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No. 237

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SCIENTIFIC AND

JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF

ACTUARIES.

JULY, 1999.
EDUCATIONAL BOOKS

CONTENTS.

Some Financial and Statistical Considerations of the Old Age Pension NEW & SECOND HAND.

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The number for last week (July 1) contained :-
The Imperial Gazetteer Atlas of India. By

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Essays on Leonardo da Vinci.
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Altitude Tables for Navigators.
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Diurnal Variation of Temperature in the Free Atmo-
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F.R.S.
The Darwin Celebrations at Cambridge.
A New Analytical Engine. By Prof. C. V. Boys,

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Prof. D. J. Cunningham, F.R.S.
Dr. G. F. Deacon.
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The Royal Society Conversazione.
Some Papers on Invertebrates.
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THURSDAY, JULY 8, 1909.

some one to go carefully through the proof sheets

with him before publication? The two volumes RUWENZORI AND CENTRAL AFRICA.

abound in the most ridiculous press errors, wherever

the Latin, English, German, or French languages are (1) 1 Ruwenzori: parte scientifica: risultati delle employed. English is the worst maltreated. The

osservazioni e studi compiuti sul materiale raccolto English authors quoted are sometimes made to express dalla spedizione di S.A.R. il Principe Luigi Amedeo themselves in a very puzzling manner. di Savoia, Duca degli Abruzzi. Vol. i., Zoologia Ruwenzori was shown by the Abruzzi expedition to Botanica.

Pp. vii +603; 74 plates. Vol. ii., be a mountain chain mainly of archæan, crystalline Geologia, Petrografia e Mineralogia. Pp. xxi+ rocks (gneiss, mica-schists, granite, &c.), cut athwart 286; 40 plates.

(Milan : Ulrico Hoepli, 1909.) | by a curved band of Palæozoic volcanic greenstones Price, 2 vols, 50 lire.

(amphibolite, diorite, diabase, &c.).

In the upper (2) Résultats scientifiques des Voyages en Afrique valleys of the Bujuku, Mubuku, Mahoma, and other d'Édouard Foà.

Publiés les Auspices du streams, born from the snow peaks and the glaciers, Muséum d'Histoire naturelle. Avec Préface de M. there is a lacustrine alluvium (which ought to be inEdmond Perrier. Pp. xli+742. (Paris : Imprimerie teresting of exploration for possible Pliocene or PleisNationale, and Plon-Nourrit et Cie., 1908.)

tocene fossils). There are two or three calcareous (1)

IN
N 1906 the Duke of the Abruzzi, already famous deposits. The lower stream valleys are bordered by

for his exploration of the lofty mountains of ancient and recent moraines. At the southern base of the Alaska, resolved to do what no other traveller had Portal Peaks (south-east of Ruwenzori) there are three done—make a thorough examination of the range of small dykes of basalt. Elsewhere in the distant footmountains in equatorial Africa known

hills to the east and south of Ruwenzori there are plain Ruwenzori." The number of snow peaks, their evidences of recent volcanic activity in the intrusions altitudes, extent of glaciation, and exact position on

of basalt, the stratified tuff, the craters of dead volthe map remained still unknown, although Ruwenzori canoes (often filled with lovely crater lakes), the hot A: had been revealed to geographical knowledge for springs and the frequent earthquakes. This volcanic

nearly twenty years. Although no previous explorers belt links on with the still smoking and devastated AU!

had had the monetary resources of this prince of region of Mfumbiro and Lake Kivu, and is no doubt the House of Savoy, and consequently been able synchronous in origin with the volcanic activities of to fit out such a perfectly organised expedition, yet it equatorial East Africa and of North Nyasa. must be noted that most of the Duke's predecessors The work under review has much that is interesting suffered from sheer bad luck in the way of weather, or

to record on the former extension of the Ruwenzori difficulties arising from the disturbed condition of the glaciers. The volumes confirm the observations of natives. Otherwise the Duke of the Abruzzi might Scott-Elliott, Moore, the present writer, and other have been forestalled as conqueror of these virgin travellers as to the signs of glacier action at compeaks.

But in any case it is doubtful whether any paratively low altitudes (7000 feet and less). If these previous traveller was so perfectly trained to make deductions be correct, similar signs ought to be every use of his opportunities as the Duke of the present (and should be looked for) on the Abyssinian, Abruzzi, who, apart from his carefully chosen staff

, North Nyasa, Mlanje, Rhodesian, and Drakensberg selected to deal specially with geology, biology, and Mountains. But if these indications of a Glacial photography, was himself a highly trained surveyor. period or periods are found in tropical Africa, and if, scientific geographer, and alpinist.

moreover, they are proved to be coincident in time The result has been, of course, a complete settle- with the Glacial periods of Europe and North America, ment of the position, height, configuration, and petro

will this not tend to dispose of the idea now in vogue logical structure of these “ Nountains of the Moon” that there has been a gradual shifting of the poles of

not, as we now learn, the highest point on the the earth's axis, carrying with it the more or less African continent–in that respect they are only third glacial conditions gathered round the poles to various in rank—but surely the most impressive and remark- parts of the earth's surface? This last theory cerable among African mountains. The general geo- tainly explained more easily the former existence of a graphical and meteorological results of the expedition vegetation in both the present polar regions sufficiently were given in one large volume at the close of 1908 dense to become transformed in course of time into (published in English and Italian). In the two coal-measures, a vegetation which could not have volumes under review, the geological and biological Aourished with a six months' winter-night in every

collections and observations of the Duke's expedition year. _PHY are dealt with by a large number of authors, the

Dr. Roccati thinks that Ruwenzori was at one time whole work being edited by Dr. Alessandro Roccati a lofty island of archæan rocks rising up out of the (who has also written on the geology and petrology) waters of an immense fresh-water sea—the Victoria and published in Italian only. The volumes are mag- Nyanza, Ibrahim (or Kioga), Albert Nyanza, Albert nificently produced, and are of the highest importance Edward, Dweru, and Semliki combined. He attriscientifically. They deal justly, even generously, with butes this idea in its inception to the studies of Mr. the work of previous explorers, or with the opinions C. W. Hobley, a Commissioner in the British East and researches of British, French, and German au- African service who has done so much to increase our thorities (inter alios); but why did not Dr. Roccati get knowledge of Equatorial Africa.

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The Duke of the Abruzzi established definitely the Ruwenzori” is Prof. F. Silvestri's essay

on existence in the Ruwenzori range of six great massijs Myriapoda--the Diplopoda especially-obtained by i of snow-crowned, glaciated peaks. These are not Abruzzi expedition. placed in a continuous chain, but rather in a cluster, A very large and important collection was al almost a broken amphitheatre, with Mts. Speke and made of earthworms and of parasitic worms, ti Baker in the middle and the snowless Portal Peaks latter derived from the intestines of beasts, birds, ar (11,000–12,000 feet) on the eastern side. It is from the reptiles. south-east that the Ruwenzori giants are most broken The botanical section of this work is also of his down and most approachable. All the snow peaks interest, as it illustrates very conclusively the alç:are grouped within a few miles of one another, but and subtropical flora of Ruwenzori-the gia beyond them, to the north, are lofty, snowless hum-groundsels, strange lobelias, the heaths, junipers, a mocks, perhaps rising 9000 10,000 feet, ferns-filling up many gaps left in the work which prolong the chain northwards in the direction previous travellers. of Lake Albert.

(2) Not equally valuable in the scientific study The loftiest of the snow-crowned massifs or moun- Africa is the work so sumptuously produced by tains (Mt. Stanley) rises to 16,815 feet at its highest Paris Museum of Natural History. The result: point (the Margherita Peak). The next highest M. Édouard Foa's journeys, have acquir massif is Mt. Speke (16,080 feet). After that Mt. proper significance and reward from the public : Baker (15,988 feet), Mt. Emin (15,797 feet), Mt. Gessi terested in African geography and ethnology, shor (15,647 feet), and Mt. Luigi di Savoia (15,299 feet). have been published ten years ago. His rema:

In possessing all these separate snow-crowned would then have been more apposite; his discover: massifs, Ruwenzori differs from Kilimanjaro (with would not have been forestalled by later and m. only two) and Kenya (only one), besides in the fact scientific travellers. As it is, M. Foà was at no ti that its origin is due to a slow upheaval of the earth'; what might be called a trained observer, except : crust, and not--as is the case with the other two great regard to astronomical and meteorological obser: snow mountains of Africa, and their neighbours, Meru tions and records. His ethnology and his natlı and Elgon—to an outburst of volcanic energy.

history strike the critical reader as hazy, inexact, In the zoological collection made by the Duke was generalised, too little founded on direct person a fine specimen of a leopard obtained at Bujongolo observation, much influenced by traditi (about 12,000 feet altitude), on the east side of opinions. His vocabularies of native languages a Ruwenzori. It measured about 7 feet 2 inches in full of errors, and are, moreover, quite displacrd i total length, and of this measurement the tail only interest by the serious treatment of these Zambeziá: occupied about 2 feet 3 inches. These are rather the Central African, and East Congo languages by proportions in tail and body of a jaguar than of a host of British, French, and Belgian missionaries an leopard. The markings, moreover, in the large size officials. Amongst inaccuracies, too (perhaps on and completeness of the rosettes recall the jaguarine i part of the editors), is the presentation of an obviu type, and still more the boldly marked leopards of Bushman (pp. 142 and 143) as a Yao. [The origina Sinai, Persia, and China, and the Central Asian of this mis-named picture is in the possession of Ounce. The canine teeth in Felis pardus ruwenzorii Royal Anthropological Institute.] Some of the nut are proportionately much longer than in other African on the Bushmen would be interesting and valuable we leopards (except in one example from the Abyssinian they not so devoid of actuality, of names, places, a. Mountains). In this point (but not in skull dates. Apparently M. Foà did encounter some of 1 peculiarities) the Ruwenzori leopard resembles the mysterious " Vaalpens

in the valley of the norther peculiar" fontanierileopard of China. Prof. Limpopo (though he does not give them that name Lorenzo Camerano, who describes F. pardus ruwen- see pp. 113, 114), a race the existence of which las. zorii, does not seem to be aware that Mr. Lydekker “ pygmy type distinct from the Bushman) has bet a year or so ago described a similar type from the asserted by Prof. Keane and denied by Mr. Selos: Toro country at the north-east base of Ruwenzori. The It is interesting to note that M. Foà comments i present writer also saw a large leopard skin of this the complete absence of steatopygy among them description in the possession of the Rev. Mr. Teggart north Limpopo Bushmen (? Vaalpens), and the res (C.M.S.) in eastern Toro in June, 1900. This skin of his description rather accords with what Pri appears in the background of a seated man on p. 587 Keane has collected relative to the Vaalpens. of the “Uganda Protectorate."

There are portions of M. Foa's essays on the li The second volume of “Il Ruwenzori " contains a and the African elephant which strike one as nes good deal of interesting material on the subject of the interesting, and derived from original observation Colobus monkeys (a group which seem to retain mixed up, however, with much unnecessary paddir. points of affinity with the Semnopithecines of Asia, He is able to supply two good photographs of th the Archæolemurine forms of Madagascar, and even rare Angas's Tragelaph and some fresh informatii the Cebidæ of America); of Grant's zebra, and the about that handsome creature. He discovered :: classification of the quagga subgenus of equines; Central Zambezia what is probably a of the Central African buffaloes; and of the squirrels, species of Burchell's zebra (or, as Mr. R. I. Pocco dormice, mice, and crested rats (Lophuromys) of would say, quagga), which seems in its Ruwenzori. A few new birds are described, and striping an intermediate form between the zebra an numerous molluscs. A noteworthy contribution to “ J1 | the quagga groups (see also on this subject"?

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Ruwenzori”). M. Foà made considerable collections (3) The photography of the canals themselves of fish in Central Africa, of mollusca, insects, spiders, (Lampland, 1903-5). ticks, and

crustaceans. He also brought back (4) The photography of the spectrum of water Medusæ from Tanganyika. These Medusæ serve as vapour in the Martian atmosphere (Slipher, 1908). a text for a very interesting article by M. Charles While the above may be considered as four of the Gravier on the Meduse of the Victoria Nyanza, of important results secured since 1890, there is a host Tanganyika, and of the Niger basin. Perhaps the of many other val ble advances which will be found most important contribution to this recueil is the recorded in the volume under review'. treatise by M. Louis Germain on the molluscs of Monsieur Flammarion has done his work exceed. Tanganyika, notably those collected by M. Foà. M. irgly well, and, with masterly instinct, describes, fits Fod's own remarks on the tsetse fly are worthy of together, and discusses the observations, made beattention.

H. H. JOHNSTON. tween the years 1890 and 1901 by a very great number

of workers, in a logical and interesting manner.

Before commencing to give in detail the observaTHE PLANET MARS, 1890-1901.

tions of the first epoch, 1892, he rightly refers at some La Planète Mars et ses Conditions d'Habitabilité. By length to the fine memoir published in 1896 by the Camille Flammarion. Tome ii., Observations faites

celebrated Italian astronomer, M. Schiaparelli, the

discoverer of the canals. This memoir is devoted to de 1890 à 1901. Pp. 604. (Paris : Gauthier Villars, 1909.) Price 12 francs.

a discussion of his observations of the Opposition

1883-4, while a sixth memoir, published in 1899 and IN N the year 1893 we had the great pleasure of giving here referred to, contains his observations made at the our readers some account (vol. xlvii., p. 553) of

Opposition of 1888. the very excellent and complete summary of the Space does not allow us, nor indeed is it necessary, observations of the planet Mars, made between the

to enter into any detail into the successive series of epochs 1636–1890, compiled by the distinguished observations which are here marshalled together. French astronomer, Monsieur Camille Flammarion.

The reader must be left to peruse the volume himself This work, containing no fewer than 604 pages, pre- and form his own conclusions, but even he will be sented us with a most interesting survey of the

astonished at the wealth of matter which is brought progress made in enumerating and deciphering the together under one cover. markings observed on the planet's surface. It com

As in the previous work, there is a great number menced with the earliest known observation of the

of illustrations accompanying the text, and these add planet, namely, that of the Neapolitan astronomer materially to the understanding of the changes of Fontana, on August 24, 1638, who wrote :

Martian features. " 1636. Martis figura perfecte spherica distincte At the end of the volume, M. Flammarion, with the atque clare conspiciebatur. Item in medio atrum help of M. Antoniadi, has constructed a key-map of habebat conum instar nigerrimæ pilulæ.

the surface features of the planet, which gives us “ Martis circulus discolor, sed in concava parte ignitus deprehendebatur.

an idea of the complicated system of markings which

is the result of the observations up to the year 1901. Sole excepto, reliquis aliis planetis, semper Mars candentior demonstratur."

As has been mentioned above, some important

additions to our knowledge of Mars have resulted The volume concluded with the observations made from observations of more recent date, and we can in the year 1890, including the first photographs of only suppose that M. Flammarion has in hand vol. iii., the disc of Mars made by Prof. W. H. Pickering at

which will, we hope, in due course be published, and Mount Wilson, California, on April 9.

be as valuable a contribution to astronomical science In Martian cartography the year 1890 seems to-day as its two predecessors. a very long time ago. The pioneers did their work

In conclusion, we may quote M. Flammarion's well, and the great tradition which fell on the

remarks with regard to the habitability of Mars, since shoulders of those who were busy with Mars up to

the subject has recently been prominently brought 1090 was well maintained, and a great amount of new

forward :knowledge secured. Since that year the attack on the

“ Mais il me semble que, dans toutes ces interplanet, to unravel the secrets of its visible features, has prétations, je suis moi-même un peu terrestre. Il y a been no less severe, and to-day the knowledge gained sans doute là d'autres éléments, non terrestres, mais is only a new incentive to further research.

martiens, ou, tout au moins, des conditions toutes If we were to be asked to state three or four of the différentes de celles de notre habitation. Que cette more recent and most important discoveries in relation planète soit actuellement le siège de la vie, c'est ce

dont témoignent toutes les observations. Mais il nous to the planet Mars, we should be inclined to say as

est follows:

encore impossible de nous former aucune idée

judicieuse sur les formes que cette vie a pu revêtir, (1) That the dark areas on the planet which were formes assurément differentes de nôtres. Un mystère considered to be seas have been shown to be traversed impénétrable enveloppe encore aujourd'hui ce passionby permanent lines, and that, therefore, the water nant problème, qui est, en définitive, quoi qu'on en surface explanation had to be abandoned (Pickering

passe, le but, peut-être inaccessible, de toutes les and Douglas, 1892).

recherches de l'Astronomie planétaire. Mais ne déses

pérons jamais ! Qui sait ce qui sommeille dans (2) The successive development of the canals accord

l'inconnú de l'avenir?" ing to the Martian seasons (Lowell).

William J. S. LOCKYER,

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