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KENNINGTON COMMON.

LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 1, 1854. ing engraving (in the Nlus. Lond. News), unless

earlier remains are to be found in the lower parts

of the interior." But I believe that the identity Notes.

of the site of this ancient mansion (which is situated on the western side of Lower Kennington

Lane), with part of the site of the old palace, is Before all traces be lost of Kennington Com- not quite so certain as the writer appears to inmon, so soon to be distinguished by the eupho- timate. In 1720, however, the manor gave the nious epithet of Park, let me put a Query to some title of Earl to William Augustus, Duke of Cum.. of your antiquarian readers in relation thereunto; berland, second son to George II. and suffer me to make the Query a peg, whereon Kennington Common acquired an unenviable to hang sundry and divers little notes. And pray notoriety from being the place of execution for let no one ridicule the idea that Kennington has malefactors tried in this part of the county. its antiquities; albeit that wherever you look, “After the suppression of the rebellion in Scotnew buildings, new bricks and mortar, plaster and land in 1745, many of the insurgents having been cement, will meet your eye; yet, does not the convicted of treason at Southwark, here suffered manor figure in Domesday Book? Is it not dig- the sentence of the law" (Dugdale's England and nified by the stately name of Chenintune? Was Wales, p. 1015.). “Seventeen officers of the rebel it not held by Theodoric of King Edward the army were hanged, drawn, and quartered” on this Confessor ? And did it not, in times gone by, spot. (Goldsmith's History, continued by Morell, possess a royal residence ?

4to., 1807, vol. ii. p. 165.) Here, at a Danish marriage, died Hardi Knute

“ One of the last executions which took place on in 1041. Here, Harold, son of Earl Godwin, who Kennington Common was that of seven men; three seized the crown after the death of the Confessor, of whom belonged to a notorious gang of houseis said to have placed it on his own head. Here, breakers, eighteen in number. These men kept shops, in 1231, King Henry III. held his court, and and lived in credit: of the three who were executed, passed a solemn and a stately Christmas. And one made over a sum of 2000l. to a friend, previous to here, says Matthew Paris, was held a Parliament his trial. They confessed that the profits of their in the succeeding year. Hither, says good old practices, for the five years past, had been upwards of Stow, anno 1376, came the Duke of Lancaster to 15001. a year to each. This was in the year 1765.". escape the fury of the populace of London, on From a cutting, sent me by a friend, from the SunFriday, February 20, the day following that on

day Times' “ Answers to Correspondents,” March 13,

1853. which Wicliffe had been brought before the bishops at St. Paul's. The Duke was dining “with Here too occurred the Chartist meeting, on the one John of Ipres” when the news arrived, borne memorable 10th of April, 1848. by a breathless messenger, that the people sought Now comes my Query. Was there ever a theatre his life. When the Duke “ leapt so hastily from on Kennington Common?. In the Biographia his oysters, that he hurt both his legges against Dramatica of David Erskine Baker (edit. 1782, the foarme : wine was offered to his oysters, but vol. ii. p. 239.), we are told, that the satyrical hee would not drinke for haste; he fedde with comical allegorical farce," The Mock Preacher, pubhis fellowe Syr Henry Percy, no man following lished in 8vo. in 1739, was “ Acted to a crowded them; and entring the Thamis, neuer stinted audience at Kennington Common, and many other rowing vntill they came to a house neere the theatres, with the humours of the mob." Was it manor of Kenington (besides Lambeth), where at acted in a booth, or in a permanent theatre ? that time the Princesse was, with the young Prince, The words,“ many other theatres,” almost give before whom hee made his complaint.” Doubt one the impression that the latter is indicated. less, Lambeth Marsh was then what its name im Many more notes might be added, but I fear ports. Hither also came a deputation of the lest this paper should already be too local to inchiefest citizens to Richard II., June 21, 1377, terest general readers. Suffice it to say, that “ before the old King was departed," "to accept Clayton Street, close to the Common, takes its him for their true and lawfull King and Gouer name from the Clayton family; one member nor.” But the royal residence was destroyed of which, Sir Robert Clayton, was sometime before 1607. “The last of the long succession of Master of the Drapers' Company, in whose Hall royal tenants who inhabited the ancient site," a fine portrait of him is preserved. Bowling says a writer in the Illustrated London News not Green Street derives its name from a bowling long since (I have the cutting, but neglected to green which existed not very many years since. note the date of the paper), “ was Charles I., when And White Hart Street from a field, which was Prince of Wales : his lodging, a house built upon so called certainly as early as 1785. On the Coma part of the site of the old palace, is the only mon was “a bridge called Merton Bridge, which existing vestige, as represented in the accompany formerly was repaired by the Canons of Merton

Abbey, who had lands for that purpose." (Lysons' But O! beyond description, happiest he
Environs, edit. 4to., 1792, vol. i. p. 327.)

Who ne'er must roll on life's tumultuous sea ; It is due to your readers to state, that the Who with bless'd freedom, from the general doom authorities for the statements made in the former Exempt, must never face the teeming womb, part of this paper are these: Lysons' Environs, ut

Nor see the sun, nor sink into the tomb !

Who breathes must suffer; and who thinks must supra, vol. i. pp. 325. 327.; Manning and Bray's

mourn; Surrey, Lond., 1809, fol., vol. iii. pp. 484-488.;

And he alone is blessed who ne'er was born." Stow, Annales, edit. 4to., 1601, pp. 432, 433.; and

Prior's Solomon, b. iii. Bibl. Top. Brit., 4to., 1790, vol. ii. “ History and Antiq. of Lambeth," p. 89.

The proverbs, "God takes those soonest whom W. SPARROW Simpson. He loveth best," and, “Whom the gods love die Kennington.

young," have been already illustrated in. “N. & Q." (Vol

. iii., pp. 302.377.). "I have learned from

religion, that an early death has often been the LIFE AND DEATH.

reward of piety," said the Emperor Julian on his I have thrown together a few paralled passages

death-bed. (See Gibbon, ch. xxiv.) for your pages, which may prove acceptable.

2. Judge none blessed before his death." 1. “ To die is better than to live.”

" Ante mortem ne laudes hominem," saith the son of

Sirach, xi. 28. “I praised the dead which are already dead more than the living which are yet alive. Yea, better is he Of this sentiment St. Chrysostom expresses his ad." than both they, which hath not yet been, who hath not miration, Hom. li, in. S. Eustath.; and heathen seen the evil work that is done under the sun.”. writers afford very close parallels : Eccles, iv. 2, 3.

«Πριν δ' άν τελευτήση επισχέειν μηδέ καλέειν κω όλ. « Great travail is created for every man, and a 6.ov årı' EÚtvyła," says Solon to Crosus (Herod., heavy yoke upon the sons of Adam, from the day that KAEIN. i. 32.): cf. Aristot., Eth. Nic. ch. x., for a comthey go out of their mother's womb, till the day that ment on this passage. they return to the mother of all things."Ecclus. xl. 1.:

Sophocles, in the last few lines of the Edipus cf. 2 Esdr. vii, 12, 13.

Tyrannus, thus draws the moral of his fearful “ Never to have been born, the wise man first

tragedy: Would wish; and, next, as soon as born to die.” Anth. Græc. (Posidippus).

«“Ωστε θνητόν όντ', εκείνην την τελευταίαν ιδεών

“Η μέραν επισκοπούντα, μηδένόλείειν, πριν αν In the affecting story of Cleobis and Biton, as Τέρμα του βίου περάση, μηδέν αλγεινόν παθών." related by Herodotus, we read,

Elmsley, on this passage, gives the following re“ The best end of life happened to them, and the ferences : Trach. I. Soph. Tereo, fr. 10.; ibid. Deity showed in their case that it is better for a man to Tyndar. fr. 1.; Agam., 937.; Androm., 100.; die than to live."

Troad., 509. ; Heracl., 865.; Dionys, ap. Stob., “Alébeté Te v TOÚTolond Oeds ús duLEIVOV eln åvopuóry ciii. p. 560.; Gesn., cv. p. 431.; Grot. To which Tedával pûtlov Swelv." — Herod., KAEIN, I. 32. I

may add the oft-quoted lines, – “ As for all other living creatures, there is not one

“ Ultima semper but, by a secret instinct of nature, knoweth his owne Expectanda dies, homini dicique beatus good and whereto he is made able..... Man onely Ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet." knoweth nothing unlesse hee be taught. He can

In farther illustration of this passage from Ecneither speake nor goe, nor eat, otherwise than he is trained to it: and, to be short, apt and good at nothing clus, let us consider the Death of the Righteous. he is naturally, but to pule and crie. And hereupon

“Let me die the death of the righteous, and let it is that some have been of this opinion, that better it my last end be like his,” exclaims the truth-comhad been, and simply best, for a man never to have been pelled and reluctant prophet, Numb. xxij. 10. born, or else speedily to die."— Pliny's Nat. Hist, by The royal Psalmist, after reflecting on the prosHolland, Intr. to b. vii.

perity of the wicked in this world, adds : Happy the mortal man, who now at last

“ Then thought I to understand this, Has through this doleful vale of misery passed ;

But it was too hard for me, Who to his destined stage has carry'd on

Until I went into the sanctuary of God : The tedious load, and laid his burden down;

Then understood I the end of these men." Whom the cut brass or wounded marble shows

Ps. lxxiii. Victor o'er Life, and all her train of woes.

And again : He, happier yet, who, privileged by Fate

“ I have seen the wicked in great power, To shorter labour and a lighter weight,

And spreading himself like a green bay-tree; Received but yesterday the gift of breath, Order'd to-morrow to return to death.

* Cf. Sir Thos. Browne's Christian Morals, sect. ix.

Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not ;

and that time is that sole opportunity that God has Yea, I sought him, but he could not be found. given us for transacting the great business of eternity : Mark the perfect man,

that our work is great, and our day of working short ; And behold the upright,

much of which also is lost and rendered useless through For the end of that man is peace."

the cloudiness and darkness of the morning, and the Ps. xxxvii. 35-37.: cf. the Prayer-Book version. thick vapours and unwholesome fogs of the evening ;

the ignorance and inadvertency of youth, and the disThe prophet Isaiah declares :

ease and infirmities of old age: that our portion of “The righteous man is taken away because of the evil; time is not only short as to its duration, but also unHe shall go in peace, he shall rest in his bed;

certain in the possession : that the loss of it is irreparEven the perfect man, he that walketh in the straight able to the loser, and profitable to nobody else : that it path."— Ch. lvii., Bp. Lowth's Trans.

shall be severely accounted for at the great judgment, “ Sure the last end

ond lamented in a sad eternity." Of the Care and Of the good man is peace! How calm his exit ! Improvement of Time,” Miscel., 6th edit., p. 118. Night-dews fall not more gently to the ground,

EIRIONNACH. Nor weary worn-out winds expire so soft. Behold him! in the evening tide of life, A life well spent, whose early care it was

BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR AND DEATH OF NELSON. His riper years should not upbraid his green: By unperceived degrees he wears away;

The following unpublished letter, as a historical Yet, like the sun, seems larger at his setting !

document, is worth preserving in the pages of High in his faith and hopes, look how he reaches

“ N. & Q.” It relates to the important national After the prize in view! and, like a bird

events of the battle of Trafalgar and death of That's hamper'd, struggles hard to get away!

Nelson. The writer was, at the time, a signal Whilst the glad gates of sight are wide expanded midshipman in the service, and only about thirTo let new glories in, the first fair fruits

teen years of age. He was a native of Glasgow, Of the fast-coming harvest.”— Blair's Grave. and died many years since, much respected. “ How blest the righteous when he dies !

H.M.S. Defence,
When sinks the weary soul to rest !

At anchor off Cadiz, 28 Oct. 1805. How mildly beam the closing eyes !

My dear Betty (the writer's sister],
How gently heaves the expiring breast !

I have now the pleasure of writing you, after a “ So fades the summer cloud away ;

noble victory over the French and Spanish fleets, So sinks the gale when storms are o'er; on the 21st October, off Cape Spartel. We have So gently shuts the eye of day;

taken, burnt and sunk, gone on shore, &c., twentySo dies a wave upon the shore.

one sail of the line. The names I will let (you] “ Life's duty done, as sinks the clay,

know after. On the 19[tb] our frigates made the Light from its load the spirit flies ;

signal; the Combined Fleets were coming out; so While heaven and earth combine to say,

as we were stationed between the frigate and our • How blest the righteous when he dies !""

fleet, we repeated ditto to Lord Nelson. It being Mrs. Barbauld.

calm we could not make much way, but in the “ An eve

course of the night we got a strong breeze, and Beautiful as the good man's quiet end, When all of earthly now is passed away,

next morning, our frigate made the signal for

them, being all at sea. So on the afternoon of the And heaven is in his face," Love's Trial.

20[th] we saw them to leeward ; but it was blow“ He sets

ing fresh and very hazy, so Lord Nelson made As sets the Morning Star, which goes not down

our signal for a captain ; so our captain went on Behind the darkend West, nor hides obscured

board, and Lord Nelson told Captain Hope he Among the tempests of the sky, but melts away Into the light of heaven."

expected he would keep sight of them all night.

So on the morning of the 21st we observed them “ As sweetly as a child,

to leeward about two miles, so we made the signal Whom neither thought disturbs nor care encumbers,

to Lord Nelson bow many the bearings, and Tired with long play, at close of summer's day Lies down and slumbers."

everything ; so brave Nelson bore down imme

diately ; and at twelve o'clock Lord Nelson broke A holy life is the only preparation to a happy the southa line, and brave Admiral Collin[g]wood death, says Bishop Taylor. And we bave seen the north ; and at two o'clock we were all in how much importance even heathen minds ato action. We were the last station'd ship; so when tached to peace at the last. Truly, as Kettlewell

we went down we had two Frenchmen and one said while expiring, “There is no life like a Spaniard on us at one time. We engag d them happy death."

forty-six minutes, when the “Achille” and “Poly“ Consider," says that excellent writer, Norris of phemus" came up to our assistance. The Spaniard Bemerton, “that this life is wholly in order to another, ran away ; we gave him chase, and fought him

HERALDIC ANOMALY.

I am

one hour and forty-six minutes, when he struck, and we boarded him, and have him safe at anchor, as we have not had a good wind. I am sorry to I beg to call the attention of the heraldic say poor Lord Nelson was wounded the second readers of " N. & Q." to a singular custom of disbroadside. He went down and got his wounds playing their coats of arms, peculiar to the Knights dress'd, and he was wound'd a second time, and of St. John, of the venerable Language of England. he just lived to hear of the victory. The ship we It is well known that the members of this valiant took, her name is the “San Ildifonzo," eighty-two brotherhood, throughout Europe, bear their paguns, and a very fine ship, new. I don't think we terpal shield alone, surmounted, as the badge of will save more than twelve sail of them: but we their profession, with the particular device of the have sunk, burnt, drove on shore, twenty-one sail order, that is, On a chiet, gules, a cross argent. of the line in all; and if we had not had a gale of The English knights, with their paternal coat, bore wind next day we would have taken every one of also, party-per-pale, that of their mothers, with them. We were riding close in shore with two the chief of the order over both, a strange he. anchors a-head, three cables on each bower, and raldic anomaly ! all our sails were shot to pieces, ditto our rudder I have somewhere read, but where, for lack of and stern, and mainmast, and everything ; but, a "note," I cannot recollect, that in making their thank good, I am here safe, though there was more proofs of nobility previous to their admission into shot at my quarters than any other part of the the order, unlike the other Languages, the cavaliers ship. We are now at anchor, but expect to go to of England gave in only the names of their father Gibraltar every day. I hope in good you are all and mother, but at the same time it was requisite in health : I was never better in all my life. My that these two names should be able to prove a comp's to all friends [&c. ... . ] and my dear nobility of two hundred years each. father and mother.

Perhaps the custom of bearing the paternal

shield impaled with the maternal sprung from Your affectionate brother,

these proofs. (Signed) CHARLES Reid. In the British Museum, Harl. MSS. 1386., may You must excuse this letter, as half our hands be seen three examples of this custom, in a paper are on board our prize, and have had no time. I entitled, A Note of certain Knights of Rhodes, in have been two days writing this ; five minutes one

prioratû Sancti Johannis Jerusalem." time and ten minutes another time, and so on.

1. Sir Thomas Docwra, Grand Prior of EngWe are just getting under way for Gibraltar.

land, A.D. 1504, a knight not more renowned as a Now for the French and Spanish ships taken,

valiant man-at-arms,

preux et hardi," than as burnt, run on shore, &c. &c. :

a skilful diplomatist; and who, on the death of

Fabricio Caretto, A.D. 1520-1, was thought worthy Bucentaure, 80, taken. French. Santiss' Trinidada, 130, sunk. Spanish.

to be put in competition for the Grand Master

ship with the celebrated Villiers de L'Isle Adam, Santa, taken, but afterwards got into Cadiz.

and, as Vertot tells us, only lost that dignity by : Rayo, 110, sunk. French. Bahama, 74, taken. French.

very trifling majority. His paternal coat — Sable,

a cheveron engrailed argent, between three plates, Argonauta, 80, sunk and burnt. Neptuna, 90, on shore.

on each a pale, gules — is impaled with that of his San Ildifonzo, 80, taken by the Defence.

mother, Alice, daughter of Thomas Green, of Algazeras, 74, on shore; Swiftsure, 74, Gib.; sable, stringed gules, between three griffins' heads,

Gressingham, in Yorkshire ; Argent, a bugle-horn Berwick, 74, Gib. All English ships taken by the erased, of the second; over all, the chief of the French last war.

order. Intrepid, 74, burnt.

2. Sir Lancelot Docwra, near kinsman to Sir Aigle, 80, on shore. Tonguer, 80, on shore (MS. uncertain].

Thomas, and son of Robert Docwra, of DocwraDe. 74, Gibraltar (ditto].

Hall, in Cumberland. His arms are impaled with Argonauta, 74, Gib.

- Or, a cross flory sable — the coat armour of his Redoubtable, 74, sunk.

mother, Jane, daughter of Sir John Lamplugh, of Achell, 74, burnt.

Lamplugh, in the same county ; one of a race," Manareo, 74, on shore.

as Denton says, “of valorous gentlemen, succesSan Augustino, 74, Gibraltar.

sively for their worthiness knighted in the field,

all, or most part of them." The chief of the There is not one English ship lost, but a num order also surmounts his shield. ber lost their masts.

(Signed) C. R.

3. The third is the shield of Sir John Randon ; The writer had a brother, Andrew Reid, who Gules, a bend checquy or and azure, inpaling bore a commission in the ships of Captain Parry Argent, a frette, and on a chief, gules, three esin the first Arctic expedition.

G. N. callops of the field; over all, the chief of the order.

FOLK LORE.

If any readers of “ N. & Q." could furnish me writer, imperfectly supplies the want of letters to with more examples, I should be much obliged. perpetuate the remembrance of public or private

JOHN O' THE FORD. transactions.' The sign in this instance has survived Malta.

the remembrance of the occurrence it was designed to represent, and remains a profound mystery. It has been insinuated that the real occasion of this custom is

known to the corporation, but that, for some reason or Three Maids. There is a spot on the road other

, they are tenacious of the secret.” from Winchester to Andover called the “Three The local historian then mentions an “obscure Maids." They are I believe nameless. Tradition tradition, but as it is not in agreement with my says that they poisoned their father, and were for own opinion, I omit it.

S.P. that crime buried alive up to their necks. Travellers passing by were ordered not to feed them; but one compassionate horseman as he rode along

STORNELLO. threw the core of an apple to one, on which she subsisted for three days. Wonderful is it to state

Verses, the rhymes of which return after the that three groups of firs sprung up miraculously fashion of those printed in “ N. & Q." (Vol

. vi., from the graves of the three maids. Thus their p. 603., and Vol. vii., p. 174.), are commonly curmemories have been perpetuated. The peasantry rent among the peasants of Tuscany, and in of Winchester and its neighbourhood for the most many instances form the materials of their popupart accredit the story, and I see no reason for lar songs. It is probable that this description of disbelieving the first part of it myself. Does any rhyme originated in the “bel paese la dove 'l si one know of a like punishment being awarded in suona.” They usually turn on a combination of olden times, when the tender mercies of the law three words, as in those quoted in Vol. vii. of were cruel and arbitrary ?

“N. & Q." And the name stornello, as will be

readily perceived, is derived from tornare, to reMother Russel's Post.-Whilst I am on the sub- turn. I send you a specimen of one of them, ject of folk lore I may as well add, that on the which has a certain degree of historical interest road to Kings Sombourn, of educational renown, attached to it, from its connexion with the movethere is a spot where four roads meet. Report ment of 1848. It was difficult to walk through says that a certain Mother Russel, who committed the streets of Florence in those days without hearsuicide, was buried there. A little girl in this ing it carolled forth by more than one Florentine village was afraid to pass the spot at night on Tyrtæus. Now, I need hardly say, “ we never account of the ghosts, which are supposed to haunt mention it - its name is never heard.” The pait in the hours of darkness. The rightful name of triot-flag was a tricolor of white, red, and green, the place is “Mother Russel's Post.”

a nosegay of which colours a youth has brought to

EUSTACE W. JACOB. his mistress. She sings as follows: Crawley.

“ E gli dirò che il verde, il rosso, il bianco Shrove Tuesday Custom (Vol.ix., p. 65.). - The

Gli stanno ben con una spada al fianco.

E gli dirò che il bianco, il verde, il rosso, Shrove Tuesday custom mentioned by MR. EL

Vuol dir che Italia il duro giogo ha scosso. LIOTT as existing at Leicester, and an account of which he quotes from Hone's Year-Book, has been

E gli dirò che il rosso, il bianco, il verde abolished within the last few years. There is, I

E un terno che si giuoca e non si perde." believe, still a curious custom on that day at of which the following rough version may serve Ludlow, the origin and meaning of which has to give a sufficiently-accurate idea of the meannever, so far as I am aware, been discovered and ing, for the benefit of your country gentlemen " stated.

readers : “ The corporation,” I quote from a history of the “ And I'll tell him the green, and the red, and the

white town, " provide a rope, three inches in thickness, and in length thirty-six yards, which is given out at one of

Would look well by his side as a sword-knot so the windows of the Market House as the clock strikes

bright. four, when a large body of the inhabitants, divided

And I'll tell him the white, and the green, and the into two parties, commence an arduous struggle, and

red as soon as either party gains the victory by pulling the

Mean, our country has flung the vile yoke from her

head. rope beyond the prescribed limits, the pulling ceases, &c.

And I'll tell him the red, and the white, and the

green « Without doubt this singular custom is symbolical

Is the prize that we play for, a prize that we'll win.” of some remarkable event, and a remnant of that an- “Un terno che si giuoca" is a phrase which cient language of visible signs, which, says a celebrated refers to the system of the public lotteries, esta

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