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wisdom and goodness which had dictated the when compared with those which were de charter. He who had voted for the death of manded by M. de Labourdonnaye and M. Hyde Louis, he who had moved the decree for the de Neuville. We have always heard, and are trial of Marie Antoinette, he whose hatred of inclined to believe, that the government was monarchy had led him to make war even upon not disposed to treat even the regicides with the sepulchres of ancient monarchs, assures severity. But on this point the feeling of the us with great complacency, that “in this work Chamber of Deputies was so strong, that it monarchical principles and attachment to the was thought necessary to make some conces House of Bourbon are nobly expressed.” By sion. It was enacted, therefore, that whoever, this apostacy he got nothing, not even any having voted in January 1793 for the death of additional infamy; for his character was al. Louis the Sixteenth, had in any manner given ready too black to be blackened.
in an adhesion to the government of BuonaDuring the hundred days he again emerged parte during the hundred days, should be banfor a very short time into public life; he was ished for life from France. Barère fell within chosen by his native district a member of the this description. He had voted for the death Chamber of Representatives. But though that of Louis; and he had sat in the Chamber of assembly was composed in a great measure of Representatives during the hundred days. men who regarded the excesses of the Jaco He accordingly retired to Belgium, and rebins with indulgence, he found himself an ob-sided there, forgotten by all mankind, till the ject of general aversion. When the President year 1830. After the Revolution of July he first informed the Chamber that M. Barère re- was at liberty to return to France, and he fixed quested a hearing, a deep and indignant mur- his residence in his native province. But he mur ran round the benches. After the battle was soon involved in a succession of lawsuits of Waterloo, Barère proposed that the Cham- with his nearest relations—“three fatal sisters ber should save France from the victorious and an ungrateful brother," to use his own enemy, by patting forth a proclamation about words. Who was in the right is a question the pass of 'Thermopylæ, and the Lacedæmo- about which we have no means of judging, nian custom of wearing flowers in times of and certainly shall not take Barère's word. extreme danger. Whether this composition, The courts appear to have decided some points if it had then appeared, would have stopped in his favour and some against him. The the English and Prussian armies, is a question natural inference is, that there were faults on respecting which we are left to conjecture. all sides. The result of this litigation was, The Chamber refused to adopt this last of the that the old man was reduced to extreme farmagnoles.
poverty, and was forced to sell his paternal The Emperor had abdicated. The Bourbons house. returned. The Chamber of Representatives, As far as we can judge from the few facts after burlesquing during a few weeks the pro- which remain to be mentioned, Barère conceedings of the National Convention, retired tinued Barère to the last. After his exile he with the well-earned character of having been turned Jacobin again, and, when he came back the silliest political assembly that had met in to France, joined the party of the extreme left France. Those dreaming pedants and praters in railing at Louis Philippe, and at all Louis never for a moment comprehended their posi- Philippe's ministers. M. Casimir Périer, M. tion. They could never understand that Eu de Broglie, M. Guizot, and M. Thiers, in par. rope must be either conciliated or vanquished; ticular, are honoured with his abuse; and the that Europe could be conciliated only by the king himself is held up to execration as a hy. restoration of Louis, and vanquished only by pocritical tyrant. Nevertheless, Barère had means of a dictatorial power entrusted to Na- no scruple about accepting a charitable donapoleon. They would not hear of Louis; yet tion of a thousand francs a year from the privy they would not hear of the only measures purse of the sovereign whom he hated and rewhich could keep him out. They incurred the viled. This pension, together with some small enmity of all foreign powers by putting Napo- sums occasionally doled out to him by the de. leon at their head; yet they shackled him, partment of the Interior, on the ground that he thwarted him, quarrelled with him about every was a distressed man of letters, and by the trifle, abandoned him on the first reverse. department of Justice, on the ground that he They then opposed declamations and disquisi- had formerly held a high judicial office, saved tions to eight hundred thousand bayonets; him from the necessity of begging his bread played at making a constitution for their coun. Having survived all his colleagues of the re try, when it depended on the indulgence of the nowned committee of public safety, and almost victor whether they should have a country; all his colleagues of the Convention, he died and were at last interrupted in the midst of in January 1811. He had attained his eighty. their babble about the rights of man and the sixth year. sovereignty of the people, by the soldiers of We have now laid before our readers what Wellington and Blucher.
we believe to be a just account of this man's A new.Chamber of Deputies was elected, life. Can it be necessary for us to add any Ho bitterly hostile to the Revolution, that there thing for the purpose of assisting their judge was no small risk of a new reign of terror.ment of his character? If we were writing It is just, however, to say that the king, his about any of his colleagues in the committee ministers, and his allies, exerted themselves to of public safety, about Carnot, about Robes. restrain the violence of the fanatical royalists, pierre, or St. Just, nay, even about Couthon, and that the punishments inflicted, though in Collot, or Billaud, we might feel it necessary our opinion unjustifiat'e, were few and lenient to go into a full examination of the arguments
which have been employed to vindicate or to Terror. Violence, and more violence, blood excuse the system of Terror. We could, we and more blood, made up their whole policy. think, show that France was saved from her In a few months these poor creatures succeeded foreign enemies, not by the system of Terror, in bringing about a reaction, of which none of but in spite of it; and that the perils which them saw, and of which none of us may see, were made the plea for the violent policy of the the close; and, having brought it about, they Monntain, were, to a great extent, created by marvelled at it; they bewailed it; they exe. that very policy. We could, we think, also crated it; they ascribed it to every thing but show that the evils produced by the Jacobin the real cause their own immorality and their administration did not terminate when it fell; own profound incapacity for the conduct of that it bequeathed a long series of calamities great affairs. to France and to Europe; that public opinion, These, however, are considerations to which, which had during two generations been con- on the present occasion, it is hardly necessary stantly becoming more and more favourable for us to advert; for, the defence which has to civil and religious freedom, underwent, dur- been set up for the Jacobin policy, good or bad, ing the days of Terror, a change of which the it is a defence which cannot avail Barère. traces are still to be distinctly perceived. It From his own life, from his own pen, from his was natural that there should be such a change, own mouth, we can prove that the part which when men saw that those who called them- he took in the work of blood is to be attributed, selves the champions of popular rights had not even to sincere fanaticism, not even to compressed into the space of twelve months misdirected and ill-regulated patriotism, but more crimes than the kings of France, Mero- either to cowardice, or to delight in human vingian, Carlovingian, and Capetian, had per- misery. Will it be pretended that it was from petrated in twelve centuries. Freedom was public spirit that he murdered the Girondists? regarded as a great delusion. Men were will. In these very Memoirs he tells us that he al. ing to submit to the government of hereditary ways regarded their death as the greatest princes, of fortunate soldiers, of nobles, of calamity that could befall France. Will it be priests; to any government but that of philo- pretended that it was from public spirit that he sophers and philanthropists. Hence the im- raved for the head of the Austrian woman! perial despotism, with iis enslaved press and in these very Memoirs he tells us that the time its silent tribune, its dungeons stronger than spent in attacking her was ill-spent, and ought the old Bastile, and its tribunals more obse- to have been employed in concerting measures quious than the old parliaments. Hence the of national defence. Will it be pretended that restoration of the Bourbons and of the Jesuits, he was induced by sincere and earnest abhor. the Chamber of 1815, with its categories of rence of kingly government to butcher the living proseription, the revival of the feudal spirit, and to outrage the dead; he who invited Nathe encroachments of the clergy, the persecu- poleon to take the title of King of Kings, he tion of the Protestants, the appearance of a new who assures us, that after the Restoration he breed of De Montforts and Dominics in the full expressed in noble language his attachment to light of the nineteenth century. Hence the monarchy, and to the house of Bourbon ? Had admission of France into the Holy Alliance, he been less mean, something might have been and the war waged by the old soldiers of the said in extenuation of his cruelty. Had he tri-colour against the liberties of Spain. Hence, been less cruel, something might have been too, the apprehensions with which, even at the said in extenuation of his meanness. But for present day, the most temperate plans for widen- him, regicide and court-spy, for him who paing the narrow basis of the French represen- tronized Lebon and betrayed Demerville, for tation are regarded by those who are especially him who wantoned alternately in gasconades interested in the security of property and the of Jacobinism, and gasconades of servility, maintenance of order. Half a century has not what excuse has the largest charity to offer? sufficed to obliterate the stain which one year We cannot conclude without saying some of depravity and madness has left on the thing about two parts of his character, which noblest of causes.
his biographer appears to consider as deserving Nothing is more ridiculous than the manner of high admiration. Barère, it is admitted, was in which writers like M. Hippolyte Carnot somewhat fickle; but in two things he was defend or excuse the Jacobin administration, consistent, in his love of Christianity, and in while they declaim against the reaction which his hatred to England. If this were so, ve followed." That the reaction has produced and must say that England is much more beholden is still producing much evil, is perfectly true. to him than Christianity. But what produced the reaction? The spring It is possible that our inclinations may bias flies up with a force proportioned to that with our judgment; but we think that we do not which it has been pressed down. The pendu- flatter ourselves when we say, that Barère's lum which is drawn far in one direction swings aversion to our country was a sentiment as as far in the other. The joyous madness of deep and constant as his mind was capable of intoxication in the evening is followed by lan- entertaining. The value of this compliment guor and nausea on the morrow. And so, in is, indeed, somewhat diminished by the cir. politics, it is the sure law that every excess cumstance, that he knew very little about us. shall generate its opposite; nor does he deserve His ignorance of our institutions, manners, and the name of a statesraan who strikes a great history, is the less excusable, because, accord blow without sülly calculating the effect of the ing to his own account, he consorted much, rebound. But such calculation was infinitely during the peace of Amiens, with Englishmen beyond the reach of the authors of the Reign of of note, such as that eminent nobleman Lord
Greaten, and that not less eminent philosopher mote the honour of our country; but that little Mr Mackenzie Cæfhis. In spite, however, of he did strenuously and constantly. Renegade, his connection with these well-known orna- traitor, slave, coward, liar, slanderer, murderer, ments of our country, he was so ill informed hack-writer, police-spy-the one small service about us as lo fancy that our government was which he could render to England, was to hate always laying plans to torment him. If he her: and such as he was may all who hate was hooted at Saintes, probably by people her be. whose relations he had murdered, it was be We cannot say that we contemplate with cause the cabinet of St. James had hired the equal satisfaction that fervent and constant mob. If nobody would read his bad books, it zeal for religion, which, according to M. Hipwas because the cabinet of St. James had polyte Carnot, distinguished Barère; for, as we secured the reviewers. His accounts of Mr. (think that whatever brings dishonour on reliFox, of Mr. Pitt, of the Duke of Wellington, of gion is a serious evil, we had, we own, induiged Mr. Canning, swarm with blunders, surpassing a hope that Barère was an atheist. We now even the ordinary blunders committed by learn, however, that he was at no time even a Frenchmen who write about England. Mr. sceptic, that he adhered to his faith through the Fox and Mr. Pitt, he tells us, were ministers in whole Revolution, and that he has left several two different reigns. Mr. Pitt's sinking fund manuscript works on divinity. One of these was instituted in order to enable England to is a pious treatise, entitled, “Of Christianity pay subsidies to the powers allied against the and of its Influence." Another consists of French Republic. The Duke of Wellington's meditations on the Psalms, which will doubthouse in Hyde Park was built by the nation, less greatly console and edify the church. which twice voted the sum of £200,000 for the This makes the character complete. Whatpurpose. This, however, is exclusive of the soever things are false, whatsoever things are cost of the frescoes, which were also paid for dishonest, whatsoever things are unjust, whatout of the public purse. Mr. Canning was the soever things are impure, whatsoever things first Englishman whose death Europe bad rea- are hateful, whatsoever things are of evil reson to lament; for the death of Lord Ward, a port, if there be any vice, and if there be any relation, we presume, of Lord Greaten and Mr. infamy, all these things, we knew, were blended Cæf his, had been an immense benefit to man- in Barère. But one thing was still wanting, kind.
and that M. Hyppolyte Carnot has supplied. Ignorant, however, as Barère was, he knew When to such an assemblage of qualities a enough of us to hate us; and we persuade our nigh profession of piety is added, the effect selves that, had he known us better, he would becomes overpowering. We sink under the have hated us more. The nation which has contemplation of such exquisite and manicombined, beyond all example and all hope, fold perfection; and feel, with deep humility, the blessings of liberty with those of order, how presumptuous it was in us to think of might well be an object of aversion to one who composing the legend of this beatified athlete bad teen false alike to the cause of order and of the faith, Saint Bertrand of the Carmagto the cause of liberty. We have had amongst noles. us intemperate zeal for popular rights; we Something more we had to say about him. have had amongst us also the intemperance of But let him go. We did not seek him out, and loyalty. But we have never been shocked by will not keep him longer. If those who call such a spectacle as the Barère of 1794, or as themselves his friends had not forced him on the Barère of 1804. Compared with him, our our notice, we should never have vouchsafed fiercest demagogues have been gentle ; com- to him more than a passing word of scorn and pared with him, our meanest courtiers have abhorrence, such as we might fling at his been manly. Mix together Thistlewood and brethren, Hébert and Fouquier Tinville, and Bubb Dodington, and you are still far from Carrier and Lebon. We have no pleasure in having Barère. The antipathy between him seeing human nature thus degraded. We turn and us is such, that neither for the crimes of with disgust from the filthy and spiteful Yahoos his earlier, nor for those of his later life, does of the fiction; and the filihiest and most spiteour language, rich as it is, furnish us with ade- ful Yahoo of the fiction was a noble creature quate names. We have found it difficult to when compared with the Barère of history. relate his history without having perpetual But what is no pleasure, M. Hyppolyte Carnot recourse to the French vocabulary of base- has made a duty. It is no light thing, that a ness. It is not easy to give a notion of his man in high and honourable public trust, a conduct in the Convention, without using those man who, from his connections and position, emphatic terms, guillotinade, noyade, fusillade, may not unnaturally be supposed to speak the nitraillade. It is not easy to give a notion of sentiments of a large class of his countrymen, his conduct under the consulate and the em- should come forward to demand approbation pire, without borrowing such words as mouchard for a life, black with every sort of wickedness, and mouton.
and unredeemed by a single virtue. This M. We, therefore, like his invectives against us Hippolite Carnot has done. By attempting to much better than any thing else that he has enshrine this Jacobin carrion, he has forced written; and dwell on them, not merely with us to gibbet it; and we venture to say that, tcmplacency, but with a feeling akin to grati- from the eminence of infamy on which we lude. It was but little that he could do to pro- have placed it, he will not easily take it down
MR. ROBERT MONTGOMERY'S POEMS.*
[EDINBURGH REVIEW, APRIL, 1830.]
Tak wise men of antiquity loved to convey worth the telling, lies on the surface. The instruction under the covering of apologue; writer evidently means to caution us against and, though this practice of theirs is generally the practices of puffers,-a class of people thought childish, we shall make no apology for who have more than once talked the public adopting it on the present occasion. A gene- into the most absurd errors, but who surely ration which has bought eleven editions of a never played a more curious, or a more diffipoem by Mr. Robert Montgomery, may well cult trick, than when they passed Mr. Robert condescend to listen to a fable of Pilpay. Montgomery off upon the world as a great poet.
A pious Brahmin, it is written, made a vow In an age in which there are so few readers that on a certain day he would sacrifice a that a writer cannot subsist on the sum arising sheep, and on the appointed morning he went from the sale of his works, no man who has forth to buy one. There lived in his neighbour- not an independent fortune can devote himself hood three rogues who knew of his vow, and to literary pursuits, unless he is assisted by laid a scheme for profiting by it. The first met patronage. In such an age, accordingly, men him and said, “Oh, Brahmin, wilt thou buy a of letters too often pass their lives in dangling sheep? I have one fit for sacrifice.”—“It is at the heels of the wealthy and powerful; and for that very purpose," said the holy man, all the faults which dependence tends to pro" that I came forth this day.” Then the im- duce, pass into their character. They become postor opened a bag, and brought out of it an the parasites and slaves of the great. It is unclean beast, an ugly dog, lame and blind. melancholy to think how many of the highest Thereon the Brahmin cried out, “Wretch, who and most exquisitely formed of human inteltouchest things impure, and utterest things un lects have been condemned to the ignominious true, callest thou that cur a sheep?”—“Truly,” labor of disposing the commonplaces of aduanswered the other, “it is a sheep of the finest lation in new forms, and brightening them into fleece, and of the sweetest flesh. Oh, Brahmin, new splendour. Horace invoking Augustus it will be an offering most acceptable to the in the most enthusiastic language of religious gods.”-Friend,” said the Brahmin, “either veneration,-Statius flattering a tyrant, and the thou or I must be blind."
minion of a tyrant, for a morsel of bread, Just then one of the accomplices came up. Ariosto versifying the whole genealogy of a “ Praised be the gods," said this second rogue, niggardly patron,-Tasso extolling the heroic * that I have been saved the trouble of going virtues of the wretched creature who locked to the market for a sheep! This is such a him up in a mad-house,-these are but a few sheep as I wanted. For how much wilt thou of the instances which might easily be given sell it?” When the Brahmin heard this, his of the degradation to which those must sub. mind waved to and fro, like one swinging in mit, who, not possessing a competent fortune, the air at a holy festival. “Sir,” said he to the are resolved to write when there are scarcely new comer, “take heed what thou dost; this is any who read. no sheep, but an unclean cur.” '_"Oh, Brah This evil the progress of the human mind min," said the new comer, “thou art drunk or tends to remove. As a taste for books becomes mad!”
more and more common, the patronage of indiAt this time the third confederate drew near. viduals becomes less and less necessary. In “ Let us ask this man,” said the Brahmin, the earlier part of the last century a marked "what the creature is, and I will stand by what change took place. The tone of literary men, he shall say." To this the others agreed; and both in this country and in France, became the Brahmin called out, “Oh, stranger, what higher and more independent. Pope boasted dost thou call this beast ?"_“Surely, oh, Brah- that he was the "one poet" who had “ pleased min,” said the knave, “it is a fine sheep.” by manly ways;" he derided the scft dedica Then the Brahmin said, “Surely the gods have tions with which Halifax had been fed,taken away my senses,”—and he asked pardon asserted his own superiority over the pen of him who carried the dog, and bought it for sioned Boileau,--and glorified in being not the a measure of rice and a pot of ghee, and offered follower, but the friend, of nobles and princes. it up to the gods, who, being wroth at this un- The explanation of all this is very simple. clean sacrifice, smote him with a sore disease Pope was the first Englishman who, by the in all his joints.
mere sale of his writings, realized a sum Thus, or nearly thu.r, if we remember rightly, which enabled him to live in comfort and in rans the story of the Sanscrit Æsop. The perfect independence. Johnson extols him for moral, like the moral of every fable that is the magnanimity which he showed in inscribe
ing his Iliad, not to a minister or a peer, but to The Omnipresence of the Deity, a Poem. By ROBERT Congreve. In our time, this would scarcely MONTGOMERY. Eleventh Edition. London. 1830. 2. Salan, a Poem. By ROBERT MONTGOMERY. Second | when Mr. Moore pays a complimert of this
be a subject for praise. Nobody is astonished Edition. London. 1830.
kind to Sir Walter Scott, or Sir Walter Scott | upon with a despicable ingenuity by people to Mr. Moore. The idea of either of those engaged in a pursuit which never was, and gentlemen looking out for some lord who never will be considered as a mere trade by would be likely to give him a few guineas in any man of honour and virtue. A butcher of return for a fulsome
this is exactly what Dryden or Otway would have done; and it to hang up papers in his window inviting the would be hard to blame them for it. Otway is passers-by to look at the stock of a bankrupt, said to have been choked with a piece of bread all of the first quality, and going for half the which he devoured in the rage of hunger; and, value. We expect some reserve, some decent whether this story be true or false, he was, be- pride, in our hatter and our bootmaker. But yond all question, miserably poor. Dryden, at no artifice by which notoriety can be obtained near seventy, when at the head of the literary is thought too abject for a man of letters. men of England, without equal or second, It is amusing to think over the history of received three hundred pounds for his Fables most of the publications which have had a run -a collection of ten thousand verses,—and during the last few years. The publisher is such verses as no man then living, except often the publisher of some periodical work. himself, could have produced. Pope, at thirty, In this periodical work the first flourish of had laid up between six and seven thousand trumpets is sounded. The peal is then echoed pounds,--the fruits of his poetry. It was not, and re-echoed by all the other periodical works we suspect, because he had a higher spirit, or over which the publisher or the author, or the a more scrupulous conscience, than his pre- author's coterie, may have any influence. The decessors, but because he had a larger income, newspapers are for a fortnight filled with puffs of that he kept up the dignity of the literary cha- all the various kinds which Sheridan recounted, racter so much better than they had done. -direct, oblique, and collusive. Sometimes
From the time of Pope to the present day, the praise is laid on thick for simple-minded the readers have been constantly becoming people. “Pathetic,” “sublime," a splendid," more and more numerous: and the writers, “graceful, brilliant wit," " exquisite humour," consequently, more and more independent. and other phrases equally flattering, fall in a It is assuredly a great evil, that men fitted by shower as thick and as sweet as the sugartheir talents and acquirements to enlighten plums at a Roman carnival. Sometimes greatand charm the world, should be reduced to er art is used. A sinecure has been offered to the necessity of flattering wicked and foolish the writer if he would suppress his work, or if patrons in return for the very sustenance of he would even soften down a few of his incomlife. But though we heartily rejoice that this parable portraits. A distinguished military and evil is removed, we cannot but see with con- political character has challenged the inimita cern that another evil has succeeded to it. ble satirist of the vices of the great; and the The public is now the patron, and a most libe- puffer is glad to learn that the parties have ral patron. All that the rich and powerful been bound over to keep the peace. Somebestowed on authors from the time of Mæcenas times it is thought expedient that the puffer to that of Harley would not, we apprehend, should put on a grave face, and utter his panemake up a sum equal to that which has been gyric in the form of admonition! "Such atpaid by English booksellers to authors during tacks on private character cannot be too much the last thirty years. Men of letters have condemned. Even the exuberant wit of our accordingly ceased to court individuals, and author, and the irresistible power of his with have begun to court the public. They for- ering sarcasm, are no excuses for that utter merly used flattery. They now use puffing. disregard which he manifests for the feelings
Whether the old or the new vice be the of others. We cannot but wonder that the worse,—whether those who formerly lavished writer of such transcendent talents,-a writer insincere praise on others, or those who now who is evidently no stranger to the kindly contrive by every art of beggary and bribery charities and sensibilities of our nature, should to stun the public with praises of themselves, show so little tenderness to the foibles of noble disgrace their vocation the more deeply,we and distinguished individuals, with whom, it is shall not attempt to decide. But of this we clear, from every page of his work, that he are sure,—that it is high time to make a stand must have been constantly mingling in socieagainst the new trickery. The puffing of ty." These are but tame and feeble imitations books is now so shamefully and so success of the paragraphs with which the daily papers fully practised, that it is the duty of all who are filled whenever an attorney's clerk or an are anxious for the purity of the national taste, apothecary's assistant undertakes to tell the or for the honour of the literary character, to public, in bad English and worse French, how join in discountenancing it. All the pens that people tie their neckcloths and eat their dir ever were employed in magnifying Bish's ners in Grosvenor Square. The editors of the lucky office, Romanis's fleecy hosiery, Pack-higher and more respectable newspapers wood's razor strops, and Rowland's Kalydor, usually prefix the words « Advertisement," or
all the placard-bearers of Dr. Eady,—all the “From a Correspondent," to such paragraphs. wall-chalkers of Day and Martin-seem to But this makes little difference. The panegy. have taken service with the poets and novel ric is extracted, and the significant heading ists of this generation. Devices which in the omitted. The fulsome ealogy makes its aplowest trades are considered as disreputable, pearance on the covers of all the Reviews and are adopted without scruple, and improved Magazines, with "Times” or “Globe" affixed