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τοὺς οὐρανούς, ἐρχόμενον κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς. Καὶ εἰς τὸ ἅγιον Πνεῦμα. Τοὺς δὲ λέγοντας ὅτι ἦν ποτὲ ὅτε οὐκ ἦν, καὶ πρὶν γεννηθῆναι οὐκ ἦν, καὶ ὅτι ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ἐγένετο, ἢ ἐξ ἑτέρας ὑποστάσεως ἢ οὐσίας φάσκοντας 5 εἶναι, τρεπτὸν ἢ ἀλλοιωτὸν τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἀναθεματίζει ἡ ἁγία καθολικὴ καὶ ἀποστολικὴ ἐκκλησία.
Καὶ δὴ ταύτης τῆς γραφῆς ὑπ' αὐτῶν ὑπαγορευθείσης, ὅπως εἴρηται αὐτοῖς τὸ ἐκ τῆς οὐσίας τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τὸ τῷ Πατρὶ ὁμοούσιον, οὐκ ἀνεξέταστον αὐτοῖς καταλιμ το πάνομεν. Ερωτήσεις τοιγαροῦν καὶ ἀποκρίσεις ἐντεῦθεν ἀνεκινοῦντο· ἐβασανίζετο ὁ λόγος τῆς διανοίας τῶν εἰρημένων. Καὶ δὴ τὸ ἐκ τῆς οὐσίας ὡμολόγητο πρὸς αὐτῶν δηλωτικὸν εἶναι τοῦ ἐκ μὲν τοῦ Πατρὸς εἶναι, οὐ μὴν ὡς μέρος ὑπάρχειν τοῦ Πατρός. Ταύτῃ καὶ ἡμῖν ἐδόκει 15 καλῶς ἔχειν συγκατατίθεσθαι τῇ διανοίᾳ, τῆς εὐσεβοῦς διδασκαλίας ὑπαγορευούσης ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς εἶναι τὸν Υἱόν, οὐ μὴν μέρος τῆς οὐσίας αὐτοῦ τυγχάνειν. Διόπερ ταύτῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ καὶ αὐτοὶ συνετιθέμεθα, οὐδὲ τὴν φωνὴν παραιτούμενοι, τοῦ τῆς εἰρήνης σκοποῦ πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν το ἡμῶν κειμένου, καὶ τοῦ μὴ τῆς ὀρθῆς ἐκπεσεῖν διανοίας. Κατὰ ταυτὰ δὲ καὶ τὸ γεννηθέντα οὐ ποιηθέντα κατεδεξά μεθα· ἐπειδὴ τὸ ποιηθέντα κοινὸν ἔφασκον εἶναι πρόσρημα τῶν λοιπῶν κτισμάτων τῶν διὰ τοῦ Υἱοῦ γενομένων, ὧν οὐδὲν ὅμοιον ἔχειν τὸν Υἱόν. Δι ̓ ὃ δὴ μὴ εἶναι αὐτὸν 25 ποίημα τοῖς δι ̓ αὐτοῦ γενομένοις ἐμφερές, κρείττονος δὲ ἢ κατὰ πᾶν ποίημα τυγχάνειν οὐσίας, ἣν ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς γεγεννῆσθαι διδάσκει τὰ θεῖα λόγια, τοῦ τρόπου τῆς γεννήσεως καὶ ἀνεκφράστου καὶ ἀνεπιλογίστου πάσῃ γεννητῇ φύσει τυγχάνοντος. Οὕτω δὲ καὶ τό, ὁμοούσιον 33 εἶναι τοῦ Πατρὸς τὸν Υἱόν, ἐξεταζόμενος ὁ λόγος συνίστη, οὐ κατὰ τὸν τῶν σωμάτων τρόπον, οὐδὲ τοῖς θνητοῖς ζώοις παραπλησίως. Οὔτε γὰρ κατὰ διαίρεσιν τῆς οὐσίας, οὔτε κατὰ ἀποτομήν, ἀλλ ̓ οὐδὲ κατά τι πάθος ἢ τροπὴν
and Apostolic Church anathematizes all who say there was a time when the Son of God was not; that before He was begotten He was not; that He was made out of the non-existent; or that He is of a different essence and of a different substance from the Father; and is susceptible 5 of variation or change.'
'When they had set forth this formulary, we did not leave without examination that passage in which it is said that the Son is of the substance of the Father and consubstantial with the Father. Questions and arguments thence 10 arose, and the meaning of the terms was exactly tested. Accordingly they were led to confess that the word consubstantial signifies that the Son is of the Father, but not as being a part of the Father. We deemed it right to receive this opinion: for that is sound doctrine which 15 teaches that the Son is of the Father, but not part of His substance. From the love of peace, and lest we should fall from the true belief, we also accept this view, neither do we reject the term consubstantial." For the same reason we admitted the expression, "begotten, but not 20 made"; for they alleged that the word "made" applies generally to all things which were created by the Son, to which the Son is in no respect similar; and that consequently He is not a created thing, like the things made by Him, but is of a substance superior to all created objects, 25 which the Holy Scriptures teach to be begotten of the Father, by a mode of generation which is incomprehensible and inexplicable to all created beings. So also the term "of one substance with the Father," when investigated, was accepted not in accordance with bodily relations or 30 similarity to mortal beings. For it was also shown that it does not either imply division of substance, nor abscission, nor any modification or change or alteration in the power of the Father, all of which are alien from the nature of the
ἢ ἀλλοίωσιν τῆς τοῦ Πατρὸς δυνάμεως· τούτων γὰρ ἁπάν των ἀλλότριον εἶναι τὴν τοῦ ἀγεννήτου Πατρὸς φύσιν. Παραστατικὸν δ ̓ εἶναι τὸ ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρὶ τοῦ μηδεμίαν ἐμφέρειαν πρὸς τὰ γενητὰ κτίσματα τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ 5 Θεοῦ φέρειν, μόνον δὲ τῷ Πατρὶ τῷ γεγεννηκότι κατὰ πάντα τρόπον ὅμοιον· καὶ μὴ εἶναι ἐξ ἑτέρας τινὸς ὑποστάσεώς τε καὶ οὐσίας ἀλλ ̓ ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Πατρός. Ὧι καὶ αὐτῷ τοῦτον ἑρμηνευθέντι τὸν τρόπον καλῶς ἔχειν ἐφάνη συγκατατίθεσθαι· ἐπεὶ καὶ τῶν παλαιῶν λογίους τινὰς το καὶ ἐπιφανεῖς ἐπισκόπους καὶ συγγραφέας ἔγνωμεν ἐπὶ τῆς τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ Υἱοῦ θεολογίας τῷ τοῦ ὁμοουσίου συγχρησαμένους ὀνόματι.
Ταῦτα μὲν περὶ τῆς ἐκτεθείσης εἰρήσθω πίστεως ᾗ συνεφωνήσαμεν οἱ πάντες, οὐκ ἀνεξετάστως, ἀλλὰ κατὰ 15 τὰς ἀποδοθείσας διανοίας ἐπ ̓ αὐτοῦ τοῦ θεοφιλεστάτου βασιλέως ἐξετασθείσας, καὶ τοῖς εἰρημένοις λογισμοῖς συνομολογηθείσας. Καὶ τὸν ἀναθεματισμὸν δὲ τὸν μετὰ τὴν πίστιν πρὸς αὐτῶν τιθέντα δεκτὸν εἶναι ἡγησάμεθα, διὰ τὸ ἀπείργειν ἀγράφοις χρῆσθαι φωναῖς, δι ̓ ἃς σχεδὸν 20 ἡ πᾶσα ἐγεγόνει σύγχυσις καὶ ἀκαταστασία τῆς ἐκκλησίας. Μηδεμιᾶς γοῦν θεοπνεύστου γραφῆς τῷ ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων, καὶ τῷ, ἦν ποτὲ ὅτε οὐκ ἦν, καὶ τοῖς ἑξῆς ἐπιλεγομένοις κεχρημένης, οὐκ εὔλογον ἐφάνη ταῦτα λέγειν καὶ διδάσκειν. Ωι καὶ αὐτῷ καλῶς δόξαντι συνεθέμεθα, 25 ἐπεὶ μηδὲ ἐν τῷ πρὸ τούτου χρόνῳ τούτοις εἰώθειμεν συγχρῆσθαι τοῖς ῥήμασιν. [Ετι μὴν τὸ ἀναθεματίζεσθαι τὸ πρὸ τοῦ γεννηθῆναι οὐκ ἦν οὐκ ἄτοπον ἐνομίσθη, τῷ παρὰ πᾶσι μὲν ὁμολογεῖσθαι εἶναι αὐτὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ πρὸ τῆς κατὰ σάρκα γεννήσεως. Ηδη δὲ ὁ θεοφιλέ 30 στατος ἡμῶν βασιλεὺς τῷ λόγῳ κατεσκεύαζε καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἔνθεον αὐτοῦ γέννησιν τὸ πρὸ πάντων αἰώνων εἶναι αὐτόν· ἐπεὶ καὶ πρὶν ἐνεργείᾳ γεννηθῆναι, δυνάμει ἦν ἐν τῷ Πατρὶ ἀγεννήτως, ὄντος τοῦ Πατρὸς ἀεὶ Πατρός, ὡς καὶ
unbegotten Father. It was concluded that the expression being of one substance with the Father, implies that the Son of God does not resemble, in any one respect, the creatures which He has made; but that to the Father alone, who begat Him, He is in all points perfectly like : 5 for He is of the essence and of the substance of none save of the Father. This interpretation having been given of the doctrine, it appeared right to us to assent to it, especially as we were aware that of the ancients some learned and celebrated bishops and writers have used the 10 term "consubstantial" with respect to the divinity of the Father and of the Son.
'These are the circumstances which I had to communicate respecting the published formulary of the faith. To it we all agreed, not without investigation, but, in the above 15 sense, after having subjected it to thorough examination in the presence of our most beloved emperor, and agreed to it in accordance with the above reasons. We also allowed that the anathema appended by them to their formulary of faith should be accepted, because it prohibits the use 20 of words which are not scriptural; through which almost all the disorder and troubles of the Church have arisen. And since no passage of the inspired Scripture uses the terms "out of the non-existent," or that "there was a time when He was not," nor indeed any of the other phrases of 25 the same class, it did not appear reasonable to assert or to teach such things. In this opinion, therefore, we judged it right to agree; since, indeed, we had never, at any former period, been accustomed to use such terms. [Moreover, the condemnation of the assertion that before 30 He was begotten He was not, did not appear to involve any incongruity, because all assent to the fact that He was the Son of God before He was begotten according to the flesh. And here our emperor, most beloved by God,
βασιλέως ἀεὶ καὶ σωτῆρος καὶ δυνάμει πάντα ὄντος, ἀεί τε καὶ κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ καὶ ὡσαύτως ἔχοντος.] Ταῦτα ὑμῖν ἀναγκαίως διεπεμψάμεθα, ἀγαπητοί, τὰ κεκριμένα τῆς ἡμετέρας ἐξετάσεώς τε καὶ συγκαταθέσεως φανερὰ καθ5 ιστῶντες· ὡς εὐλόγως τότε μὲν καὶ μέχρις ὑστάτης ώρας ἱστάμεθα, ὅθ ̓ ἡμῖν τὰ ἑτεροίως γραφέντα προσέκοπτε, τότε δὲ ἀφιλονείκως τὰ μὴ λυποῦντα κατεδεξάμεθα, ὅθ' ἡμῖν εὐγνωμόνως τῶν λόγων ἐξετάζουσι τὴν διάνοιαν ἐμφανῆ σύμπραξιν ἔχειν ἔδοξε τοῖς ὑφ ̓ ἡμῶν αὐτῶν ἐν τῇ το προεκτεθείσῃ πίστει ὡμολογημένοις.
THEODORET, Hist. Eccl. i. 12.
Can. 26. Ut omni sabbato ieiunetur. Errorem placuit corrigi, ut omni sabbati die superpositiones celebremus.
Can. 33. De episcopis et ministris ut ab uxoribus abstineant. Placuit in totum prohibere episcopis, pres15 byteris et diaconibus vel omnibus clericis positis in ministerio abstinere se a coniugibus suis et non generare filios: quicunque vero fecerit, ab honore clericatus exterminetur.
Can. 36. Ne picturae in ecclesia fiant. Placuit picturas 20 in ecclesia non esse debere, ne quod colitur et adoratur in parietibus depingatur.
Can. 49. De frugibus fidelium ne a Iudaeis benedicantur. Admoneri placuit possessores, ut non patiantur fructus suos . . a Iudaeis benedici, ne nostram irritam 25 et infirmam faciant benedictionem.