cooking, to grow in Malta ; and it is accord- though sometimes it was very chill. ingly all brought from Sicily in fag- ing, especially during the rain. The gots and bundles, especially the word translated “chief man" (ver. 7) latter. As to St. Paul's having was the proper title of the Governor

gathered a bundle of sticks," it is of the island; and his entertaining a misconception. This Greek verb two hundred and seventy-six peris no where else used in the Testa sons courteously for three days, ment; and in this passage it has shows at once his substance and been turned out of its ordinary sig- hospitality: a thing quite impractinification, to suit the fa liar idea, cable to a savage or a desert island, (simple enough to us, but very mys- like Meleda. Besides, Publius is a terious at St. Paul's Bay, where Roman name. As Governor he had there are no trees growing,) of ga- a very good reason for entertaining thering rotten twigs. Its meaning with splendour so many Roman solin profane authors is, to “ turn to. diers and citizens; and he evidently gether or in a heap ;" so also, “to provided for their sustenance during stir up a multitude or faction," &c.; the whole winter, (for which subseand therefore simply denotes that guent expense he would be reimPaul raked together a number (not bursed, and equipped them with a bundle) of the half-burned sticks ship and provisions for Italy. (the Greek word denotes “ dry or 5. Dr. 'Hales's last argument is warm,” as ready for kindling, and worse than any of the former. It is never signifies wet wood,” as must deduced from the disease with which have been the case if gathered in the Publius's father was afflicted. This, rain) that were lying round the fire, he says, might well suit a country and put them on it: when a viper that is woody and damp, &c.; but (probably brought with the sticks was not likely to affect a dry, rocky, from Sicily in a torpid state, because and remarkably healthy island, like of the cold) came out of the heat," Malta. The healthiness of Malta is or hot bundle, in which it had be

a vagary of the imagination. Discome animated, in order to escape eases, similar to that which the sathe flames into which the Apostle cred writer has mentioned, are frewas about to throw it; and then guent and very fatal. A brother darting forward, "fastened upon his Missionary, who had suffered dreadhand."

This is quite intelligible: fully in himself and family from else how would the “no little kind. such diseases, used to smile at his ness” have been manifested in mere- baving been recommended to Malta ly kindling a fire, if there had been for the establishment of his health ;

and he told me, on leaving, to be nothing at all to do with Syracuse, sure to tell the parties concerned to unless they wished to lengthen out send no more invalids to such a pa- the voyage, (of which they must radise: an injunction to which I have been nearly tired,) and take a strictly attended.

trip into the open sea, which the Besides these remarks, we may ancients always avoided when posask how a large vessel came to win- sible. Besides, as there was so large ter in a desert isle, like Meleda ? a company on board, common pruThe officers and crew must have dence and economy would teach been deplorably foolish to do so, as them to take the shortest route to we do not read of the “ Castor and their journey's end. Pollox” being driven out of her As St. Paul was tossed about course; but, on the contrary, she “ many days” in Adria, it appears must have had fine sailing weather, probable that the wind drove them according to St. Paul's reckoningtowards Africa ; but that when the before the storm came on. Or how storm moderated a little, they was Meleda on the road from Alex- luffed northwards ; thus making a andria ? St. Paul's subsequent voy- zig-zag course towards Malta. At age puts the question out of all all events, it seems quite clear, that doubt ; for he went first to Syracuse, he was wrecked near the spot which and then to Rhegium, which was bears bis 'name; where the Papists the regular course from Malta to have erecced a small chapel, to mark Rome. Whereas, had they sailed the site of the miracle. from Meleda, they would have had

R. MAXWELL MACBRAIR.

REVIEW.

Remains, Theological and Poetical, of the Rev. Thomas Roberts, A. M. With

a Memoir of the Author, by James Buckley; and a General Preface, by George Cubitt. 12mo. pp. xii., 468. Simpkin and Marshall. Mason.

There is a very natural (we may records, likewise, furnish most imadd, a a very proper) feeling of un- portant contributions to more genewillingness to allow any who have ral history, when the time for writserved their generation by the willing it arrives, just as the more of God, especially if it has been limited descriptions of topography their service to minister the word of supply the materials for far more life and salvation, to pass away extended surveys. 'The future his from their scene of labour and suf- torian of Methodism, for instance, fering without some record of what will derive invaluable assistance they have been, and what they have from the “Lives” and “Remains” done. And these records are often of its successive Ministers. not only exceedingly interesting, As Mr. Roberts was born in 1765, but equally instructive. By means called into the Wesleyan itinerancy of them, they who are dead still in 1786, and died in 1832, he may continue to speak; and they who be regarded as one of the connecthave succeeded them, in this man- ing links between the earlier and ner receive an impressive testimony present race of Methodist Preachers ; as to the principles which must give one of those who, having received vitality and power to their services, the depositum from those to whom the rules by which they are to be it had been first entrusted, lived to governed, and the objects to the see it pass unimpaired into the hands attainment of which they are to be of a younger generation, who, thankdirected. What may be termed the ful for the example of their fathers, succession of sacred literature, con- desire to follow them, as they foltributes, in no ordinary degree, to lowed Christ. the succession of sacred men. Such Nearly one-half of the volume

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