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have been split, would in all probability have been self with some pieces of thin board, somewhat larger available, and printed well.

than the paper intended to be used ; on one of these I was sorry to see in “ N. & Q.” (Vol. viii., p. 604.) two or three folds of blotting-paper are to be laid, and an article under this head which went the round of on these the paper intended to be excited, and which is the papers several months ago. Anything more im to be kept steady by pins at the top and bottom rightpracticable and ridiculously absurd than the directions hand corners, and the forefinger of the left hand. The there given can hardly be imagined : “ cylinders of operator, having ready in a small measure about thirty amber ?” or “cylinders of metallic amalgam !!” “excited drops of the exciting fluid, takes the glass rod in his in the usual manner," &c. presume electrical excita- right hand, moves it steadily over the paper from the tion is intended. Though, how cylinders of metal are right hand to the left, where he keeps it, while with to receive electrical excitation, and to have sufficient the left hand he pours the exciting fluid over the side of attractive power over a sheet of paper as to rend it the glass rod, and moving this to and fro once or twice asunder, would be a problem which I believe even a to secure an equal portion of the exciting fluid along Faraday could not solve: neither would excited glass the whole length of the rod; he then moves the rod cylinders effect the object any better; or if they could, from left to right and back again, until he has ascerit would be erecting a wheel to break a fly upon. tained that the whole surface is covered, taking care

The whole proposition must originally have been a that none of the exciting fluid runs over the side of hoax: in fact, we live in a day when the masses of the the paper, as it is then apt to discolour the back of it. people are easily induced to believe that electricity can When the whole surface has been thoroughly wetted, do everything.

the superfluous fluid is to be blotted off with a piece Another, and far more feasible plan has been pro of new blotting-paper.] posed (“ N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 413.), viz. to paste the paper to be split between two pieces of calico or linen; and when perfectly dry, part them. One half, it is said, will adhere to each piece of the linen, and may

Replies to Minor Queries. afterwards be obtained or set free from the linen by Wooden Tombs and Efigies (Vol. vir., p. 604.). soaking. I have tried this with partial, but not satisfactory is a wooden chest in the centre of the chancel of

- In addition to that mentioned by J. E. J., there It will be remembered that the results of the Burford Church, in the county of Salop, with a true process were some years ago exhibited before a scientific company (I think at the Royal Institution), figure in plated armour on the top; the head when a page of the London TUustrated News was first resting on a helmet supported by two angels, and exhibited in its usual condition, printed on both sides ; at the feet a lion crowned. An ornament of oak and was then taken to an adjoining apartment, and in leaves runs round the chest, at the edge. This a short time (perhaps a quarter of an hour) re-exhibited effigy is supposed to represent one of the Cornto the company split into two laminæ, each being per wall family, the ancient, but now extinct, barons fect. Neither the pasting plan, nor the electrical gam- of Burford. As I am preparing, with a view to mon, could have effected this. I hope some of your publication, a history of this very ancient family, readers (they are a legion) will confer on photogra- with an account of the curious and interesting phers the favour of informing them of this art. monuments in Burford and other churches, I

COKELY. should esteem it a favour if any of your correCurling of Iodized Paper. — The difficulty which spondents could furnish me with authentic in. your correspondent C. E. F. has met with, in iodizing formation relative to any members of the family, paper according to Dr. Diamond's valuable and simple or of any memorials of them in other churches process, may be easily obviated.

than those of Worcestershire and Shropshire. I experienced the same annoyance of “curling up”

J. B. WHITBORNE. till it was suggested to me to damp the paper previously to floating it. I have since always adopted

Epitaph on Politian (Vol. viii., p. 537.). - Harthis expedient, and find it answer perfectly. The wood's Alumni Etonenses, A.D. 1530, Hén. VIII., method I employ for damping it is to leave it for a few hours previously to using it upon the bricks in my “ Edward Bovington was born at Burnham, and was cellar : and I have no doubt but that, if C. E. F. will buried in the chapel. Some member of the College try the same plan, he will be equally satisfied with the made these lines on him : result.

W. F. W.

• Uuum caput tres linguas habet, How the Glass Rod is used. — Would you be kind

(Res mira !) Bovingtonus.'' enough to inform me how paper is prepared or excited This member must have seen Politian's epitaph. with the glass rod in the calotype process ? Is the

J. H. L. solution first poured on the paper, and then equally diffused over it with the rod ?

DUTHUS. Defoe's Quotation from Baxter on Apparitions [The manner in which the glass rod is to be used (Vol. ix., p. 12.). - The story copied by Dr. Martfor exciting or developing is very simple, although LAND from Defoe's Life of Duncan Campbell

, is not easily described. The operator must provide him to be found nearly word for word in pp. 60, 61. of

p. 22. :

p. 232. :

The Certainty of the Worlds of Spirits fully evinced necessity for immediate and vigorous action. Just by the unquestionable Histories of Apparitions, 8c., as he had alluded to the probability of a severe conby Richard Baxter, London, 1691. I can trace fict, and had invoked the aid of the gods, one of no mention of the Dr. Beaumont, author of the the company sneezed. He paused for a moment Treatise of Spirits, unless he be the “eminent in his harangue, and every one present did reveapothecary in Henrietta Street, Covent Garden," rence (npoperovnoar) to Jupiter. The circumstance stated by Nichols (Literary Anecdotes, vol. ix. seemed to give new spirit and fortitude to the p. 239.) to be the father of Mr. Beaumont, Regis- whole assembly; and when Xenophon resumed, trar of the Royal Humane Society. 'Adieus. he said, “ Even now, my comrades, while we were Dublin,

talking of safety, Zeus the saviour has sent us an

omen; and I think it would become us to offer to Barrels Regiment (Vol. viii., p. 620.). - If the the god a sacrifice of thanksgiving for our presong referring to Barrel's regiment was written servation.” He then, in the manner of a modern about 1747, it was not original, but a parody or chairman at Exeter Hall, invited all of that opinion adaptation of one in The Devil to Pay, performed to hold up their hands. This appeal having met as a ballad opera in 1731 ; and which still main

a unanimous response, they all made their vows, tains its place, if not on the stage, in recent edi sung the pæan, and the orator proceeded with his tions of the “ acting drama." I have not an old discourse. edition of the play, but quote from a collection The adoration of the god, or the use of some of songs called The Nightingale, London, 1738, auspicious words or religious formulary, appears to

have been designed to avert any evil which might “ He that has the best wife,

possibly be portended by the omen. It seems by She's the plague of his life;

no means certain that it was always regarded as But for her that will scold and will quarrel, favourable. Xenophon, in the case referred to, Let him cut her off short,

contrived very adroitly to turn the incident to Of her meat and her sport,

good account, and to interpret it as a sign of the And ten times a day hoop her barrel, brave boys, divine favour. The form of one of the sentences And ten times a day hoop her barrel.”

I have translated May I append a Query to my reply? Was The «'Eπει περί σωτηρίας ημών λεγόντων οιωνός του Nightingale published with a frontispiece ? My | Διός του Σωτήρος εφάνη.” copy is mutilated, but has belonged to some per- affords a little illustration of the benediction in son who valued it much more highly than I do, as he has neatly repaired and replaced torn leaves

current use among the Greeks on such occasions, «Ζευ σώσον.”

J. G. F. and noted deficiencies. Prefixed is a mounted engraving of a bird in the act of singing, which, Does Wurm," in modern German, ever mean if intended for a nightingale, is really curious ; as Serpent? (Vol. viii., pp. 465. 624.). — F. W.J. is it is of the size and shape of a pheasant, with cor- quite right as regards his interpretation of the vine legs and beak, and a wattle round the eye word Wurm, used by Schiller in his Wallenstein like that of a barb pigeon. The book is printed in the passage spoken by Butler. and sold by J. Osborn,” and shows that the post Wurm is not used in German to mean a serassigned to him in The Dunciad was not worse pent. Serpents (Schlangen) are vertebrata, and than he deserved.

H. B. C. are therefore not confounded with Würmer by the Garrick Club,

Germans. The language of the people frames (Our correspondent seems to have the veritable proverbs, not the language of science. The Geroriginal engraving; the nightingale or pheasant, or mans apply the word Wurm to express pity or whatever it may be, is mounted on a branch over a contempt. The mother says to her sick child, stream near to three houses, and a village on its banks “ Armes Würmchen!" signifying poor, suffering, is seen in the distance.)

little creature. Man to man, in order to express

contempt, will say " Elender Wurm!” meaning Sneezing (Vol. viii., pp. 366. 624.):-To the miserable wretch; an application arising out of very interesting illustrations given by Mr. Francis the contemplation of the helpless state and in, Scott of the ancient superstitions associated with ferior construction of this division of the animal sternutation, I should like to add one not less kingdom. The German proverb corresponds to curious than any which he has given. It is re the English.

C. B. d'O. corded in Xenophon's Anabasis, lib. iii. cap. 2.

At the council of Greek generals, held after the Long fellow's Reaper and the Flowers (Vol. viii., death of Cyrus, Xenophon rose and made a speech. p. 583.).—This charge of plagiarism, I think, is He set before his comrades the treachery of their not a substantial one. To compare Death to a late associate Ariæus ; the serious difficulties reaper, and children to flowers, is a very general attendant upon the position of the Greeks; and the idea, and may be thought by thousands, and ex

pressed in nearly the same words which Long. Coritani, the Belgæ, and various others too numefellow, and before him Luisa Reichardt, have rous to mention. We must bear in mind that the used. The first line of the two respective poems Phænicians gave the name of Cassiterides to the are certainly word for word the same, but that is British Isles, and that in naming places they inall; although the tendency of both poems is the variably called them after some known or supsame. Longfellow's poem is much superior to posed quality possessed by them, or from some that of L. Reichardt; for, while the former has a natural appearance which first arrested their beautiful clothing, colouring, and harmony, the notice : and such was the case in this instance. latter is very crude, poor, and defective. Long. We learn that it was the common belief in ancient fellow's long residence in Germany has indeed times, that the islands to the west of Europe were rendered him very susceptible to the form and shrouded in almost perpetual gloom and darkness : spirit of German poetry, and hence there exist in hence the British Isles were called Cassiterides, his poems frequently affinities as to general forms from Ceas, pronounced Kass, i. e. gloom, darkand ideas : still, affinities arising from such causes ness, obscurity; and tir, i. e. lands, plural Ceasicannot justly be termed plagiarism, much less the terides, i. e. "the islands of darkness.” And the accidental choice of a very widely existent, natural tin which the Phænicians procured from them thought. When Byron wrote his opening line to received the appropriate name of Cassiteros, i. e. The Bride of Abydos, he did not probably think the metal from the islands of darkness. of Göthe's

Fras. CROSSLEY. “ Könnst du das Land wo die Citronen blühen ? "

John Waugh (Vol. viii., pp. 271. 400. 525.; Byron was not a German scholar; and as the Vol. ix., p. 20.). — The Rev. John Waugh was of opening line is the only analogy between the two Broomsgrove, Worcester, and died unmarried and poems, we may justly believe it natural for any intestate. Letters of administration of his estate one who has lived in southern lands, to ask such in the province of York were granted Oct. 28, a question. The charge of plagiarism, I think, 1777, to his five sisters and co-beiresses, Judith, ought to rest upon grounds which evince an actual Isabella, Elizabeth, Mary, and Margaret, spinsters, copying.

C. B. d'O. who all were living at Carlisle ; and were unmar

ried in August, 1792. WM. DURRANT COOPER. Charge of Plagiarism against Paley (Vol. viii., p. 589.). - As a personal friend of the gentleman Rev. Joshua Brooks (Vol. viii., p. 639.). who, under the name of VERITAS, brought, about Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine for March, 1821, five years ago, a charge of plagiarism against contains a paper entitled a “Brief Sketch of the Paley, I feel called upon to say a few words to Rev. Josiah Streamlet.” Under this sobriquet, a Fiat Just.

few incidents in the life of the Rev. Joshua Truth cannot be refuted ; and F. J. may look Brooks are related, which may interest C. (1). at the translation of the old Dutch book of Nieu

G. D. R. wentyt's, which he will find in the British Mu. seum library, the same place where VERITAS made Hour-glass Stand (Vol. viii., p. 454.).—

There the discovery while examining the works of some is an hour-glass stand attached to the pulpit of continental metaphysicians : and Fiat Just. will Nassington Church, Northants. Nassington is then no doubt regret having made the rash and about six miles from the town of Oundle. illogical observation, “ that the accusation be re

G. R. M. futed, or the culprit consigned to that contempt," &c. The character of Veritas as man, moralist,

There is an hour-glass stand in Bishampton

Church, Worcestershire. CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. and scholar, does not deserve so unjust and rash a remark.

Teeth Superstition (Vol. viii., p. 382.). - My The Dutch book, as well as the translation, are wife, who is a Yorkshire woman, tells me that, very scarce. Five and six copies of the latter whenever she lost a tooth as a child, her nurse could only be found at the time of the discovery used to exhort her to keep her tongue away from in London.

C. B. d'o. the cavity, and then she would have a golden

tooth. She speaks of it as a superstition with T'in (Vol. viii., p. 593.). — The suggestions of which she has always been familiar. OXONIENSIS. your correspondent S. G. C. are ingenious re

Walthamstow. specting the etymology of Cussiteros, but a slight examination will show they are erroneous.

The Dog-whipping Day in Hull (Vol. viii., p. 409.). Cassi was only one of the many tribes inhabiting - This custom obtains, or used to do, in York on Britain in the time of Cæsar, and it is by no St. Luke's Day, Oct. 18, which is there known by means probable that it was able to confer its name the name of " Whip-dog Day." Drake considers upon the entire country, to the exclusion of all the origin of it uncertain ; and though he is of the rest; such as the Íceni, the Trinobanti, the opinion that it is a very old custom, he does not

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agree with those who date it as far back as the the animal to which charming Willie Shakspeare'thus Romans.

alludes in Romeo and Juliet : In the History of York, vol. i. p. 306., respecting Capulet. I have watch'd ere now the author of which a Query has appeared in All night“N. & Q.,” Vol. viii., p. 125., the traditional ac Lady Cupulet. Ay, you have been a mouse-hunt in count of its origin is given :

Act IV. Sc. 4. “ That in times of Popery, a priest celebrating mass at “In Knight's Pictorial Edition of Romeo and Juliet the festival in some church in York, unfortunately (1839), this and many other terms equally requiring dropped the pix after consecration, which was snatched explanation are left quite unelucidated; though one up suddenly and swallowed by a dog that lay under picture of the said mouse-hunt would doubtless have the table. The profanation of this high mystery occa been more assistant to the professed object of the work sioned the death of the dog ; and a persecution began, than the two unnecessary pictures it contains of certain and has since continued on this day (St. Luke's), to be winged monstrosities called Cupids.”—P. 106. severely carried on against all the species in the city.”

Mr. Fennell goes on to state, that the Beech A very curious whipping custom prevails at Marten (alias Mousehunt) inhabits the woods and Leicester, known by the name of “ Whipping forests of most parts of Europe, seldom quitting Toms," on the afternoon of Shrove Tuesday. It is them except in its nocturnal excursions ; and he thus described in Hone's Year Book, p. 539. : adds that

“ In this space (the Newark) several (I think three) “ The Beech Marten does sometimes, in the Highlands men called • Whipping Toms, each being armed with of Scotland, where it is common, and called Tugyin, a large waggon whip, and attended by another man take to killing lambs, and makes sad havoc. Luckily, carrying a bell, claim the right of Aogging every per- however, it is nearly exterminated in the south of that son whom they can catch while their attendant bell. country. In Selkirkshire, it has been observed to deinan can keep ringing his bell.”

scend to the shore at night time to feed upon mollusks, Perhaps some one of your correspondents will particularly upon the large Basket Mussel (Mytilus be able to afford an origin for this odd usage.

modiolus). But the ordinary prey of both this and the R. W. ELLIOT.

Pine Marten appears to be hares, rabbits, squirrels,

moles, rats, mice ; game birds; turkeys, pigeons, and Clifton.

other domestic poultry, and also the wild singing

birds." - P. 109. A Spanish lady now resident in England, a member of the Latin Church, mentioned to me, some

In the above work Mr. Fennell has given many months since, a custom prevailing in her native land other interesting zoological elucidations of Shaksimilar to that in Hull described by MR. RICHARD- speare, and of various other ancient poets. It arose on this wise : Once upon a time, on

G. TENNYSON. a high festival of the Church, when there was an Rickmansworth. exposition of the blessed Sacrament, a dog rushed into the church when the altar was unguarded, and St. Paul's School Library (Vol. viii., p. 641.). carried off the Host. This deed of the sacrilegious A catalogue of the library was privately printed animal filled the Spaniards with such horror, that in 1836, 8vo. It is nominally under the care of ever after, on the anniversary of that day, all the captain of the school, who, having his own dogs were beaten and stoned that showed them- duties to attend to, cannot be expected to pay selves in the streets.

EDWARD Peacock. much attention to it: this readily accounts for the Bottesford Moors.

disorder said to prevail.

It is believed to contain the copy of Vegetius Mousehunt (Vol. viii., pp. 516. 606.). -I think de re militari, the perusal of which by Marlthe inquiry relative to this animal may be satis- borough, when a pupil at the school, imbued him factorily answered by the following quotation from with that love for military science he in after-life a very excellent and learned work, entitled A 80 successfully cultivated. Natural History of British and Foreign Quadru It would be a good deed on the part of the peds, containing many Original Observations and wealthy company, the trustees of Colet's noble Anecdotes, by James H. Fennell, 8vo., London, foundation, to enlarge the library and pay a salary 1841:

to a librarian; it might thus become a useful “ The Beech Marten is the Martes foina of modern appendage to the school, and under certain reguzoologists, the Martes Fagorum of Ray, the Martes lations be made accessible to the vicinity. W. A. Saxorum of Klein, the Mustela Martes of Linnæus, and the Mustela foina of Gmelin. Its English synonymes

German Tree (Vol. viii., p. 619.). - In answer are not less numerous; for, besides Beech Marten, it to the inquiry of Zeus, who wishes to be informed is called Stone Marten, Martern, Marteron, Martlett, whether this custom was known in England preand Mousehunt. The last name I insert on the authority vious to 1836, I beg to refer him to Coleridge's of Henley, the dramatic commentator, who says it is Friend, second landing-place, essay iii. (vol. ii.


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p. 249.), entitled “ Christmas within doors in the I. and II. The Planets : Are they Inhabited Worlds.? north of Germany." The passage (apparently 111. Weather Prognostics; and IV. Popular Fallacies. from Coleridge's journal) is dated “ Ratzeburg, The introduction of details and incidents, which could 1799." It is, I think, also extracted in Knight's not with propriety be introduced into works of a Half-hours with the best Authors. Coleridge went to purely scientific character, give great variety and in

terest to the different papers. Germany in 1798 (Biog. Lit., vol. i. p. 211. note);

Books RECEIVED. The Journal of Sacred Litera-, but I imagine the passage I refer to did not appear till 1818, when The Friend was published in

ture, New Series, No. X., contains, in addition to its three volumes (Biog. Lit., vol. ii. p. 420.). As

notes, correspondence, &c., no less than twelve papers

of varied interest to the peculiar class of readers to the book is so common, I do not think it worth

whom this periodical expressly addresses itself. - Mr. while to copy out the account. Zeus has by this Bohn has just added to his Standard Library a coltime, I hope, had a Christmas Yggdrasil in his lection of the Novels and Tales of Göthe, comprising Olympus.

Eryx. his Elective Affinities ; The Sorrows of Werther ; German

Emigrants ; Good Women ; and a Nouvelette : and in his Derivation of the Word Cash(Vol. viii.,

Classical Library he has commenced a revised edition p. 386.). — May not the word cash be connected

of the Oxford translation of Tacitus. The Ninth Part with the Chinese coin bearing that name, which of Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, Mr. Martin, in his work on China (vol. i. p. 176.), which extends from the conclusion of the article Gerdescribes as being

mania to Hytanis, concludes the first volume of this

admirable addition to Dr. Smith's series of Classical “ The smallest coin in the world, there being about

Dictionaries. 1000 to 1500 (cash) in a dollar, i. e. one-fifth to one

Cyclopædia Bibliographica, Part XVI., seventh of a farthing."

from Platina to Rivet. Every additional Part con

firms our opinion of the great utility of this indispensIf I am not mistaken, the coin in question is able library companion. perforated in the centre to permit numbers of the pieces being strung together, payments being made in so many strings of cash. W. W.E.T.

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The Museum of Science and Art, edited by Dr. Lardner, is intended to supply a collection of instructive tracts and essays, composed in a popular and amusing style, and in easy language, on the leading discoveries in the Physical Sciences : so that persons, whose occupations exclude the possibility of systematic study, may in their short hours of leisure obtain a considerable amount of information on subjects of the highest interest. This design is extremely well carried out in the first four numbers, which are devoted to


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