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nts are the THE SINHALESE PEOPLE AND THEIR ART. The arts and crafts of Ceylon, as they exist at the

To many it will appear that in this work Dr. present day, represent the result of the action of

Coomaraswamy has attempted too much; cerlled, does, live book has been written have so little in common that a than a century ago. It is with the remains of this

tainly the three purposes for which he tells us the prevailed until the British occupation of Kandy, less so

cannot be otherwise than loosely knit and somewhat mainly deals, and we are thus given an account of the amorphous. This volume, we are told, is written work of the craftsmen of a feudal period in which

first of all for the Sinhalese people as a memorial of there was no great attainment in fine art, brought a period which at present they are not willing to about by the genius of a few men, but in which there understand. ... Secondly it is meant for those in was a widely spread popular art largely based upon East and West who are interested in the reorganisa- early Indian traditions, for “Sinhalese art is essention of life, and especially of the arts and crafts under tially Indian, but possesses this special interest, that modern conditions. Thirdly, an endeavour has been it is in many ways of an earlier character, and more

made to render it as far as possible of value to the truly Hindu—though Buddhist in intention—than any el Functions anthropologist, and to students of sociology and folk. Indian art surviving on the mainland so late as the the Brit lore." It seems very doubtful whether the Sinhalese beginning of the nineteenth century. The minor arts appointed i 3 people, with the possible exception of a few of the and the painting are such as we might expect to have

educated ” of whom Dr. Coomaraswamy speaks associated with the culture of Asoka's time, and the leping and with scant sympathy, will appreciate the effort made builders of Barahat..... It was the art of a poor of the x for their benefit, and though there is much of interest people, the annual income of whose kings did not in

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Fig. 1.–Verandah Ceiling Painting, Dalada Maligawa, Kandy, 191h Century. Now destroyed. From "Mediaval Sinhalese Art."

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to the folklorist and anthropologist in this sumptuous the eighteenth century amount to 2000l. in money,
volume, it is as a work of art done for art's sake that besides revenue in kind.”
the work is most interesting and valuable, and cer- The first chapter of Dr. Coomaraswamy's book is
tainly few will be found to imitate Dr. Coomara- devoted to the Sinhalese people and their history. The
swamy's example at a time when publishers tell us next chapters discuss the social organisation of
éditions de luxe do not sell.

Sinhalese society, and while the difficult question of Not only the contents of the book preach the gospel caste is but lightly touched upon, considerable space of art, but, as it has been printed by hand on hand- is devoted to the personal services rendered to the king made paper, it is itself an excellent example of the and his high chiefs. This account shows how true point of view which, since this is a pioneer work, the was Knox's narrative, and it is pointed out that author has been free to express with the least possible Sinhalese villages were self-contained to such a degree constraint. It is, indeed, in the fact that so much

as to be dependent upon the outside world for little new ground is broken that the high merit of this but salt. The religion of the people is rapidly volume lies, for it is certainly the first time that a sketched, and certainly too little stress is laid on the detailed account of the arts and crafts of a small area large element of demonism—"devil-worship "—in the in the East has been given, and it is well to remember actual working religion of the Sinhalese. A most that the culture here described was really limited to interesting account is given of the nētru mangalaya, some two million people, inhabiting, roughly, two- or“ eye ceremony," by which the image in a temple is thirds of an island, itself about the size of Ireland. dedicated. This consists essentially in the painting of

the eyes of the image, when the figure, before this, 1 “Mediæval Sinhalese Art." By Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. Pp. xvi +340 ; 53 plates. (Broad Campden, Glos.; Essex House Press, Norman not accounted a god but a lump of ordinary metal" Chapel, 1908.) Price 31. 35. net.

(Knox), becomes so full of power that in some cases






anyone interfering with it is smitten with sickness. ful and pleasing fruit of the Sinhalese art impulse In this ceremony a mirror was held to receive the first rivalled only by some of the superb inlay metal or. glance (belma) of the image while the eyes were being still existing on the temple doors. Fig: 2 represta': painted.

an ivory carving in the Colombo Museum of An account of the teaching of drawing as practised guardian deity from the jamb of a temple door. at the present day serves as an introduction to a In the last two chapters Dr. Coomaraswamy showconsideration of the motifs employed in Sinhalese that, in the present stage of our knowledge, it is on decorative art. Although there is an immense amount possible to indicate the main sources which hai: of new material in this section, it may be doubted influenced Sinhalese art. The most widely exerim whether it would not have been rendered more valu- influence in Indian art is that due to the Asokaable to all, as it certainly would have been to the Buddhist missions, the culture which these disperses

anthropologist, being early Indian; thus Sinhalese art is largely lbif greater at result of the evolution of an early Indian art, in par. tention had sheltered by the geographical position of Ceylon froa been paid to that Hinduism which overwhelmed it upon the mainthe history of land. But in post-Asokan and mediæval times thi the evolution of art was continually exposed to Indian influent ; the individual “ indeed, until the close of the period of medias elements of conditions, the relations between Southern India an. decoration; for Ceylon were similar to those obtaining in the Mic... instance, the Ages between France and England." This leads t makara, which the suggestion that the famous rock paintings a bulks so largely Sigiri, the like of which are found only at Ajanta, ar

Sinhalese due to a school, representatives of which were to art, and which found both in India and Ceylon. The fine bronze:

the recently found by Mr. H. C. P. Bell at Polonnaru. Barahat Stupa, and now in the Colombo Museum, though of a latecirca 200 B.C., dale, point in the same direction, for the whole feelini is dismissed in of these is Hindu. To sum up, Dr. Coomaraswar rather less than sees in Sinhalese art“ an early stratum of indihalf a page of pensable barbaric decorative_motives, . . . then. print, while the main stream of North Indian Buddhist influence; and hamsa fares thereafter the influence of continued reliance upon and even worse. intercourse with India, especially Southern India These and accounting at every period for the strong admixture

other of purely Hindu with Buddhist motifs.' With the conventional conclusion few will quarrel, though Dr. Coomaraelements were swamy says all too little concerning the earlie most skilfully stratum. Ít remains only to direct attention to thcombined, and number and excellence of the photographs by Mrthe beauty of Coomaraswamy, and to indicate that it is owing to the results at her energy that the remains of the moribund artr tained is seen Sinhalese embroidery have been brought together ti in plate xvi. form chapter xv.

C. G. S. (here reproduced in Fig. 1), of a nine


METEOROLOGY." ceiling painting from the Da THE meteorology of the southern hemispher lada Maligawa,

presents a specially attractive field of study.

The large area of water surface conduces to muca Kandy, repre- simpler conditions than are to be found to the north senting a forest of the Equator, and here, if anywhere, thะ scene. There

meteorologist may hope to discover the fundamenta.

principles underlying the general movements of th: chapters architecture,

atmosphere. On the other hand, he has to face the wood work,

relative paucity of data. The meteorological organis

tions of the three great land areas are still young, and stone work, figure sculp

our knowledge of what is happening over the sea in

woefully small as compared with the completeness Fig. 2.-Guardian Deity from a Temple Door

ture, and paint

with which we ing, the reduced

are able to track down change Jamb, Ivory. Height of plaque, 10 inches. Colombo Museum Collection. From "Mediæval colour plates of

occurring over the great trade routes of the North Sinhalese Art."

Atlantic. The present discussion forms a recapitulo

some of the wall paintings in Degaldoruwa Vihara, Kandy, being to time from the Solar Physics Observatory, of which

tion and a completion of work published from timextraordinarily faithful reproductions of the originals, abstracts have appeared in previous numbers ( the spirit of which they have preserved to a surprising NATURE (lxx., p. 177; Ixxiv., p. 352). At the outs degree. An interesting conjecture is made in chapter X.,

we congratulate Dr. Lockyer on his success in bringwhich suggests that ivory was comparatively little ing together a vast amount of information and on the used in Indian art on account of the Hindu reluctance

skill with which he has marshalled the facts deduces to use the products of dead animals; Buddhists had therefrom. no scruples of this sort, and so ivory was always

1 Solar Physics Committee. A Discussion of Australian Meteorology valued and used in Ceylon even in temples, with the by Dr W L S Lockyer, under the direction of Sir Norm: n Locava

K.C.B., F.R.S. Pp. vii+117 ; 10 plates. (London: Wyman and Soos result that ivory carvings are perhaps the most beauti- Ltd., 1907.)




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The opening chapters deal exclusively with Aus- The question of periodicity naturally comes in for

tralian conditions. Pressure observations are discussion. After eliminating a variation of short Charming sidered first. The mean amplitude of the difference period by taking means of groups of four years, Dr.

between a number of conspicuous minima and the Lockyer claims that the sinoothed curves for Australia Cao succeeding maxima in the curves showing the annual show a periodicity of nineteen years. It is true that

variation, amounts to more than seven-hundredths of there are conspicuous maxima in 1868 and 1897, and
an inch. When the curves for those stations for which minima separated by about the same number of years,
long records are available are compared, they all show but this does not of itself prove a recurring periodicity,
a marked similarity, and the important generalisation and the case

is not advanced by drawing a
is arrived at that simultaneous excess or defect of · hypothetical ” curve through the points of maxi-
pressure in any one year is a marked feature of the mum in which an intervening secondary maximum
whole Australian continent, and is not restricted to is disregarded and replaced by a principal minimum.
any one particular portion of this area. Coming The occurrence of a similar interval between the
next to the rainfall observations, an examination of maxima in the pressure curve for South America, but
the curves leads to a similar conclusion. Years of of other epoch, is suggestive, but the question of the
low rainfall are, broadly speaking, years of deficiency connection between the two continents remains one
over the whole continent, and in years of excess the for further study.

excess is also general. Moreover, a comparison of A highly suggestive and interesting chapter on the er the rainfall and pressure curves suggests very strongly air movements over the three great land areas of the

that periods of high pressure are periods of low southern hemisphere points out some interesting
rainfall, and vice versa. These are generalisations of similarities between the pressure distribution and the

great importance, for they introduce a great simplific incidence of rainfall of the three continents. The 1cuk : cation, and correspondingly facilitate the further volume also contains an interesting comparison of the

study of Australian weather conditions. In view of flow of the Murray river with the rainfall, and of the To the few data available in proportion to the area frequency of southerly “ Bursters” with the variaBele considered, a meteorologist, arguing from analogy, tions of pressure. The work thus ranges over a wide 1. tu might be disposed to regard these as hasty generalisa- field. It offers much that is new, and brings together

tions. The extraordinary variability of rainfall from a common point of view much information that Dr.l. in other parts of the world is well known, and has hitherto been scattered in a number of individual for its adequate study a large mass of information


R. G. K. L.
Vive is essential. When the necessary figures are forth-
This coming we find that even within the narrow limits of
our own islands there are very conspicuous differences

between the north of Scotland and the south of

England. Australian conditions are, however, dif-
ferent. As Dr. Lockyer points out, the weather of M.
the continent is dominated primarily by anticyclones

on this subject to the Comptes rendus (March ning travelling from west to east. In years of high 22)., A summary of his calculations is set forth t 22 pressure these anticyclones are found to embrace a so clearly as to be easy to follow, and if we have one Lagt

wider area, and thus the low-pressure systems which regret it is that he has not published the discordances a: it's skirt their edges and bring rain to the northern

between observed and tabular positions that necesdistricts in summer, and to the southern ones in sarily form the basis of his work. We suppose that winter, affect the land area to a smaller extent.

the Comptes rendus do not admit masses of tabular Foto

In discussing these questions of correlation, whether matter, and we wish to express the hope that M.
it be between variations of the same element at Gaillot will publish this information somehow or
different places between different elements, other.
Dr. Lockyer uses the similarity between two curves

A review recently appeared in NATURE (June 17,
his standard of measurement. The points p. 463) on Prof. W. H. Pickering's calculations. We
of resemblance to which he directs attention are, there maintained that Prof. Pickering's supposed
indeed, striking. At the same time, the reader planet “0could not possibly produce sensible per-

feels a desire for more definite expression of turbations in Uranus. Now, M. Gaillot and Prof. nduer the relation between the elements under comparison. Pickering both locate their hypothetical planets in the When

the correlation between the same part of the sky. M. Gaillot's mass is five times
Australian curves and those for other parts of the that of the earth, or two and a half times that of Prof.
world, which takes up much of the later part of the Pickering's “ 0." A reader of the previous review
work, this becomes more imperative. Thus, on will see that M. Gaillot's planet would, therefore,
p. 72, after discussing the striking resemblance produce in Uranus inequalities exceeding a second of
between the pressure changes at Adelaide and those We suspect that Prof. Pickering has made some
of Bombay or Batavia, we read, “ While the Cordoba numerical mistake in estimating the mass of his
curve is nearly the inverse of Adelaide—the curve planet“ 0," and, if he can rectify this, we should
for the Cape seems to be intermediate, being more then have two independent researches in practical
inclined to be similar to the Australian type of varia- agreement. M. Gaillot's result is, however, suffi-
tion than that of South America.” The intermediate ciently confirmed by the analogy from inner planets
between two curves which are inverse to one another developed in the previous review.
should be a straight line. If it is meant that the Cape The important question now arises, “ Are the
curve follows now the variations of Adelaide and observed discordances sufficiently large to point un-
now those of Cordoba, it becomes a matter of im- mistakably to some unknown planet? It is clear
portance to have some means of comparing the that an inequality with a coefficient of one second of
degrees of similarity in the two cases. Superpose 'arc appears to exist in the observations; but the
any two arbitrarily drawn curves showing fluctuations elliptic constants of the orbit of Uranus are arbitrary,
of approximately the same amplitude, and we are sure

the observations are liable to small errors, and the
to find that some of the maxima and minima agree. theory of the action of known planets is not perfect.
Can we say by how much the correlation between All this shows how unsafe it would be to assert the
the curves we are discussing exceeds that between real existence of the inequality which would in its turn
curves drawn arbitrarily?

demonstrate the existence of an unknown planet. We


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an analogy from the moon. The real the regulations for the setting aside of a sum r. existence of a term with coefficient nearly three exceeding gol. a year to form an apparatus fund, tr: seconds and period sixty-four years is now generally which grants may be made from time to time to to. admitted in the motion of the moon. This term was fellow for the purchase of special apparatus ar first defined in 1904, and the case for its real existence material required in his research. The stipend of was not a strong one until Prof. Newcomb arrived | Sorby Research Fellow will probably be about 300 in 1909 at an almost identical conclusion from the per annum, and it is hoped that the committee totally different evidence of occultations. The term be in a position to make the first appointment to th: in the motion of Uranus must therefore be doubtful fellowship early in the coming autumn. for the present.

We are not entitled to do more at present than hope that it is real, and that a corresponding planet will reward M. Gaillot's admirable

PROF. T. W. BRIDGE, F.R.S. work. This doubt is fully admitted by M. Gaillot. qu'avec une extrême réserve. En effet, les différences We regret to record the death, on June 30, of D

T. W. Bridge, Mason professor of zoology r entre les positions observées d'Uranus et celles qui the University of Birmingham. By his death the in sont calculées a l'aide de nos Tables ne dépassent versity is deprived of one of its oldest and ms guère les limites des erreurs probables des observa- i experienced teachers, and zoological science has los tions augmentées de celles qui résultent des imper- one of those workers who, under the influence fections de la théorie. .."

Balfour and the Cambridge school, have contribute It is noteworthy that, like Prof. Pickering, M. largely both by example and precept to our knowledge Gaillot bases his hypothetical planet upon Uranus and of vertebrate morphology. not upon Neptune. It appears, therefore, that the Prof. Bridge was born in Birmingham in 1848, a.. motion of Neptune is in good agreement with the

after studying science at the Birmingham and Midla: tables, and that no extra-Neptunian planet can exist Institute, went in 1870 to Cambridge as assistant : of a mass and epoch to produce sensible inequalities Mr. J. W. Clark, then director of the Museum o in the motion of Neptune since its discovery. This is Zoology. In 1872 he was elected to a foundatir an important negative result; in fact, if it be assumed scholarship Trinity College, and appoint that the unknown planet has a mass at least one-third demonstrator in zoology under the late Prof. Newtor. that of Neptune, a considerable part of the ecliptic

After his graduation in 1875, he spent six months a is excluded from ihe domain where this planet can

Naples working in the zoological station, where, c". possibly be found.

the advice of F. M. Balfour, he carried out researt": into the “ abdominal pores is of fishes. In 1879 E

was appointed professor of zoology in the Rova THE SORBY RESEARCH FELLOWSHIP.

College of Science at Dublin. In 1880 he became on: IT T will be remembered that the late Dr. H. C. Sorby, of the original professors at the Mason College, Bir

F.R.S., of Sheffield, bequeathed a sum of 15,000l. mingham, holding the chair of biology; and when this to the Royal Society of London to be held in trust for chair was divided in 1882 he retained the title ut the establishment of a professorship or fellowship for Mason professor of zoology and comparative anatomy original scientific research, the testator expressly de- and kept the same position when the Mason College siring the professorship or fellowship thus founded to became a University in 1900. be associated with the University of Sheffield. Ac- The original work carried out by Prof. Bridge dea cepting this trust, the council of the Royal Society chiefly with the osteology of ganoid fish, the “ por appointed a committee to confer with representatives abdominales” of vertebrates, and the air-bladder of of the University of Sheffield with the view of drawing Teleosts. The most important of these memoirs are up a scheme for giving effect to the intentions of Dr. undoubtedly those dealing with the last subject, and Sorby's will.

the large paper by Profs. Bridge and Haddon, putA scheme, prepared by this committee for the established in the Philosophical Transactions in 1893, lishment of a Sorby Fellowship for Scientific Re- the air-bladder of Siluroids, has become a classic. This search to be associated with the University of work was the first thorough investigation dealing with Sheffield, has now been approved and adopted by the the structure and physiology of this organ which had council of the Royal Society, and by the senate and appeared since Weber's original discovery and fundacouncil of the University of Sheffield. This scheme mental treatise on the air-bladder published in 1820. provides for the administration of the income of the In certain Siluroids, Weber found that extraordinary fund by a joint committee consisting of four persons apparatus which still bears his name. He described appointed by the council of the Royal Society, one in a few families the vertebral elements that link the person appointed by the council of the University of air-bladder with the ear, and concluded that the apSheffield, and two by the senate of that University. paratus subserved the function of hearing in these

The object of the fellowship is not to train students fish. What was now required was a systematic isfor original research, but to obtain advances in natural quiry into the variation of this mechanism and into knowledge by enabling men of proved ability to devote the use or uses of it; and it is this monographic treatthemselves to research; and in making an appoint- ment that we owe to Prof. Bridge and his

collaborator. ment the committee will pay special attention to the They investigated 100 species of Siluroids, and concapacity for original work of a candidate, as shown cluded that this highly specialised mechanism was by the work already done by him, and to the employed, not for audition, but for the registration of likelihood that he will continue to do valuable work. varying hydrostatic pressures. These memoirs no: Each appointment will be in the first instance for five only advanced our knowledge of this interesting strucyears, subject to the control of the committee, but may ture, but threw light on many points of ecologica! in special circumstances be prolonged for further interest in connection with other physostomatous periods if the committee is satisfied with the fellow's Teleosts. work.

Prof. Bridge's most recent work was his article on The fellow will be required to carry out his re- fishes in the “ Cambridge Natural History ” (1904. search, when possible, in one of the laboratories of the This article has proved one of the most useful treatises University of Sheffield, and provision is made under on this subject both to teachers and students. The

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alue of his work was recognised by his election into In Travel and Exploration for July Mr. H. Massac Buist he Royal Society in 1903.

discusses what the nations are doing in the progress of We must not conclude this short article without aviation, and refers to the annual prize offered by him to Wearing witness to the great success of Prof. Bridge the Aërial League for the best essay by a member of s a teacher. He excelled, to no common degree, in

that body dealing with the attention that is being devoted rounding his pupils in the elements of zoology. As

by the leading civilised nations to the advancement of xamination candidates his students showed unusual

aërial locomotion. The first competition is to close on .ccuracy, and, in the main, a wide knowledge. Those of them who were able to go further and undertake January 31, 1910. In his article the author shows that ome piece of research found in him not only a

while Governments are mainly devoting their attention to timulus, but an unwearied guide and a sagacious the construction of dirigibles, aëroplane machines are, to a ritic.

large extent, being developed by private enterprise.

Writing in the Oxford and Cambridge Review, with a NOTES.

foreword by Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, Mr. R. P. Hearne

advocates the introduction of aviation as a form of sport M. G. DARBOUX has been re-elected president of the at the older universities. It is pointed out that such a jociété des Amis des Sciences, MM. Aucoc and Picard vice-scheme would produce a school of skilled aviators whose rresidents, and Prof. Joubin general secretary. The society experience would be of great value in future developments vas founded in 1857 by Baron Thenard with the view of

of aërial navigation. While the possibility of an Oxford issisting unfortunate inventors, men of science, and pro- and Cambridge flying race is suggested, we would point

essors and their families. Among the names of past- out that, in view of the fact that the great majority of ringtas residents of the society

those of Thenard, | Varsity men cannot afford to spend 1000l. on a motorvilage 2. B. Dumas. Pasteur, and others. Since its foundation driven machine, the man of moderate means might parof the society has distributed in pensions and grants more ticipate in the sport by gliding down a suitable incline ed to: han two and a half million francs. This year eighty selected on the Gogmagogs, Madingley Hill, or Royston ha Jensions have been granted to old savants or their widows. Heath. e late ? The society has assisted the education of some seventy spent children, and made grants to thirty-five widows. The work

The number of records of earthquakes obtained at Shide, Sale of the society should appeal to all who benefit from the Göttingen, Hamburg, and Laibach between January 1 and work of men of science. Information as to the society April 30 this year were, respectively, 98, 65, 61, and 33.

Each of these earthquakes extended over wide areas, and may be obtained from the treasurer, M. Fouret, 79 boule

was recorded at more than one station. At Shide the vard Saint-Germain, Paris.

instrument employed is of the type adopted by the British We learn from Science that the people of Honolulu have Association. At the other stations the records were made guaranteed already half the money asked for by the Massa- on smoked paper or by photographic arrangements with a chusetts Institute of Technology for the maintenance of an high multiplication. observatory which the institute proposes to establish at the

The annual general meeting of the Royal Society of brink of Kilauea for the study of volcanic action.

Arts, the 155th since the foundation of the society in 1754, The Geologists' Association is arranging a long was held on Wednesday, June 30, Sir William H. White,

The he me

excursion to the Arenigs, from July 28 to August 7, under K.C.B., chairman of the council, in the chair. the direction of Mr. W. G. Fearnsides. The excursion

Prince of Wales was re-elected for the ninth time in secretary is Mr. E. Montag, 4 Queen's Road, Rockferry,

succession president of the society, and the council, with

certain additions and alterations, Birkenhead.

was re-elected. d fi.


principal business of the meeting was the reading of the inns The Vienna correspondent of the Times announces that

annual report, which recorded the proceedings of the society Paduring excavations near Willendorf on the Danube by the during the past year. Reference was made to the failure ieri prehistoric section of the Austrian Natural History of the renewed attempt made by the managers of the 949 Museum, a chalk figurine, i centimetres high, represent. London Institution to amalgamate with the society. The th

ing a female figure, was discovered in a stratum contain- number of the society's members is now 3490. ing instruments and weapons characteristic of the Stone

The Times announces that in July of next year there

will be held in Brussels, in connection with the InterThe maps of the cadastral survey of Egypt have just national Exhibition of 1910, the first International Conad the been used to determine accurately the area of land planted gress of Administrative Sciences, under the direct patronage any with cotton and its distribution. Each plot in which cotton of the Belgian Government. The term “ administrative

was marked on the maps (scale 1/2500), so sciences is defined by the congress committee as meanthat not only the area and position were recorded, but, ing the sum of theoretical knowledge relating to the since the land-tax has been recently re-assessed with the services, the organisation, the machinery, and the action aid of these maps, the distribution of cotton on land of of Governments, and to the most practical methods to be different degrees of fertility was also determined. The employed by them. The honorary secretary to the British total area was 1,466,530 feddans, or 1,522,258 acres. committee of the congress is Mr. G. Montagu Harris,

Caxton House, Westminster, S.W. The Naples Academy of Sciences (mathematical and physical section) offers a prize of 1000 lire for the best The recent notices issued by the committee of the Interessay containing a systematic exposition of our present national Aëronautical Exhibition at Frankfort show that knowledge of the geometrical configurations of the plane many valuable prizes, in addition to those we have already and of spaces, considered in relation to the theory of sub-mentioned, have been placed at its disposal, including stitutions, with, if possible, some results.

The one by the German Emperor ; three prizes are also offered is memoirs are to be sent in anonymously not later than for the best kinematographic films of natural flight. A 1 - June 30, 1910.

series of scientific lectures will be delivered, the first being

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