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heaven, the account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history, when he was honoured with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed 5 his statement by an oath, who could hesitate to accredit the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time has established its truth? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, Ic above the sun, and bearing the inscription, CONQUER BY THIS. At this sight he himself was struck with amazement, and his whole army also, which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle.
He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what 15 the import of this apparition could be. And while he continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night came on; then in his sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which 20 he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies.
The Letter of Eusebius.
'You will have probably learnt from other sources what was decided respecting the faith of the Church at the General Council of Nicaea, for the fame of great transactions 25 generally outruns the accurate account of them: but lest rumours not in strict accordance with the truth should reach you, we think it necessary to send to you, first, the formulary of faith originally proposed by us, and next, the
πίστεως γραφήν, ἔπειτα τὴν δευτέραν, ἣν ταῖς ἡμετέραις φωναῖς προσθήκας ἐπιβαλόντες ἐκδεδώκασι. Τὸ μὲν οὖν παρ' ἡμῶν γράμμα ἐπὶ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ θεοφιλεστάτου βασιλέως ἡμῶν ἀναγνωσθέν, εὖ τε ἔχειν καὶ δοκίμως 5 ἀποφανθέν, τοῦτον ἔχει τὸν τρόπον.
Ἡ ὑφ ̓ ἡμῶν ἐκτεθεῖσα πίστις. Καθὼς παρελάβομεν παρὰ τῶν πρὸ ἡμῶν ἐπισκόπων, καὶ ἐν τῇ πρώτη κατηχήσει, καὶ ὅτε τὸ λουτρὸν ἐλαμβάνομεν, καθὼς ἀπὸ τῶν θείων γραφῶν μεμαθήκαμεν, καὶ ὡς ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ πρεσ1ο βυτερίῳ καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἐπισκοπῇ ἐπιστεύομέν τε καὶ ἐδιδάσκομεν, οὕτω καὶ νῦν πιστεύοντες τὴν ἡμετέραν πίστιν προσαναφέρομεν. Εστι δὲ αὕτη. Πιστεύω εἰς ἕνα Θεόν, Πατέρα παντοκράτορα, τὸν τῶν ἁπάντων ὁρατῶν τε καὶ ἀοράτων ποιητήν, καὶ εἰς ἕνα Κύριον 15 Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ Λόγον, Θεὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ, φῶς ἐκ φωτός, ζωὴν ἐκ ζωῆς, Υἱὸν μονογενῆ, πρωτότοκον πάσης τῆς κτίσεως, πρὸ πάντων τῶν αἰώνων ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς γεγεννημένον· δι ̓ οὗ καὶ ἐγένετο πάντα· τὸν διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν σαρκωθέντα καὶ ἐν ἀνθρώποις 2ο πολιτευσάμενον, καὶ παθόντα, καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, καὶ ἀνελθόντα πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα, καὶ ἥξοντα πάλιν ἐν δόξῃ κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς. Πιστεύομεν καὶ εἰς ἓν Πνεῦμα ἅγιον.
Τούτων ἕκαστον εἶναι καὶ ὑπάρχειν πιστεύοντες, 25 Πατέρα, ἀληθινῶς Πατέρα· καὶ Υἱόν, ἀληθινῶς Υἱόν Πνεῦμά τε ἅγιον, ἀληθινῶς Πνεῦμα ἅγιον, καθὰ καὶ ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν ἀποστέλλων εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ μαθητὰς εἶπε. Πορευθέντες μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρός, καὶ τοῦ 30 Υἱοῦ, καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος· περὶ ὧν καὶ διαβεβαιούμεθα οὕτως ἔχειν, καὶ οὕτως φρονεῖν, καὶ πάλαι οὕτως ἐσχηκέναι, καὶ μέχρι θανάτου ὑπὲρ ταύτης συνίστασθαι τῆς πίστεως, ἀναθεματίζοντες πᾶσαν ἄθεον αἵρεσιν.
second, published with additions made to our terms. The following is our formulary, which was read in the presence of our most pious emperor, and declared to be couched in right and proper language.
The Faith put forth by us.
""As in our first catechetical instruction, and at the 5 time of our baptism, we received from the bishops who were before us and as we have learnt from the Holy Scriptures, and, alike as presbyters, and as bishops, were wont to believe and teach; so we now believe and thus declare our faith. It is as follows:
"I believe in one God, Father Almighty, the Maker of all things, visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light, Life of Life, Only-begotten Son, First-born of every creature, begotten of the Father before all worlds; by 15 Whom all things were made; Who for our salvation was incarnate, and lived among men. He suffered and rose again the third day, and ascended to the Father; and He will come again in glory to judge the quick and the dead. We also believe in one Holy Ghost.
"I believe in the being and continual existence of each of these; that the Father is in truth the Father; the Son in truth the Son; the Holy Ghost in truth the Holy Ghost; as our Lord, when sending out His disciples to preach the Gospel, said, Go forth and teach all nations, 25 baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. We positively affirm that we hold this faith, that we have always held it, and that we adhere to it even unto death, condemning all ungodly heresy. We testify, as before God, the Almighty and our Lord 30 Jesus Christ, that we have thought thus from the heart, and from the soul, ever since we can remember: and we
Ταῦτα ἀπὸ καρδίας καὶ ψυχῆς πεφρονηκέναι, ἐξ οὗπερ ἴσμεν ἑαυτούς, καὶ νῦν φρονεῖν τε καὶ λέγειν ἐξ ἀληθείας, ἐπὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ παντοκράτορος καὶ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ μαρτυρόμεθα· δεικνύναι ἔχοντες καὶ δι' 5 ἀποδείξεως καὶ πείθειν ὑμᾶς ὅτι καὶ τοὺς παρεληλυθότας χρόνους οὕτως ἐπιστεύομέν τε καὶ ἐκηρύσσομεν.
Ταύτης ὑφ ̓ ἡμῶν ἐκτεθείσης τῆς πίστεως, οὐδεὶς παρῆν ἀντιλογίας τόπος. ̓Αλλ ̓ αὐτός τε πρῶτος ὁ θεοφιλέ στατος ἡμῶν βασιλεὺς ὀρθότατα περιέχειν αὐτὴν ἐμαρτύ 1ο ρησεν· οὕτω τε καὶ ἑαυτὸν φρονεῖν συνωμολόγησε, καὶ ταύτῃ τοὺς πάντας συγκατατίθεσθαι ὑπογράφειν τε τοῖς δόγμασι καὶ συμφρονεῖν τούτοις αὐτοῖς παρεκελεύετο ἑνὸς μόνου προσεγγραφέντος ῥήματος τοῦ ὁμοουσίου, ὃ καὶ αὐτὸ ἡρμήνευσε λέγων ὅτι μὴ κατὰ σωμάτων πάθη λέγοιτο 15 ὁμοούσιος, οὔτε κατὰ διαίρεσιν, οὔτε κατά τινα ἀποτομὴν ἐκ Πατρὸς ὑποστῆναι. Μηδὲ γὰρ δύνασθαι τὴν ἄϋλον καὶ νοερὰν καὶ ἀσώματον φύσιν σωματικόν τι πάθος ὑφίστασθαι· θείοις δὲ καὶ ἀπορρήτοις λόγοις προσήκει τὰ τοιαῦτα νοεῖν. Καὶ ὁ μὲν σοφώτατος ἡμῶν καὶ εὐσε 2ο βέστατος βασιλεὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα διεφιλοσόφει· οἱ δὲ προφάσει τῆς τοῦ ὁμοουσίου προσθήκης τήνδε τὴν γραφὴν πεποιήκασιν.
Ἡ ἐν τῇ συνόδῳ ὑπαγορευθεῖσα πίστις.
Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Θεὸν Πατέρα παντοκράτορα, πάν25 των ὁρατῶν τε καὶ ἀοράτων ποιητήν· καὶ εἰς ἕνα Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, γεννηθέντα ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς μονογενῆ, τουτέστιν ἐκ τῆς οὐσίας τοῦ Πατρός, Θεὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ, καὶ φῶς ἐκ φωτός, Θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, γεννηθέντα οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί 30 δι ̓ οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο, τά τε ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ τὰ ἐν τῇ γῇ· τὸν δι' ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα, καὶ σαρκωθέντα, ἐνανθρωπήσαντα παθόντα καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ· ἀνελθόντα εἰς
have the means of showing, and, indeed, of convincing you, that we have always during the past thus believed and preached."
'When this formulary had been set forth by us, there was no room to gainsay it; but our beloved emperor him- 5 self was the first to testify that it was most orthodox, and that he coincided in opinion with it; and he exhorted the others to sign it, and to receive all the doctrine it contained, with the single addition of one word "consubstantial." He explained that this term implied no bodily to condition or change, for that the Son did not derive His existence from the Father either by means of division or of abscission, since an immaterial, intellectual, and incorporeal nature could not be subject to any bodily condition or change. These things must be understood as bearing 15 a divine and mysterious signification. Thus reasoned our wisest and most religious emperor. The addition of the word consubstantial has given occasion for the composition of the following formulary :
The Creed published by the Council.
"We believe in one God, Father Almighty, Maker of 20 all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father; onlybegotten, that is, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten not made, being of one substance with the Father: by 25 Whom all things were made both in heaven and on earth: Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down, and was incarnate, and was made man; He suffered, and rose again the third day; He ascended into heaven, and is coming to judge both quick and dead. 30 And (we believe) in the Holy Ghost. The Holy Catholic