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credidimus, ut nulli omnino facultatem abnegandam putaremus, qui vel observationi Christianorum, vel ei religioni mentem suam dederet, quam ipse sibi aptissimam esse sentiret; ut possit nobis summa divinitas, cuius religioni 5 liberis mentibus obsequimur, in omnibus solitum favorem suum benevolentiamque praestare. Quare scire dicationem tuam convenit, placuisse nobis, ut amotis omnibus' omnino conditionibus, quae prius scriptis ad officium tuum datis super Christianorum nomine videbantur, nunc libere 10 ac simpliciter unusquisque eorum, qui eandem observandae religioni Christianorum gerunt voluntatem, citra ullam inquietudinem ac molestiam sui id ipsum observare contendant. Quae sollicitudini tuae plenissime significanda esse credidimus, quo scires, nos liberam atque 15 absolutam colendae religionis suae facultatem iisdem Christianis dedisse. Quod cum iisdem a nobis indultum esse pervideas, intelligit dicatio tua, etiam aliis religionis suae vel observantiae potestatem similiter apertam et liberam pro quiete temporis nostri esse concessam, 20 ut in colendo, quod quisque delegerit, habeat liberam facultatem, quod nobis placuit, ut neque cuiquam honori, neque cuiquam religioni aliquid a nobis detractum videatur. Atque hoc insuper in persona Christianorum statuendum esse censuimus, quod si eadem loca, 25 ad quae antea convenire consuerant, de quibus etiam datis ad officium tuum litteris certa antehac forma fuerat comprehensa, priore tempore aliqui vel a fisco nostro, vel ab alio quocunque videntur esse mercati, eadem Christianis sine pecunia et sine ulla pretii petitione, postposita 30 omni frustratione atque ambiguitate, restituantur. Qui etiam dono fuerunt consecuti, eadem similiter iisdem Christianis quantocius reddant. Et iam vel hi qui emerunt, vel qui dono fuerunt consecuti, si petiverint de nostra 1 Eus. Η. Ε. x. 5 ἀφαιρεθεισῶν παντελῶς τῶν αἱρέσεων.

reason to lay down this law, that no man whatever should be refused any legal facility, who has given up his mind either to the observance of Christianity, or to the worship which he personally feels best suited to himself; to the end that the supreme Divinity, whose worship we freely 5 follow, may continue in all things to grant us his wonted favour and goodwill. Wherefore your Devotion should know that it is our pleasure to abolish all conditions whatever which appeared in former charters directed to your office about the Christians, that every one of those who 10 have a common wish to observe the Christian worship may now freely and unconditionally endeavour to observe the same without any annoyance or disquiet. These things we thought good to signify in the fullest manner to your Carefulness, that you might know that we have 15 given freely and unreservedly to the said Christians authority to practise their worship. And when you perceive that we have made this grant to the said Christians, your Devotion understands that to others also freedom for their own worship and observance is likewise left open and 20 freely granted, as befits the quiet of our times, that every man may have freedom in the practice of whatever worship he has chosen, for it is not our will that aught be diminished from the honour of any worship. Moreover in regard to the Christians we have thought fit to ordain 25 this also, that if any appear to have bought, whether from our exchequer or from any others, the places at which they were used formerly to assemble, concerning which definite orders have been given before now, and that by letters issued to your office-that the same be restored to 30 the Christians, setting aside all delay and doubtfulness, without any payment or demand of price. Those also who have obtained them by gift shall restore them in like manner without delay to the said Christians; and those moreover who have bought them, as well as those who 35 have obtained them by gift, if they request anything of our

benevolentia aliquid, vicarium postulent, quo et ipsis per nostram clementiam consulatur. Quae omnia corpori Christianorum protinus per intercessionem tuam ac sine mora tradi oportebit. Et quoniam iidem Christiani non 5 ea loca tantum, ad quae convenire consuerunt, sed alia etiam habuisse noscuntur, ad ius corporis eorum, id est ecclesiarum, non hominum singulorum, pertinentia; ea omnia lege, qua superius comprehendimus; citra ullam prorsus ambiguitatem, vel controversiam iisdem Chris10 tianis, id est, corpori et conventiculis eorum reddi iubebis : supra dicta scilicet ratione servata, ut ii, qui eadem sine pretio, sicut diximus, restituant, indemnitatem de nostra benevolentia sperent. In quibus omnibus supra dicto corpori Christianorum intercessionem tuam efficacissimam 15 exhibere debebis, ut praeceptum nostrum quantocius compleatur; quo etiam in hoc per clementiam nostram quieti publicae consulatur. Hactenus fiet, ut sicut superius comprehensum est, divinus iuxta nos favor, quem in tantis sumus rebus experti, per omne tempus prospere 20 successibus nostris cum beatitudine publica perseveret. Ut autem huius sanctionis et benevolentiae nostrae forma ad omnium possit pervenire notitiam, prolata programmate tuo haec scripta et ubique proponere, et ad omnium scientiam te perferre conveniet, ut huius bene25 volentiae nostrae sanctio latere non possit.

Ibid. 48.


Εὐχομένῳ δὲ ταῦτα καὶ λιπαρῶς ἱκετεύοντι τῷ βασιλεῖ, θεοσημία τις ἐπιφαίνεται παραδοξοτάτη· ἣν τάχα μὲν

benevolence, they shall apply to the Vicarius, that order may be taken for them too by our Clemency. All these things must be delivered over at once and without delay by your intervention to the corporation of the Christians. And since the said Christians are known to have pos- 5 sessed, not those places only whereto they were used to assemble, but others also belonging to their corporation, namely the churches, and not to individuals, we comprise them all under the above law, so that you will order them to be restored without any doubtfulness or dispute to 10 the said Christians, that is to their corporation and assemblies; provided always as aforesaid, that those who restore them without price, as we said, shall expect a compensation from our benevolence. In all these things you must give the aforesaid Christians your most effective 15 intervention, that our command may be fulfilled as soon as may be, and that in this matter, as well as others, order may be taken by our Clemency for the public quiet. So far we will ensure that, as is already said, the Divine favour which we have already experienced in so many 20 affairs shall continue for all time to give us prosperity and successes, together with happiness for the State. But that it may be possible for this command of our benevolence to come to the knowledge of all men, it will be your duty by a proclamation of your own to publish 25 everywhere and bring to the notice of all men this present document when it reaches you, that the command of this our benevolence may not be hidden.

Constantine's Cross.

[ACCORDINGLY he called on him with earnest prayer and supplications that he would reveal to him who he was, 30 and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties.] And while he was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvellous sign appeared to him from

ἄλλου λέγοντος, οὐ ῥᾴδιον ἦν ἀποδέξασθαι, αὐτοῦ δὲ τοῦ νικητοῦ βασιλέως, τοῖς τὴν γραφὴν διηγουμένοις ἡμῖν μακροῖς ὕστερον χρόνοις, ὅτε ἠξιώθημεν τῆς αὐτοῦ γνώσεώς τε καὶ ὁμιλίας, ἐξαγγείλαντος, ὅρκοις τε πιστω5 σαμένου τὸν λόγον, τίς ἂν ἀμφιβάλοι μὴ οὐχὶ πιστεῦσαι τῷ διηγήματι; μάλισθ' ὅτε καὶ ὁ μετὰ ταῦτα χρόνος ἀληθῆ τῷ λόγῳ παρέσχε τὴν μαρτυρίαν. ἀμφὶ μεσημ βρινὰς ἡλίου ὥρας, ἤδη τῆς ἡμέρας ἀποκλινούσης, αὐτοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς ἰδεῖν ἔφη ἐν αὐτῷ οὐρανῷ ὑπερκείμενον τοῦ 1ο ἡλίου σταυροῦ τρόπαιον, ἐκ φωτὸς συνιστάμενον, γραφήν τε αὐτῷ συνῆφθαι, λέγουσαν· Τούτῳ νίκα. θάμβος δ' ἐπὶ τῷ θεάματι κρατῆσαι αὐτόν τε καὶ τὸ στρατιωτικὸν ἅπαν, ὃ δὴ στελλομένῳ ποι πορείαν συνείπετό τε καὶ θεωρὸν ἐγίνετο θαύματος.


Καὶ δὴ διαπορεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτὸν ἔλεγε, τί ποτε εἴη τὸ φάσμα. ἐνθυμουμένῳ δ ̓ αὐτῷ καὶ ἐπὶ πολὺ λογιζομένῳ νὺξ ἐπῄει καταλαβοῦσα· ἐνταῦθα δὴ ὑπνοῦντι αὐτῷ, τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ σὺν τῷ φανέντι κατ ̓ οὐρανὸν σημείῳ ὀφθῆναί τε καὶ παρακελεύσασθαι, μίμημα ποιησά20 μενον τοῦ καθ' οὐρανὸν ὀφθεντὸς σημείου, τούτῳ πρὸς τὰς τῶν πολεμίων συμβολὰς ἀλεξήματι χρῆσθαι.

EUSEBIUS, Vita Const. i. 28, 29.


Τὰ περὶ τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς πίστεως πραγματευθέντα κατὰ τὴν μεγάλην σύνοδον τὴν ἐν Νικαίᾳ συγκροτηθεῖσαν εἰκὸς μὲν ὑμᾶς καὶ ἄλλοθεν μεμαθηκέναι, τῆς φήμης 25 προτρέχειν εἰωθυίας τὸν περὶ τῶν πεπραγμένων ἀκριβῆ λόγον. Αλλ' ἵνα μὴ ἐκ τοιαύτης ἀκοῆς τὰ τῆς ἀληθείας ἑτεροίως ὑμῖν ἀπαγγέλληται, ἀναγκαίως διεπεμψάμεθα ὑμῖν πρῶτον μὲν τὴν ὑφ ̓ ἡμῶν προτεθεῖσαν περὶ τῆς

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