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Explanation of the Word "Miser." — Can any the words to Acis and Galatea “are said to be written, of your readers explain how and when miser came but apparently partly compiled, by John Gay." This to get the meaning of an avaricious hoarding man?

serenata is included among Gay's Poems in Dr. JohnIn Spenser's Faerie Queene, 11. 1. 8., it is used in

son's edition of the English Poets, 1790, as well as in

Chalmers's edition of 1810, and in the complete cdi. its nearly primary sense of “wretch :"

tion of British Poets, Edinburgh, 1794.] “ Vouchsafe to stay your steed for humble miser's sake.” Again, Faerie Queene, 11. 3. 8.:

Birm-bank. The bank of a canal opposite to

the towing-path is called the birm-bank. What 66 The miser threw himself, as an offall,

is the derivation of this ?

UNEDA. Straiglit at his foot in base humility."

Philadelphia. In Milton's Comus, which was written about

[The word birm seems to have the same meaning as fifty years after the first three books of the Faerie berme (Fr. berme), which, in Fortification, denotes a Queene, the present signification of the word is piece of ground of three, four, or five feet in width, complete:

left between the rampart and the moat or foss, designed “ You may as well spread out the unsunu'd heaps

to receive the ruins of the rampart, and prevent the Of miser's treasure by an outlaw's den,

earth from filling the foss. Sometimes it is palisaded, And tell me it is safe, as bid one hope

and in Holland is generally planted with quickset Danger will sink on opportunity,” &c.

hedge.] J. D. GARDNER.

General Thomas Gage, — This officer comBottisham.

manded at Boston at the breaking out of the [The modern restricted use of the word miser is Revolution, and served under General Braddock. subsequent to Shakspeare's time; for in Part I. King Where can I find any details of the remainder of Henry VI., Act V. Sc. 4.,

his history?

SERVIENS. “ Decrepit miser ! base ignoble wretch !"

[An interesting biographical account of General Steevens says has no relation to avarice, but simply means Gage is given in the Georgian Era, vol. ii. p. 67.] a miserable creature. So in the interlude of Jacob and Esau, 1568 : “ But as for these misers within my father's tent."

Replies. Again, in Lord Stirling's tragedy of Cræsus, 1604 :

RAPPING NO NOVELTY. « Or think'st thou me of judgement too remiss,

(Vol. viii., pp. 512. 632.) A miser that in miserie remains."

The story referred to is certainly a very curious Otway, however, in his Orphan, published in 1680,

one, and I should like to know whether it is exuses it for a covetous person :

actly as it was told by Baxter, especially as there “ Though she be dearer to my soul than rest seems to be reason for believing that De Foe To weary pilgrims, or to misers gold,

(whom on other grounds one would not trust in Rather than wrong Castalio, I'd forget thee." such a matter) did not take it from the work So also does Pope :

which he quotes. Perhaps if you can find room « No silver saints by dying misers giren,

for the statement, some correspondent would be Here brib'd the rage of ill-requited heaven.”]

so good as to state whether it has the sanction of

Baxter: " Acis and Galatea." - Is there any good evi “ Mr. Baxter, in his Historical Discourse of Appadence in support of the commonly received opinion ritions, writes thus: There is now in London an unthat the words to Handel's Acis and Galatea were

derstanding, sober, pious man, of one of my hearers, written by Gay ? Hawkins merely states that who has an elder brother, a gentleman of considerable they “are said to have been written by Mr. Gay.” rank, who having forinerly seemed pious, of late years I have no copy of Burney at hand to refer to; | does often fall into the sin of drunkenness; he often but I find the same statement repeated by various lodges long together here in his brother's house, and other musical historians, without, however, any whensoever he is drunk and has slept himself sober, authority being given for it. The words in ques- something knocks at his bed's head, as if one knocked tion are not to be found among the Poems on on a wainscot. When they remove his bed it follows several Occasions, by Mr. John Gay, published in him. Besides other loud noises on other parts where 1767 by Tonson and others. Have they ever

he is, that all the house hears, they have often watched been included in any collective edition of his him, and kept his hands lest he should do it himself.

G. T. works?

His brother has often told it me, and brought his wife,

a discreet woman, to attest it, who avers moreover, that Reading.

as she watched him, she has seen his shoes under the [In the musical catalogue of the British Museum, bed taken up, and nothing visible to touch them. They compiled by Thomas Oliphant, Esq., it is stated that brought the man himself to me, and when we asked

him.'" p. 107.

him how he dare sin again after such a warning, he Form, &c. Fast. 1776. had no excuse. But being persons of quality, for some Form, &c. Fast. 1778. special reason of worldly interest I must not name Form, &c. Fast. 1780. De Foe's Life of Duncan Campbell, 2nd ed. Form, &c. Fast. 1781.

Form, &c. Fast. 1782. After this story, De Foe says:

A Prayer to be used on Litany Days before the

Litany, and on other days immediately before the “ Another relation of this kind was sent to Dr.

for all Conditions of Men, in all Cathedral, Beaumont (whom I myself personally knew, and Collegiate, and Parochial Churches and Chapels, which he has inserted in his account of genii, or fa &c., during his Majesty's present Indisposition. miliar spirits) in a letter by an ingenious and learned 1788. clergyman of Wiltshire,” &c.

The following MS, note is inserted in the handBut he does not say that the story which he has writing of Mr. Finch, father of the gentleman who already quoted as from Baxter stands just as he bequeathed the collection : has given it, and with a reference to Baxter, in “ Mrs. Finch accompanied my Father (Rev. Dr. Beaumont's Historical, Physiological, and Theo- Finch, Rector of St. Michael's, Cornhill) to the Ca. logical Treatise of Spirits, p. 182. Of course one thedral, where he had a seat for himself and his lady does not attach any weight to De Foe's saying assigned him under the Dome, as Treasurer to the that he knew Dr. Beaumont "personally," but Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, the does anybody know anything of him? Nearly original patrons of the Charity Schools. Mrs. F. was four years ago you inserted a somewhat similar

so fortunate as to obtain a seat in the choir, and saw inquiry about this Duncan Campbell, but I be

the procession from the choir gate.

Myself and lieve it has not yet been answered.

Robert saw the cavalcade (which was extremely grand, S. R. MAITLANN.

and continued for the space of more than three hours, both Houses of Parliament with their attendants preceding their Majesties) from Mrs. Townsend's house

in Fleet Street.”—April 23, 1789. OCCASIONAL FORMS OF PRAYER.

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the King's (Vol. viii., p. 535.)

Recovery. 1789. From a volume of Forms of Prayer in the Form, &c. Fast. 1793. library of Sir Robert Taylor's Institution, I send

Form, &c. Fast. 1795. you the following list, as supplementary to MR.

Form, &c. Fast. 1796. LATHBURY's. This volume forms part of a col

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for many signal and lection of books bequeathed to the University by

important Victories. 1797.

Fast.
Form, &c.

1798.
the late Robert Finch, M. A., formerly of Baliol
College :

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory of

the Nile, &c. 1798. A Form of Prayer for a General Fast, &c. 4to. Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Victory over London. 1762.

the French Fleet, Aug. l. 1798. In both the Morning and Evening Services of

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for the safe Delivery this Form“A Prayer for the Reformed Churches "

of H, R. H. the Princess of Wales, and the birth of

a Princess. 1796. is included, which is omitted in all the subsequent

Form, &c. Fast. 1799. Forms. This is a copy of it:

Form, &c. Fast. 1800. “ A Prayer for the Reformed Churches.

Form, &c. Fast. 1801. “ O God, the Father of Mercies, we present our

Forin and Thanksgiving for the Harvest. 1801. Supplications unto Thee, more especially on behalf of Form and Thanksgiving for putting an End to the

War. 1802. our Reformed Brethren, whom, blessed be Thy Name, Thou hast bitherto wonderfully supported. Make

Form, &c. Fast. 1803.

Form, &c. Fast. them perfect, strengthen, 'stablish them : that they may

1804. stand fast in the Liberty wherewith Christ hath made

Form, &c. Fast. 1805. them free, and adorn the Doctrine of God our Saviour

Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving for Lord Nelson's in all things. Preserve the Tranquillity of those who

Victory. 1805.

1806. at present enjoy it : look down with compassion upon

Form, &c. Fast. such as are persecuted for Righteousness' sake, and

Form, &c. Fast, 1807. plead Thy cause with the oppressors of Thy people. Form, &c. Fast.

Form, &c. Fast. 1808.

1809. Enlighten those who are in Darkness and Error; and give them Repentance to the Acknowledgment of the

Form, &c. Fast. 1810. Truth : that all the Ends of the World may remember

Form, &c. Fast. 1812.

1814. themselves, and be turned unto the Lord ; and we all

Form, &c. Thanksgiving for the Peace. may become one Flock, under the great Shepherd and Form, &c. Thanksgiving for the Peace. 1816. Bishop of our Souls, Jesus Christ, our only Mediator

John MACRAY. and Advocate. Amen."

Oxford.

CELTIC AND LATIN LANGUAGES.

GEOMETRICAL CURIOSITY. (Vol. viii., p. 174.)

(Vol. viii., p. 468.) There was a Query some time ago upon this MR. INGLEBY's question might easily be the subject, but though it is one full of interest to all foundation of a geometrical paper; but as this scholars, I have not observed any Notes worth would not be a desirable contribution, I will enmentioning in reply. The connexion between deavour to keep clear of technicalities, in pointing these two languages bas only of late occupied the out how the process described may give something attention of philologers; but the more closely they near to a circle, or may not. are compared together, the more important and When a paper figure, bent over a straight line the more striking do the resemblances appear; in it, has the two parts perfectly fitting on each and the remark of Arnold with regard to Greek other, the figure is symmetrical about that straight literature applies equally to Latin, that we seem line, which may be called an axis of symmetry. now to have reached that point in our knowledge Thus every diameter of a circle is an axis of of the language, at which other languages of the symmetry: every regular oval has two axes of same family must be more largely studied, before symmetry at right angles to each other : every we can make a fresh step in advance." But this regular polygon of an odd number of sides has an study, as regards the comparison of Celtic and axis joining each corner to the middle of the Latin, is, in England at least, in a very infant opposite sides : every regular polygon of an even state. Professor Newman, in his Regal Rome, number of sides has axes joining opposite corners, has drawn attention to the subject; but his in- and axes joining the middles of opposite sides. duction does not appear sufficiently extensive to When a piece of paper, of any form whatsoever, warrant any decisive conclusion respecting the rectilinear or curvilinear, is doubled over any position the Celtic holds as an element of the line in it, and when all the parts of either side Latin. Pritchard's work upon the subject is sa- which are not covered by the other are cut away, tisfactory as far as it goes, but both these authors the unfolded figure will of course have the creased have chiefly confined themselves to a tabular view line for an axis of symmetry. If another line be of Celtic and Latin words ; but it is not merely now creased, and a fold made over it, and the this we want. What is required is a critical ex- process repeated, the second line becomes an axis amination into the comparative structure and of symmetry, and the first perhaps ceases to be formal development of the two languages, and this one. If the process be then repeated on the first is a work still to be accomplished. The later line, this last becomes an axis, and the other (pronumbers of Bopp's Comparative Grammar are, I bably) ceases to be an axis. If this process can believe, devoted to this subject, but as they have be indefinitely continued, the cuttings must benot been translated, they must be confined to a come smaller and smaller, for the following realimited circle of English readers, and I have not son. Suppose, at the outset, the boundary point yet seen any reproduction of the views therein nearest to the intersection of the axes is distant contained in the philological literature of England. from that intersection by, say four inches; it is

As the first step to considerations of this kind clear that we cannot, after any number of cuttings, must be made from a large induction of words, I have a part of the boundary at less than four think, with your correspondent, that the pages of inches from the intersection. For there never is, "N. & Q." "might be made useful in supplying after any cutting, any approach to the intersection " links of connexion " to supply a groundwork for except what there already was on the other side of future comparison. I shall conclude by sug- the axis employed, before that cutting was made. gesting one or two "links" that I do not re- If then the cuttings should go on for ever, or member to have seen elsewhere.

practically until the pieces to be cut off are too 1. Is the root of felix to be found in the Irish small, and if this take place all round, the figure fail, fute; the contraction of the dipththong ai last obtained will be a good representation of a or e being analogous to that of amaïmus into circle of four inches radius. On the suppositions, amêmus ?

we must be always cutting down, at all parts of 2. Is it not probable that Avernus, if not cor- the boundary ; but it has been shown that we can rupted from šopvos, is related to iffrin, the Irish never come nearer than by four inches to the inferi? This derivation is at any rate more pro- intersection of the axes. bable than that of Grotefend, who connects the But it does not follow that the process will go word with 'Axépwv.

on for ever. We may come at last to a state in 3. Were the Galli, priests of Cybele, so called which both the creases are axes of symmetry at as being connected with fire-worship? and is the once; and then the process stops. If the paper name at all connected with the Celtic gal, a flame? had at first a curvilinear boundary, properly The word Gallus, a Gaul, is of course the same chosen, and if the axes were placed at the proper as the Irish gal, a stranger.

T. H. T. angle, it would happen that we should arrive at a

THE BLACK-GUARD.

regular curved polygon, having the two axes for axes of symmetry. The process would then stop. I will, however, suppose that the original bound

(Vol. viii., p. 414.) ary is everywhere rectilinear. It is clear then that, after every cutting, the boundary is still especially, have been very learned on this subject, and

Some of your correspondents, Sir James E. TENNENT rectilinear. If the creases be at right angles to

all have thrown new light on what I consider a very one another, the ultimate figure may be an irre- curious inquiry. The following document I discovered gular polygon, having its four quarters alike, such

some years ago in the Lord Steward's Offices. Your as may be inscribed in an oval; or it may have readers will see its value at once ; but it may not be its sides so many and so small, that the ultimate amiss to observe, that the name in its present applica-' appearance shall be that of an oval. But if the tion had its origin in the number of masterless boys creases be not at right angles, the ultimate figure hanging about the verge of the Court and other public is a perfectly regular polygon, such as can be in places, palaces, coal-cellars, and palace stables ; ready scribed in a circle ; or its sides may be so many

with links to light coaches and chairs, and conduct, and so small that the ultimate appearance shall be and rob people on foot, through the dark streets of that of a circle.

London ; nay, to follow the Court in its progresses to

Pope's “link-boys vile" Suppose, as in MR. INGLEBY's question, that Windsor and Newmarket. the creases are not at right angles to each other;

are the black-guard boys of the following Proclamation.

PETER CUNNINGHAM. supposing the eye and the scissors perfect, the results will be as follows:

At the Board of Green Cloth, First, suppose the angle made by the creases to

in Windsor Castle, be what the mathematicians call incommensurable

this 7th day of May, 1683. with the whole revolution ; that is, suppose that WHEREAS of late a sort of vicious, idle, and no repetition of the angle will produce an exact masterless boyes and rogues, commonly called the number of revolutions. Then the cutting will go Black-guard, with divers other lewd and loose on for ever, and the result will perpetually fellowes, vagabonds, vagrants, and wandering men approach a circle. It is easily shown that no and women, do usually haunt and follow the Courty: figure whatsoever, except a circle, has two axes to the great dishonour of the same, and as Wee of symmetry which make an angle incommensur are informed have been the occasion of the late able with the whole revolution.

dismall fires that happened in the towns of WindSecondly, suppose the angle of the creases com sor and Newmarket, and have, and frequently do mensurable with the revolution. Find out the commit divers other misdemeanours and disorders smallest number of times which the angle must in such places where they resort, to the prejudice be repeated to give an exact number of revolu- of His Majesty's subjects, for the prevention of tions. If that number be even, it is the number which evills and misdemeanours hereafter, Wee do of sides of the ultimate polygon : if that number hereby strictly charge and command all those so be odd, it is the half of the number of sides of the called the Black-guard as aforesaid, with all other ultimate polygon.

loose, idle, masterless men, boyes, rogues, and Thus, the paper on which I write, the whole wanderers, who have intruded themselves into His sheet being taken, and the creases made by join- Majesty's Court or stables, that within the space ing opposite corners, happens to give the angle of of twenty-four houres next after the publishing the creases very close to three-fourteenths of a of this order, they depart, upon pain of imprisonrevolution; so that fourteen repetitions of the ment, and such other punishments as by law are · angle is the lowest number which give an exact to be inflicted on them. number of revolutions; and a very few cuttings

(Signed) ORMOND. lead to a regular polygon of fourteen sides. But

H. BULKELEY. if four-seventeenihs of a revolution had been

H. BROUNCKER. taken for the angle of the creases, the ultimate

Rich. Mason. polygon would have had thirty-four sides. In an

STE. Fox. angle taken at hazard the chances are that the number of ultimate sides will be large enough to present a circular appearance.

THE CALVES' HEAD CLUB. Any reader who chooses may amuse himself by trying results from three or more axes, whether

(Vol. viii., pp. 315. 480.) ali passing through one point or not.

A. DE MORGAN.

The Calves' Head Club existed much earlier. than the time when their doings were commemorated in the Weekly Oracle (Vol. viii., p. 315.) of February 1, 1735, or depicted in the print of 1734 (Vol. viii., p. 480.). There is a pamphlet,

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the second edition of which was published in

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. small 4to., in 1703, entitled :

The Calotype Process.— I have made my first essay “ The Secret History of the Calves' Head Club, in the calotype process, following Dr. Diamond's or, the Republican Unmasqu'd, wherein is fully directions given in “ N. & Q.," and using Turner's : shewn the Religion of the Calves- Head Heroes in paper, as recommended by him. My success has been their Anniversary Thanksgiving Songs on the Thir. quite as great as I could expect as a novice, and sa. tieth of January, by their Authems,” &c. &c.

tisfies me that any defects are due to my own want of

skill, and not to any fault in the directions given. I We are told in the latter part of the long title

wish, however, to ask a question as to iodizing the page that the work was published" to demonstrate

paper. Dr. Diamond says, lay the paper on the soluthe restless, implacable spirit of a certain party tion; then immcdiutely remove it, and lay on the dry still among us,” and certainly the statements side on blotting-paper, &c. Now I find, if I remove therein, and more than all the anthems at the end, immediately, the whole sheet of paper curls up into a do show the bitterest hatred-so bitter, so intense roll, and is quite unmanageable. I want to know, and malignant, that we feel on reading it that therefore, whether there is any objection to allowing there must be some exaggeration.

the paper to remain on the iodizing solution until it The author professes to have at first been of lies flat on it, so that on removal it will not curl, and opinion " that the story was purely contrived on

may be easily and conveniently laid on the dry side to purpose to render the republicans more odious

pass the glass rod over it. As soon as the paper is than they deserv'd." Whether he was convinced

floated on the solution (I speak of Turner's) it has a to the contrary by ocular demonstration he does

great tendency to curl, and takes some time before the

expansion of both surfaces becoming equal allows it to not tell us, but gives us information he received

lie quite flat on the liquid. May this operation be perfrom a gentleman

formed by the glass rod, without floating at all? “ Who, about eight years ago, went out of meer

Photographers, like myself, at a distance from prac. curiosity to see their Club, and has since furnish'd me tical instruction, are so much obliged for plain and with the following papers. I was inform'd that it was

simple directions such as those given by Dr. DIAMOND, kept in no fix'd house, but that they remov'd as they

which are the result of experience, that I am sure he saw convenient; that the place they met in when he

will not mind being troubled with a few inquiries relawas with 'em was in a blind ally, about Morefields ;

tive to them.

C. E. F. that the company wholly consisted of Independents

Hockin's Short Sketch.-Mr. Hockin is so well known and Anabaptists (I am glad for the honour of the

as a thoroughly practical chemist, that it may suffice Presbyterians to set down this remark); that the

to call attention to the fact of his having published a fa nous Jerry White, formerly Chaplain to Oliver

little brochure entitled How to obtain Positive and Cro:nwell, who no doubt on't came to sanctify with

Negative Pictures on Collodionized Glass, and copy the his pious exhortations the Ribbaldry of the Day, said Grace; that after the table-cloth was removed, the

latter upon Paper. A Short Sketch adapted for the Tyro

in Photography. As the question of the alkalinity of anniversary anthem, as they impiously called it, was

the nitrate bath is one which has lately been discussed, sung, and a calve's skull fill'd with wine, or other

we will give, as a specimen of Mr. Hockin's book, a liquor, and then a brimmer went about to the pious

quotation, showing his opinion upon that question : memory of those worthy patriots that killid the tyrant, and deliver'd their country from arbitrary sway; and

The sensitizing agent, nitrate of silver in crystals, lastly, a collection made for the mercenary scribler, to

not the ordinary fused in sticks, is nearly always conwhich every man contributed according to his zeal for

fessedly adulterated; it is thus employed :

The silver or nitrate bath. Nitrate of silver five the cause, or the ability of his purse. “ I have taken care to set down what the gentleman

drachms, distilled water ten ounces; dissolve and add

iodized collodion two drachms. told me as faithfully as my memory wou'd give me

“ Shake these well together, allow them to macerate. leave; and I am persuaded that some persons that

twelve hours, and filter through paper. Before adding frequent the Black Boy in Newgate Street, as they knew the author of the following lines so they knew

the nitric acid, test the liquid with a piece of blue this account of the Calves' Head Club to be true.”

litmus paper; if it remain blue after being immersed

one minute, add one drop of dilute nitric acid *, and The anthems for the years 1693, 1694, 1695,

test again for a minute; and so on, until a claret red is 1696, and 1697, are given; but they are too indicated on the paper. It is necessary to test the long and too stupidly blasphemous and indecent

bath in a similar manner, frequently adding half a to quote here. They seem rather the satires of drop to a: · drop of dilute acid when required. This malignant cavaliers than the serious productions

precaution will prevent the fogging due to alkalinity

of the bath, so formidable an obstacle to young hands." of any Puritan, however politically or theologically heretical.

EDWARD PEACOCK. Photographic Society's Exhibition. The Photo. Bottesford Moors.

graphic Society opened their first Exhibition of Pho

* “ Dilute nitric acid. - Water fifty parts, nitric acid one part."

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