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person in the cause. He subscribed two thou- | do more to make a general than all the dia sand pounds to the public service. He took a grams of Jomini. This, however, is certain. colonel's commission in the army, and went that Hampden showed himself a far better ofiiinto Buckinghamshire to raise a regiment of cer than Essex, and Cromwell than Lesley, infantry. His neighbours eagerly enlisted The military errors of Essex were probably under his command. His men were known in some degree produced by political timidity. by their green uniform, and by their standard, He was honestly, but not warmly, attached to which borc on one side the watchword of the the cause of the Parliament; and next to a Parliament, “God with us,” and on the other great defeat, he dreaded a great victory. Hampthe device of Hampden,“ Vestigia nulla retror- den, on the other hand, was for vigorous and sum.” This motto well described the line of decisive measures. When he drew the sword, conduct which he pursued. No member of as Clarendon has well said, he threw away the his party had been so temperate, while there scabbard. He had shown that he knew better remained a hope that legal and peaceable than any public man of his time, how to value measures might save the country. No mem- and how to practise moderation. But he knew ber of his party showed so much energy and that the essence of war is violence, and that vigour when it became necessary to appeal to moderation in war is imbecility. On several arms. He made himself thoroughly master of occasions particularly during the operations his military duty, and “performed it,” to use in the neighbourhood of Brentford, he remonthe words of Clarendon, “ upon all occasions strated earnestly w Essex. Wherever he most punctually.” The regiment which he had commanded separat sy', the boldness and rapiraised and trained was considered as one of dity of his movements presented a striking the best in the service of the Parliament. He contrast to the sluggishness of his superior. exposed his person in every action, with an In the Parliament he possessed boundless intrepidity which made him conspicuous even influence. His employments towards the close among thousands of brave men. “He was,” of 1642 have been described by Denham in says Clarendon,“of a personal courage equal some lines, which, though intended to be sar. to his best parts; so that he was an enemy not castic, convey in truth the highest eulogy. to be wished wherever he might have been Hampden is described in this satire, as per. made a friend, and as much to be apprehended petually passing and repassing between the where he was so as any man could deserve to military station at Windsor and the House of bc.” Though his military career was short, Commons at Westminster; overawing the and his military situation subordinate, he fully general, and giving law to that Parliament proved that he possessed the talents of a great which knew no other law. It was at this time gereral, as well as those of a great statesman. that he organized that celebrared association
We shall not attempt to give a history of the of counties, to which his party was principally war. Lord Nugent's account of the military indebted for its victory over the king. operations is very animated and striking. Our In the early part of 1643, the shires lying in abstract would be dull, and probably unintel- the neighbourhood of London, which were deligible. There was, in fact, for some time, no voted to the cause of the Parliament, were in. great and connected system of operations on cessantly annoyed by Rupert and his cavalry. either side. The war of the two parties was Essex had extended his lines so far, that like the war of Arimanes and Oromazdes, almost every point was vulnerable. The neither of whom, according to the Eastern young prince, who, though not a great general, theologians, has any exclusive domain, who was an active and enterprising partisan, freare equally omnipresent, who equally pervade quently surprised posts, burned villages, swept all space, who carry on their eternal strife away cattle, and was again at Oxford, before a within every particle of matter. There was a force sufficient to encounter him could be as. petty war in almost every county. A town sembled. furnished troops to the Parliament, while the The languid proceedings of Essex were manor-house of the neighbouring peer was loudly condemned by the troops.
All the argarrisoned for the king. The combatants were dent and daring spirits in the parliamentary rarely disposed to march far from their own party were eager to have Hampden at their homes. It was reserved for Fairfax and Crom- head. Had his life been prolonged, there is we io ierminaie chis cesultory warfare. by every reason to believe that the supreme commoving one overwhelming force successively mand would have been intrusted to him But against all the scattered fragments of the royal it was decreed that, at this conjuncture, Eng party:
land should lose the only man who united per It is a remarkable circumstance, that the fect disinterestedness to eminent talents-he cfficers who had studied tactics in what were only man who, being capable of gaining the considered as the best schools—under Vere in victory for her, was incapable of abusing that the Netherlands, and under Gustavus Adol- victory when gainer.. phus in Germany-displayed far less skill than In the evening of the 17th of June, Rupert ihose commanders who had been bred to daried out of Oxford with his cavalry on a peaceful employments, and who never saw predatory expedition. At three in the morning even a skirmish till the civil war broke out of the following day, he attacked and dispersed An unlearned person might hence be inclined a few parliamentary soldiers who were quar to suspect tha: tne military art is no very pro- tered at Postcombe. He then flew to Chinnor, founil quystery; that its principles are the burned the village, killed or took all the troops principles of plain good sense; and that a who were posted there, and prepared to hurry quick eve, a cool head, and a stout heart will í back with his booty and his prisoners to Oxfori
Hampden had, on the preceding day, strong- O Lord, save my country-0 Lord, be merci ly represented to Essex the danger to which ful to.” In that broken ejaculation passed this part of the line was exposed. As soon away his noble and fearless spirit. As he received intelligence of Rupert's incur He was buried in the parish church of sions, he sent off a horseman with a mes. Hampden. His soldiers, bareheaded, with re sage to the general. The Cavaliers, he said, versed arms and muffled drums and colours, could return only by Chiselhampton Bridge. escorted his body to the grave, singing, as they A force ought to be instantly despatched in marched, that lofty and melancholy psalm, in that direction, for the purpose of intercepting which the fragility of human life is contrasted them. In the mean time, he resolved to set with the immutability of Him, in whose sight out with all the cavalry that he could muster, a thousand years are but as yesterday when it for the purpose of impeding the march of the is past, and as a watch in the night. enemy till Essex could take measures for cut The news of Hampden's death produced as ting off their retreat. A considerable body of great a consternation in his party, according to horse and dragoons volunteered to follow him. Clarendon, as if their whole army had been He was not their commander. He did not cut off. The journals of the time amply prove even belong to their branch of the service. that the Parliament and all its friends were But “he was,” says Lord Clarendon,“ second filled with grief and dismay. Lord Nugent has to none but the general himself in the obser- quoted a remarkable passage from the next vance and application of all men.” On the field Weekly Intelligencer. “The loss of Colonel of Chalgrove he came up with Rupert. A fierce Hampden goeth near the heart of every man skirmish ensued In the first charge, Hampden that loves the good of his king and country, was struck in the shoulder by two bullets, and makes some conceive little content to be which broke the bone, and lodged in his body at the army now that he is gone. The memory The troops of the Parliament lost heart and of this deceased colonel is such, that in no age gave way. Rupert, after pursuing them for a to come but it will more and more be had in short time, hastened to cross the bridge, and honour and esteem ;-a man so religious, and made his retreat unmolested to Oxford. of that prudence, judgment, temper, valour,
Hampden, with his head drooping, and his and integrity, that he hath left few his like nands leaning on his horse's neck, moved behind him.” feebly out of the battle. The mansion which He had indeed left none his like behind him had been inhabited by his father-in-law, and There still remained, indeed, in his party, from which in his youth he had carried home many acute intellects, many eloquent tongues, his bride, Elizabeth, was in sight. There still many brave and honest hearts. There still remains an affecting tradition, that he looked remained a rugged and clownish soldier, halflor a moment towards that beloved house, and fanatic, half-buffoon, whose talents, discerned made an effort to go thither to die. But the as yet only by one penetrating eye, were equal enemy lay in that direction. He turned his to all the highest duties of the soldier and the norse towards Thame, where he arrived almost. prince. But in Hampden, and in Hampden fainting with agony. The surgeons dressed his alone, were united all the qualities which, at wounds. But there was no hope. The pain such a crisis, were necessary to save the state which he suffered was most excruciating. But the valour and energy of Cromwell, the dishe endured it with admirable firmness and re-cernment and eloquence of Vane, the humanity signation. His first care was for his country. and moderation of Manchester, the stern inté. He wrote from his bed several letters to Lon- grity of Hale, the ardent public spirit of Sidney. don concerning public affairs, and sent a last Others might possess the qualities which were pressing message to the head-quarters, recom- necessary to save the popular party in the mending that the dispersed forces should be crisis of danger; he alone had both the power concentrated. When his last public duties and the inclination to restrain its excesses in were performed, he calmly prepared himself the hour of triumph. Others could conquer; to die. He was attended by a clergyman of the he alone could reconcile. A heart as bold as Church of England, with whom he had lived his brought up the cuirassiers who turned the in habits of intimacy, and by the chaplain of tide of battle on Marston Moor. As skilful an the Buckinghamshire Green-coats, Dr.Spurton, eye as his watched the Scotch army descending whom Baxter describes as a famous and excel- from the heights over Dunbar. But it was when, lent divine.
to the sullen tyranny of Laud and Charles, had A short time before his death, the sacrament succeeded the fierce conflict of sects and fac was administered to him. He declared that, tions, ambitious of ascendency and burning inough he disliked the government of the for revenge; it was when the vices and igno. Church of England, he yet agreed with that rance which the old tyranny had generated, Church as to all essential matters of doctrine. threatened the new freedom with destruction His intellect remained unclouded. When all that England missed that sobriety, that selfwas nearly over, he lay murmuring faint command, that perfect soundness of judgmeni, prayers for himself and for the cause in which that perfect rectitude of intention, to which the ho died. “ Lord Jesus,” he exclaimed, in the history of revolutions furnishes no parallel, or moment of the last agony, “receive my soul furnishes a parallel in Washington alone.
NARES’S MEMOIRS OF LORD BURGHLEY.*
[EDINBURGH REVIEW, 1832.)
The work of Doctor Nares has filled us with radox. Of the rules of historical perspective astonishment similar to that which Captain he has not the faintest notion. There is neither Lemuel Gulliver felt, when first he landed in foreground nor background in his delineation. Brobdignag, and saw corn as high as the oaks The wars of Charles the Fifth in Germany are in the New Forest, thimbles as large as detailed at almost as much length as in Robert. buckets, and wrens of the bulk of turkeys. son's Life of that prince. The troubles of The whole book, and every component part of Scotland are related as fully as in M'Crie's it, is on a gigantic sčale. The title is as long Life of John Knox. It would be most unjust as an ordinary preface. The presatory matter to deny that Doctor Nares is a man of great would furnish out an ordinary book ; and the industry and research; but he is so utterly in. book contains as much reading as an ordinary competent to arrange the materials which he library. We cannot sum up the merits of the has collected, that he might as well have left stupendous mass of paper which lies before us, them in their original repositories. better than by saying, that it consists of about Neither the facts which Doctor Nares has $wo thousand closely printed pages, that it discovered, nor the arguments which he urges, occupies fifteen hundred inches cubic measure, will, we apprehend, materially alter the opinion and that it weighs sixty pounds avoirdupois. generally entertained by judicious readers of Such a book might, before the deluge, have history concerning his hero. Lord Burghley been considered as light reading by Hilpa and can hardly be called a great man. He was not Shallum. But unhappily the life of man is now one of those whose genius and energy change threescore years and ten; and we cannot but the fate of empires. He was by nature and think it somewhat unfair in Doctor Nares to habit one of those who follow, not one of those demand from us so large a portion of so short who lead. Nothing that is recorded, either of an existence.
his words or of his actions, indicates intellectual Compared with the labour of reading through or moral elevation. But his talents, though these volumes, all other labour—the labour of not brilliant, were of an eminently useful thieves on the tread-mill, of children in facto- kind; and his principles, though not inflexible, ries, of negroes in sugar plantations—is an were not more relaxed than those of his assoagreeable recreation. There was, it is said, a ciates and competitors. He had a cool temper, criminal in Italy, who was suffered to make his a sound judgment, great powers of application, choice between Guicciardini and the galleys. and a constant eye to the main chance. In his He chose the history. But the war of Pisa was youth he was, it seems, fond of practical jokes. too much for him. He changed his mind, and Yet even out of these he contrived to extract went to the oar. Guicciardini, though certainly some pecuniary profit. When he was study not the most amusing of writers, is an Herodotus, ing the law at Gray's Inn, he lost all his furor a Froissart, when compared with Doctor niture and books to his companion at the Nares. It is not merely in bulk, but in specific gaming-table. He accordingly bored a hole gravity also, that these memoirs exceed all in the wall which separated his chambers from other human compositions. On every subject those of his associate, and at midnight bellow. which the professor discusses, he produces ed through his passage threats of damnation three times as many pages as another man; and calls to repentance in the ears of the victand one of his pages is as tedious as another rious gambler, who lay sweating with fear all man's three. His book is swelled to its vast night, and refunded his winnings on his knees dimensions by endless repetitions, by episodes next day. “Many other the like merry jests," which have nothing to do with the main action, says his old biographer, “I have heard hini by quotations from books which are in every telí, too long to be here noted.” To the last, circulating library, and by reflections which, Burghley was somewhat jocose; and some of when they happen to be just, are so obvious his sportive sayings have been recorded by that they must necessarily occur to the mind Bacon. They show much more shrewdness of every reader. He employs more words in than generosity; and are, indeed, neatly ex. expounding and defending a truism, than any pressed reasons for exacting money rigorously, other writer would employ in supporting a pa- and for keeping it carefully. It must, however,
be acknowledged, that he was rigorous and * Memoirs of the Life and Administration of the Right careful for the public advantage, as well as for Honourable William Cecil Lord Burghley, Secretary of State in the Reign of King Edward the sixth, and Lord his own. To extol his moral character, as High Treasurer of England in the Reign of Queen Eliza Doctor Nares has extolled it, would be absurd. beth. Containing an Historical View of the Times in which It would be equally absurd to represent him as he lived, and of the many ciinent and illustrious Persons with whom he was connected; with eitracts from his Pri.
a corrupt, rapacious, and bad-hearted man. He rate and Official Correspondence and other Papers, now first paid great attention to the interest of the state, published from the Originals. By the Reverend EDWARD and great attention also to the interest of his University of Oxford. 3 vols. 4to. London. 1828, 1832. own family. He never desented his friends lill
I was very inconvenient to stand by them; estates to his son, and carried arms about his was an excellent Protestant when it was not person. His best arms, however, were his sa. very advantageons to be a Papist; recommend gacity and his self-command. The plot in ed a tolerant policy to his mistress as strongly which he had been an unwilling accomplice, as he could recommend it without hazarding ended, as it was natural that so odious and her favour; never put to the rack any person absurd a plot should end, in the ruin of its from whom it did not seem probable that very contrivers. In the mean time, Cecil quietly useful information might be derived; and was extricated himself, and, having been succes. so moderate in his desires, that he left only sively patronised by Henry, Somerset, and three hundred distinct landed estates, though he Northumberland, continued to flourish under might, as his honest servant assures us, have the protection of Mary. left much more, “if he would have taken money He had no aspirations after the crown of out of the exchequer for his own use, as many martyrdom. He confessed himself, therefore, treasurers have done."
with great decorum, heard mass in Wimbledon Burghley, like the old Marquess of Win-church at Easter, and, for the better ordering chester, who preceded him in the custody of of his spiritual concerns, took a priest into his the White Staff
, was of the willow, and not of house. Doctor Nares, whose simplicity passes the oak. He first rose into notice by defend that of any casuist with whom we are acing the supremacy of Henry the Eighth. He quainted, vindicates his hero by assuring us, was subsequently favoured and promoted by that this was not superstition, but pure un. the Duke of Somerset. He not only contrived mixed hypocrisy. “That he did in some manto escape unhurt when his patron fell, but ner conform, we shall not be able, in the face became an important member of the adminis- of existing documents, to deny; while we feel tration of Northumberland. Doctor Nares as in our own minds abundantly satisfied, that, sures us over and over again, that there could during this very trying reign, he never abanhave been nothing base in Cecil's conduct on doned the prospect of another revolution in fathis oocasion; for, says he, Cecil continued to vour of Protestantism." In another place, the stand well with Cranmer. This, we confess, doctor tells us, that Cecil went to mass “ with hardly satisfies us. We are much of the mind no idolatrous intention.” Nobody, we believe, of Falstaff s tailor. We must have better as- ever accused him of idolatrous intentions. surance for Sir John than Bardolph's. We The very ground of the charge against him is, like not the security.
that he had no idolatrous intentions. Nobody Through the whole course of that miserable would have blamed him if he had really gone intrigue which was carried on round the dying to Wimbledon church, with the feelings of a bed of Edward the Sixth, Cecil so demeaned good Catholic, to worship the host. Doctor himself as to avoid, first, the displeasure of Nares speaks in several places, with just seNorthumberland, and afterwards the displea- verity, of the sophistry of the Jesuits, and with sure of Mary. He was prudently unwilling to just admiration of the incomparable letters of put his hand to the instrument which changed Pascal. It is somewhat strange, therefore, that the course of the succession. But the furious he should adopt, to the full extent, the jesuitiDudley was master of the palace. Cecil, there cal doctrine of the direction of intentions. core, according to his own account, excused We do not blame Cecil for not choosing to Himself from signing as a party, but consented be burned. The deep stain upon his memory o sign as a witness. It is not easy to describe is, that, for differences of opinion for which he his dexterous conduct at this most perplexing would risk nothing himself, he, in the day of crisis, in language more appropriate than that his power, took away without scruple the lives which is employed by old Fuller: "His hand of others. One of the excuses suggested in wrote it as secretary of state," says that quaint these Memoirs for his conforming, during the writer; “but his heart consented not thereto. reign of Mary, to the Church of Rome, is, tha Yea, he openly opposed it; though at last he may have been of the same mind with yielding to the greatness of Northumberland, those German Protestants who were called in an age when it was present drowning not Adiaphorists, and who considered the popish to swim with the stream. But as the philoso- rites as matters indifferent. Melancthon was pher tells us, that, though the planets be whirl- one of these moderate persons, and “appears," ed about daily from east to west, by the motion says Doctor Nares, “to have gone greater of the primum mobile, yet have they also a con- lengths than any imputed to Lord Burghley." trary proper motion of their own from west to We should have thought this not only an ex east, which they slowly, though surely, move cuse, but a complete vindication, if Burghley at their leisure; so Cecil had secret counter- had been an Adiaphorist for the beneħt of endeavours against the strain of the court others, as well as for his own. If the popish herein, and privately advanced his rightful in- rites were matters of so little moment, that a tentions against the foresaid duke's ambition.” good Protestant might lawfully practise then
This was undoubtedly the most perilous for his safety, how could it be just or humane conjuncture of Cecil's life. Wherever there that a Papist should be hanged, drawn, and was a safe course, he was safe. But here quartered, for practising them from a sense of every course was full of danger. His situa-duty. Unhappily, these non-essentials soon tion rendered it impossible for him to be neu- became matters of life and death. Just at the tral. If he acted on either side, if he refused very time at which Burghley attained the highlo act at all, he ran a fearful risk. He saw est point of power and favour, an act of Par. all the difficulties of his position. He sent his liament was passed, by which the penalties of
onev and plate out of London, made over his! high treason were denounced against persons
who should do in sincerity what he had done knee. For Burghley alone, a chair was set in from cowardice.
her presence; and there the old minister, by Early in the reign of Mary, Cecil was em- birth only a plain Lincolnshire esquire, took ployed in a mission scarcely consistent with his ease, while the haughty heirs of the Fitzthe character of a zealous Protestant. He alans and the De Veres humbled themselves to was sent to escort the Papal legate, Cardinal the dust around him. At length, having surPole, from Brussels to London. That great vived all his early coadjutors and rivals, he hody of moderate persons, who cared more for died full of years and honours. His royal the quiet of the realm than for the controvert- mistress visited him on his death-bed, and ed points which were in issue between the cheered him with assurances of her affection churches, seem to have placed their chief and esteem; and his power passed, with little hope in the wisdom and humanity of the gen- diminution, to a son who inherited his abili. tle cardinal. Cecil, it is clear, cultivated the ties, and whose mind had been formed by his friendship of Pole with great assiduity, and re- counsels. ceived great advantage from his protection. The life of Burghley was commensurate
But the best protection of Cecil, during the with one of the most important periods in the gloomy and disastrous reign of Mary, was that history of the world. It exactly measures the which he derived from his own prudence and time during which the house of Austria held from his own temper;-a prudence which unrivalled superiority, and aspired to univercould never be lulled into carelessness, a tem- sal dominion. In the year in which Burghley per which could never be irritated into rash- was born, Charles the Fifth obtained the impeness. The Papists could find no occasion rial crown. In the year in which Burghley against him. Yet he did not lose the esteem died, the vast designs which had for nearly a even of those sterner Protestants who had century kept Europe in constant agitation, preferred exile to recantation. He attached were buried in the same grave with the proud himself to the persecuted heiress of the throne, and sullen Philip. and entitled himself to her gratitude and confi The life of Burghley was commensurate dence. Yet he continued to receive marks of also with the period during which a great mofavour from the queen. In the House of Com-ral revolution was effected; a revolution, the mons, he put himself at the head of the party consequences of which were felt, not only in opposed to the court. Yet so guarded was his the cabinets of princes, but at half the firesides language, that even when some of those who in Christendom. He was born when the great acted with him were imprisoned by the Privy religious schism was just commencing. He Council, he escaped with impunity.
lived to see the schism complete, to see a line At length Mary died. Elizabeth succeeded, of demarcation, which, since his death, has and Cecil rose at once to greatness. He was been very little altered, strongly drawn between sworn in privy counsellor and secretary of Protestant and Catholic Europe. state to the new sovereign before he left her The only event of modern times which can prison of Hatfield; and he continued to serve be properly compared with the Reformation, is her for forty years, without intermission, in the the French Revolution; or, to speak more achighest employments. His abilities were pre-curately, that great revolution of political feels cisely those which keep men long in power. ing which took place in almost every part of He belonged to the class of the Walpoles, the the civilized world during the eighteenth cenPelhams, and the Liverpools; not to that of tury, and which obtained in France its most the St. Johns, the Carterets, the Chathanıs, and terrible and signal triumph. Each of these the Cannings. If he had been a man of origi- memorable events may be described as a rising nal genius, and of a commanding mind, it up of human reason against a caste. The would have been scarcely possible for him to one was a struggle of the laity against the keep his power, or even his head. There was clergy for intellectual liberty; the other was a not room in one government for an Elizabeth struggle of the people against the privileged and a Richelieu. What the haughty daughter orders for political liberty. In both cases, the of Henry needed, was a moderate, cautious, spirit of innovation was at first encouraged by flexible minister, skilled in the details of busi- the class to which it was likely to be most preness, competent to advise, but not aspiring to judicial. It was under the patronage of Frecommand. And such a minister she found in derick, of Catharine, of Joseph, and of the Burghley. No arts could shake the confidence French nobles, that the philosophy which which she reposed in her old and trusty ser-afterwards threatened all the thrones and arisvant. The courtly graces of Leicester, the tocracies of Europe with destruction, first bebrilliant talents and accomplishments of Es- came formidable. The ardour with which men sex, touched the fancy, perhaps the heart, of betook themselves to liberal studies at the close the woman; but no rival could deprive the of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixTreasurer of the place which he possessed in teenth century, was zealously encouraged by the favour of the queen. She sometimes chid the heads of that very church, to which liberal him sharply; but he was the man whom she studies were destined to be fatal. In both cases delighted to honour. For Burghley, she forgot when the explosion came, it came with a vioher usual parsimony both of wealth and of lence which appalled and disgusted many of digpities. For Burghley, she relaxed that se- those who had previously been distinguished Tere etiquette to which she was unreasonably by the freedom of their opinions. The violence attached. Every other person to whom she of the democratic party in France made Burke addressed her speech, or on whom the glance a tory, and Alfieri a courtier; the violence of of her eagle eve fell, instantly sank on his 'the chiefs of the German schism madlom