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The Alexandrian chemists
r Chapter III The Arabs
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acid Adam al-Dimashki AL-Razi alchemists alchemy alcohol alembic alumn Amsterdam anbiq apothecary aqua ardens aqua vitae Arabian Arabic Arnald of Villanova Art of distillation base material became Berard boiling born brandy Brunschwygk called Cellier Chaptal chemical chemistry chemists column condenser contains cooler cooling copper corn cucurbit dephlegmation Derosne describes designed died discussed distilled water distilleries distilling apparatus distilling trade dry distillation Dubrunfaut Dutch early edition eighteenth century England essential oils evaporation fermentation fire fractions France French patent furnace Geber German Gesner gives glass heat herbs Holland hydrometer important industry invention laboratory later Libavius liqueurs liquid live steam Lonicer manufacture manuscripts mashes medicine mentions Montpellier Moor's head nitric acid obtained Paracelsus Paris period physician Pistorius pre-heater preparation production Raymond Lull recipes rectifying retort rose-water Savalle Schiedam sixteenth century spirit spout steam still-head stills studied sublimation substances sulphur theory translated tube vapours vessel vitriol water-bath wine