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on July 12, by Major v. Parseval, who will describe his As the result of a biological survey of the Belgian 60air-ship and its potentialities; many other well-known men undertaken by the Royal Museum of Natural History of science have also fixed the dates of their lectures. The Belgium, Mr. G. Gilson, the director of that estas, physics of the upper air will be discussed by Profs. ment, has been enabled to describe a new and interest Assmann, Hergesell, Süring, and others. A list of the parasite which in autumn frequents the nursing-chazi. lectures and prizes already arranged is published in the of the females of the schizopod crustacean Gastrosacco first number of the exhibition journal Ila, this title being spinifer. Seeing that the schizopod occurs a contraction of Internationale Luftschiffahrt Ausstellung. swarms at some distance from the shore, it is a mz

for surprise that the discovery of the infesting paras, We are indebted to the author, Dr. K. J. Bush, for a

should have been so long delayed, especially as the lar:: copy of notes on the molluscan family Pyramidellidæ, pub- is of relatively large size. The parasite is itself a lished in the June number of the American Journal of tacean, referable to the group of epicarids, a section Science. These notes may be regarded as in some degree isopods which have become degraded in accordance supplemental to the article on the same group contributed

the requirements of a parasitic existence. Althou: by Mr. P. Bartsch to vol. xxxiv. of the Proceedings of the

nearly related to Dajus, Mr. Gilson is of opinion that Boston Society of Natural History.

new species should represent a genus by itself, and acor The crinoids of the family Comasteridæ undergo re

ingly proposes the

Prodajus ostendensis. I. vision at the hands of Mr. A. H. Clark in No. 1685 of

paper, of which we have received a separate copy, is . the Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, no fewer

lished in vol. xliii., pp. 19-92, of the Bulletin scientif than five new genera, of which three are based on new

de la France et de la Belgique. species, being named and described in the course of the

A cory of the Milroy lectures on disinfection and in paper. The communication relates, to a great extent, to infectants, delivered by Prof. R. Tanner Hewlett, and material collected by the Albatross.

printed from the Lancet, has been received. In these ttPOLYCHÆTOUS annelids from Monterey Bay and San

lectures Prof. Hewlett decided not to deal with the deta Diego, California, are discussed by Dr. J. P. Moore in of the various methods of practical disinfection, for the the June issue of the Proceedings of the Academy of

are to be found sufficiently described in every text-book 1 Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the collections on which hygiene; he has rather set himself to discuss the scients the paper is mainly based having been obtained from San principles embraced in the practice of disinfection. ? Diego in 1902 and 1903, and from Monterey Bay in 1903

first refers to the natural processes which reduce or destr: and 1904. The total number of species mentioned is sixty-specific micro-organisms, such as dilution (by air, watr, four, of which twenty-one are believed to be new to science. &c.), sunlight, desiccation, filtration (as in soil); he thy Many other forms doubtless remain to be described, as at

turns to the defensive mechanisms with which nature both localities collecting was almost entirely restricted to

endowed the human body ; and after making a brief reins inter-tidal limits, although a few hauls were made with ence to the application of internal disinfectants, he passi the dredge.

to a consideration of the disinfection of the infecta

material outside the body. References are made to sct. | DARWINISM looms large in the June number of Neue

disinfection, the requirements of an ideal disinfectant, Weltanschauung, in which the opening article is devoted

nature of the processes of disinfection, and the standardis. to a biography of Dr. August Weismann, accompanied by tion of disinfectants on the basis of their germicidal valu. an excellent portrait of that distinguished biologist and During the past few years much controversy has arisi evolutionist. There is also a notice of an interesting

upon the value of various methods of gauging the relat: Darwin exhibition recently opened at Carlsruhe, and germicidal powers of disinfectants, and although advar : arranged by Prof. Walther May. The exhibits are divided

has been made, we are still some distance from the gi. into three sections, one historical and biographical, the

of a satisfactory scientific method; it is important to second theoretical, and the third bibliographical. In the

this matter should be placed upon a sound basis, for, first are included a series of pictures illustrative of the life

Prof. Hewlett points out, the use of a disinfecta'i of Darwin and of the influence of the environment on the engenders a sense of security which, in the case of organism, while the second is devoted to pictures and

inefficient one, is unreal, and may lead to disastrous resul. specimens illustrative of Darwin's observations and teach

The market is flooded with inefficient disinfectants, et ing

there is at present no legal restraint upon their sale. The fresh-water crustaceans of Algeria and Tunis form

We have been favoured with the report of the direcs the subject of the first paper in the June number of the

of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, covering the : Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, this communica

ports of the various subordinate officers connected with i tion being based on the collections made by the author, Mr. Robert Gurney, in February and March, 1906. Although | tion of American machinery for tilling the ground, owird

gardens. Dr. Willis refers very hopefully to the introds the Algerian fresh-water crustaceans have been better

to the success attending the trial at the experiment state worked out than those of any other part of Africa, the

in the north of the island. The growth there of Cez. author finds that even here our knowledge is far from

rubber has been excellent, and in consequence nurseris. complete, while still more remains to be done in Tunis,

Manihot dicholoina have been formed. The Governme. especially in the Tell, or coast-district. A very large chemist, Mr. M. K. Bamber, gives some particulars number of species were collected, of which several are

analyses of young and old cacao leaves. In the your described by the author as new, the ostracods being leaves potash and phosphoric acid accumulate to the ext** omitted and reserved for a future communication. Perhaps one of the most interesting of the forms discovered during

of 35 per cent. and 10 per cent. respectively, but yr

small quantities are present in old leaves, which conir the visit is the malacostracan Cirolana foutis, described

a large amount of silica combined with lime and magnes by the author in the Zool. Anzeiger for 1908 on the evidence of three examples found under stones at the mouth of a MR. N. N. WORONICHIN, who has been studying the dspring near Biskra.

tribution of the algæ in the Black Sea, communicates a


reliminary account to the botanical section (No. 7) of charts, and particulars of average and extreme values; it Cravaux de la Société impériale des Naturalistes de St. also deals with special subjects, e.g. electrical phenomena Pétersbourg (vol. xxxvii., part iii.). Three vertical zones and the investigation of the upper air, and contains many if distribution are distinguished. The littoral zone is useful illustrations. The work will be acceptable to many jarrow, as there is no appreciable ebb and flow ; Ralfsia who may wish to obtain accurate general weather knowverrucosa, Corallina virgata, Rivularia polyotis, are the ledge without reference to more pretentious instructions and hief forms in certain bays, and in others species of Ulva text-books. ind Enteromorpha are the most general. The second zone

The Electrical Review for June 18 contains a list of the comprises depths from two to eight fathoms, where

electric tramways, railways, and power companies of the Cystoseira barbata is everywhere the dominant species. United Kingdom. We note that the following towns head { third zone ranges from ten to thirty fathoms ; Polysi- the list of those having electric tramways :—Manchester Thonia elongata is the chief formation down to twenty

105, Glasgow 95, London 86, Liverpool 59, Bradford 55, ive fathoms, then Zanardinia collaris is dominant, and

and Leeds 54 miles of track. The leading electric railways ower Antithamnion plumula.

are :—the Liverpool and Southport with 35, the Newcastle A series of short papers by Dr. J. N. Rose relating and Tyneside with 30, the Metropolitan with 26, and the o xerophytic plants of the unrelated but morphologically Metropolitan District with 24 miles of double track. The similar families of the Crassulaceæ and Cactacea is col- greatest power companies are :---the Newcastle-on-Tyne

with a ected in vol. xii., part ix., of Contributions from the

station capacity of 47,000 kilowatts, and the Cnited States National Herbarium. A Mexican plant,

Durham Collieries with 11,000 kilowatts. One of the ormerly described from barren specimens as an Echeveria, points which a study of the list brings out is the great s made the type of a new genus, Thompsonella. Another popularity of electric traction in the northern towns olant from Vera Cruz restores the species Echeveria carni-compared with the indifference in the south. olor. Three new species of the same genus are recorded

By means of quotations from the “ Atomistic of 1862 rom Guatemala. The re-discovery of the Cuban species and the “Weltleben" of 1881 of Robert Grassmann, Dr. of tree cactus, Cereus nudiflorus, is interesting; other new F. Kuntze shows in the Physikalische Zeitschrift for ipecies are an arboreal Pereskia, a remarkably spiny June 15 that more than forty years ago the brothers Echinocereus, and a Nopalea. Dr. Rose also describes Hermann and Robert Grassmann had worked out the 1 leguminous tree resembling a Cercidium, but sufficiently

details of an electronic theory to which the electronic listinct to be placed in a new genus, Conzattia. The

theories of the present day bear some resemblance. Accordphotographs illustrating the habit of these plants are

ing to the Grassmann theory, the smallest æther particle Idmirable.

consists of a pair of entities to which symbols + E and The scenery of the Greater Antilles forms the subject - E are assigned. The pairs repel each other according to »f an interesting paper read by Sir H. H. Johnston at the the inverse fourth-power law. When glass is rubbed with Royal Geographical Society, and published in the June silk the + E is attracted to the glass, the - E to the silk, iumber of the Geographical Journal. The subject provides and the two bodies become electrified. Light is due to imple scope for the author's well-known powers of the oscillations of the pairs as pairs, electricity to the bservation and description. Reference is made to the oscillation of the constituents of each pair. Heat is the triking character of the royal palms, Oreodoxa regia, in oscillation of matter and the æther pair together. Matter Cuba, an avenue of which “ looks like a column of white in the same way consists of pairs of elements, and chemical narble pillars crowned with a gerbe of glossy green

combination of two substances is the attraction of the ronds." The palmetto, Sabal palmetto, and two other positive matter element by the negative part of the æther salms with fan-shaped leaves, Thrinax and Coccothrinax, pair, and the negative matter element by the positive part ire prominent in the landscape of the plains and foot- of the æther pair. The positive and negative parts of a lills. Tall cacti contribute largely to the scenery of eastern

pair are supposed to keep apart owing to the motion of Cuba, especially on sandy flats. In the island of Haiti each round the other, as in a binary star. he agaves aroused the author's admiration. With regard An interesting article on the mechanical testing of cast o Jamaica, the author presents a sketch of the vegetation iron appears in the Bulletin de la Société d'Encouragement n January; he also offers a word of advice in the matter

pour l'Industrie nationale for May. The author, M. Ch. of retaining such natural beauty spots as Fern Gully.

Frémont, deals first with the historical aspect of his subWe have received revised editions of two useful little

ject, giving drawings of early apparatus, and then proceeds nanuals :-(1)“ Observing and Forecasting the Weather,"

to describe special machines of his own with which he has y Mr. D. W. Horner; and (2) Some Facts about the

made many tests on small specimens for the determination Veather," by Mr. W. Marriott. The first is intended for

of the coefficient of elasticity, the elastic limit, and the hose who may wish to obtain some knowledge of the

breaking strength. The results and plotted diagrams are veather without the use of instruments. For such persons

given, and from these the author arrives at the followhe work contains much useful information ; the chapters

ing conclusions :—the testing under static bending of castin clouds and optical phenomena, from which successful

iron samples of greatly differing strengths shows that the orecasts may often be drawn, are especially interesting,

coefficient of elasticity varies considerably, from simple to is are also the sections on old weather proverbs and the

triple proportion; the capacity for elastic bending of cast Yopular fallacy of the moon's influence. The work is

iron is inversely proportional to its strength; the elastic iccompanied by some good typical illustrations. The

limit under static bending varies very greatly, being from second pamphlet gives some of the results which have

0.45 to 0.80 of the breaking strength. seen obtained from present-day systematic meteorological Most of the engineering and shipbuilding periodicals for observations in the British Isles," and is of special interest the week ending June 26 contain reference to the new rules o those possessing instruments for an ordinary climato- which are on the point of being issued by Lloyd's Register ogical station. It contains useful information referring of British and Foreign Shipping. The revised rules are o each of the meteorological elements, the use of synoptic framed to include vessels up to about 680 feet in length, and they cover all the vessels previously classed by the The June number of the Stonyhurst Magazine conan society excepting the large Cunard steamers Lusitania and an illustrated description of the Milne seismograph D Mauretania. The most important modification in the new in the National Antarctic Expedition in H.M.S. Disco rules is in the basis for determining the “transverse under Captain R. F. Scott, R.N., in 1904. The seire number" and the “ longitudinal number.” The former graph is now a permanent loan to the observatory. number is now to be found by adding the breadth and Stonyhurst from the Antarctic committee of the Run -depth only, and the latter by multiplying the length by Geographical Society. The instrument stands at Sto the sum of the breadth and depth. It is also of import- hurst on a solid stone pillar fixed in 12 inches of conce ance to notice that all the sections in the tables conformits position is lat. 53° 50' 40" N. and long. gm. 52-68. 7 to the standards of the Engineering Standards Committee. of Greenwich. A new recording apparatus has This is a very wise move, and is much to be commended. secured, and there is every reason to hope that user Another step in the right direction has been taken in the observations will be made at the new station. adoption of a unit for scantlings of one-fiftieth of an inch instead of one-twentieth as in the old rules. This not only conforms with the decimal system, but, as 0.02 inch

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. is practically half a millimetre, a close connection with

COMET 1909a, BORRELLY-DANIEL.–Further observati: the metrical system is secured. As Lloyd's Register covers of comet 1909a have revealed no striking features either between 70 per cent. and 80 per cent. of the world's | its form or in its behaviour. In No. 4334 of the As shipping for insurance purposes, the new rules cannot fail nomische Nachrichten M. Chofardet records the obser.

tions made at the Besançon Observatory, and states to influence the shipbuilding and steel industries in this

on June 17 and 19 the comet was of magnitude 1101 and most foreign countries.

12.0, had a round, diffused head of 1.5' diameter, and

vague condensation which could be seen occasionally i A note in the Bulletin de l'Institut Pasteur for May 30 oblique vision. (vii., No. 10, p. 453) announces the discovery by Carlos

A New Form of COMPARISON Prism.-In all spectra Chagas, of Rio de Janeiro, of a new human trypanosome scopic work where a comparison prism placed over the si parasite (T. crusi), conveyed by a bug (Conorrhinus), and

is used, the dark band between the compared spectra, 7 causing an often fatal illness among miners and others duced by the edge of the prism, constitutes an inconvenien in the State of Minas.

which may prove a source of error. To remedy this deled

Prof. Louis Bell has employed a specially designed om The Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for June pound prism, in which the light from one of the source (xx., No. 219) contains an interesting historical essay, by is reflected from the fine edge of a thin layer of size

whilst that from the other source is allowed just to me Dr. Gerster, on the life and times of Gerhardt van Swieten, physician to the Empress Maria Theresa, who eliminated. The method of preparing such comporum

the edge. Thus the line of demarcation is practica. was born in Leyden in 1700 and died in 1772 at Schön- prisms is described, and illustrated' by diagrams, in No. 4 brunn.

vol. xxix., of the Astrophysical Journal (p. 305). A COMPREHENSIVE

the cartography of the HALLEY's Comet.-No. 4330 of the Astronomisch

Nachrichten contains two search-ephemerides for Haller Philippine Islands is given by Prof. Guido Cora in Bollet

comet. The first is by Dr. Holetschek, who discusses the tino della Soc. Geogr. Ital. as a notice of the recent map

probable date of perihelion and gives three ephemeride of the islands compiled from original sources by Mr. C. W.

one for May 16.45, 1910, and the others for thirty day Hodgson.

before and after respectively. At the previous apparitia

in 1835, the comet was discovered 102 days before ai We have received from the Nottingham Free Public perihelion passage, when its distances from the sun 21 Library a copy of a simply arranged supplementary science carth were 1.9 and 2.4 astronomical units respectively; t1 catalogue of the central lending library dealing with books corresponding distance from the sun will occur, accorda in most branches of science published between 1901 and to Dr. Holetschek's data (T=May 16-45, 1910), e

February 3, 1910. The second ephemeris has been cos the present year.

puted by Herr L. Matkiewitsch from the data given 1 Mr. R. B. Henderson, assistant master at Rugby the positions now given vary considerably, at different

the essay which won the Astronomische Gesellschaft prize School, has written an introduction to the study of moths epochs, from those previously referred to in these column and butterflies for the Rugby School Natural History (NATURE, No. 2046, January 14, p. 320). Society, entitled “ The Scaly-winged.” It will be published

THE POLARISATION OF THE SOLAR CORONA.-In the J immediately by Messrs. Christophers.

number of the Bulletin de la Société astronomique a We have received vol. vi. of " Contributions from the obtained at the 1905 eclipse with a polariscopic camera

France M. Salet discusses at length the photograpa Jefferson Physical Laboratory." It consists of a reprint of These photographs show the coronal radiations to twelve papers which have appeared in the Proceedings of strongly polarised right down to the moon's edge, thered the American Academy of Science or in other periodicals indicating that reflected light is being dealt with ; but the during the past twelve months. Five of these papers have spectroscopic observations indicate that radiations direct already been noticed in these columns.

from a light-source are in question. M. Salet suggesti

that the apparent contradiction may be explained by ti In the announcement in NATURE of May 27 (p. 375) of theory that the bright radiations observed spectroscopical


are due to metallic vapours rendered fluorescent by the resignation by Mr. H. H. Clayton of his position at

intense solar radiation. In this condition metallic vapou the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, it was stated give band spectra, and the superposition of these might, that he had been in charge of the observatory since 1894. small dispersion were employed, produce the appearance G This statement does not express the position exactly. Mr. a continuous spectrum such as has been observed. Clayton has served for many years as observer or meteor- support of his theory M. Salet quotes the observation de ologist, and his researches have added to the reputation ! Sir Norman Lockyer at the eclipse of 1882, that the coro of the observatory, but the director is Prof. Lawrence directs attention to the discovery of magnetic fields

spectrum appeared to be formed of superposed bands, x Rotch, who founded the observatory in 1885, and provides Prof. Hale, which, with a rotating sun, afford the ce for its material support.

ditions necessary for his theory.



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THE SOLAR CONSTANT AND THE APPARENT TEMPERATURE Of course, the supply of water per head of population 'F THE SUN.-In a note published in No. 7, vol. Ixix., of is the important question when dealing with the amount he Monthly Notices (p. 611), Dr. Féry discusses the of water required, and the tables given of the supplies in neasurement of the solar constant and of the sun's mean a large number of towns show the variations which exist, emperature. One of the greatest difficulties in these re- and which extend from about sixty gallons as a maximum earches is to evaluate the atmospheric absorption, which to below ten gallons as a minimum, leaving out one special n published researches has varied from 1.5 to 4; it is case with small population which runs up to 124 gallons renerally accepted now as having the value 2.4.

per head. The numbers all relate to total supply, which Having designed an instrument for measuring terrestrial includes domestic, trade, and municipal demands. The ligh temperatures, MM. Féry and Millochau applied it to statistics given show much greater uniformity of supply in he determination of the solar temperature by Stefan's the different towns than would have been anticipated, and

More than 750 observations were made at different it is evident from them that waste of water is carefully I titudes, and at the summit of Mont Blanc the zenith looked after in England, and all possible precautions taken ransmission was found to be 0.91; with this correction the to avoid it. If the consumption is compared with what emperature at the centre of the sun's disc was found to is common in many of the large towns in the United le 5550° absolute, and the mean temperature 5360° C. States, where the water supply goes up to 200 gallons Before dispatching it to India, this instrument was re- and more per head, it will be evident that the precautions tandardised at the National Physical Laboratory, and, on taken in England have given very satisfactory results. | clear, dry day, gave eight concordant readings, from The opposition to the use of water meters in the United vhich the temperature at the centre of the disc was found States is probably the reason why leakage and waste cono be 5153° absolute; on this day the zenith transmission tinue on a large scale. This opposition is principally due it Teddington was, therefore, 0-74, or the absorption was to the view that, on sanitary grounds, it is not well to 6 per cent.

restrict the supply of water, but, as Mr. F. P. Stearns. Employing the accepted value of the constant (2.4), the stated in his presidential address to the American Society ecent researches give 5920° as the mean temperature of of Civil Engineers, “no one has yet demonstrated the he sun; but Dr. Féry thinks this is too high, and, there sanitary advantages of a leaky faucet or a defective ballrom, deduces that the accepted value of the solar constant

cock. s too high. The Mont Blanc measures would indicate Table No. 5 is a valuable one. It gives, first, the -65 as the value.

population of more than 120 cities, towns, or districts in

England for two or three years, with intervals, sometimes CHE NATIONAL CONSUMPTION OF WATER. gives the total supply in each of these water areas during

large and sometimes small, between the years. It then AN important paper on the increase in the national the years mentioned, dividing it up under the heads of

consumption of water was read by. Mr. W. R. B. domestic, trade, and municipal, the daily supply per head Wiseman before the Royal Statistical Society, on April 27. of population then following under the same heads. The paper is of considerable interest, and must have Considerable space is devoted to the reasons which have ntailed a large amount of time and thought on the part caused an increase in the supply of water per head for of the author. The historical part, which deals with the domestic, trade, and municipal purposes. As regards arly history of water supply in England, treats the ques. domestic, it is, of course, well known that the displaceion, not only from the general point of view, but gives ment of old methods of sewage disposal by the introduce nany interesting details of the early methods adopted and tion of the water-carriage system was the first cause of he difficulties met with in many individual towns; in fact, the great increase of the water supply. The increased

is not too much to say that the early beginnings of and increasing use of fixed baths must also largely he water supply of all the principal towns in England are augment the consumption, as the water used for a bath eviewed shortly in the paper. It is obvious that, as the by one person may vary from thirty to one hundred gallons. bject of the paper is to deal with the more modern The author gives various other reasons for the increase uestions which arise in connection with this subject, the in the domestic supply. As regards municipal supply, uthor could not devote very much space to historical attention is directed to the increase in consumption due to etails. We can, however, judge that on this subject he the public baths, wash-houses, street conveniences, &c. as only touched the fringe of the information he has | The author states that he has endeavoured for some time cquired, and it may perhaps not be too much to hope past to collect data which will give some idea of the hat he may return to this part of his subject at a future relative proportion of the water supply needed for late.

particular works or industries, but the results have been The life of Sir Hugh Myddelton and the description of too meagre to justify definite conclusions. He, however, he work carried out by him of bringing the water from deals in a general way with the amount of water used in he springs of Chadwell and Amwell, in Hertfordshire, by a large number of industries, among which are breweries, neans of the New River, for the supply of London distilleries, paper works, textile industries, and many well known to most of us, and possibly the author of others, and the information given is of an interesting his paper may have material for the making of a story character. The conclusion is that, on the whole, the rate is interesting and romantic in connection with other of increase of water supply is greater in recent times than

in those more remote. There probably would have been The author says he was “tempted ” to investigate the no doubt about this conclusion in anyone's mind, but, stimates of the population in the pre-censal period in although this may be the case, it does not detract from order to determine whether the great increases in the the value of the information which has been collected in population in the nineteenth century were abnormal or this paper to prove it. otherwise, as upon the answer to the query one must The moral drawn is that, with the increasing amount ve guided in the provision of water supplies for future of water required, there will be an increasing competipopulations. As was to be expected, he found such an tion for the remaining first-class upland reservoir sites, inquiry not of great value. He has, however, put together which will become fewer and fewer as time goes on, and some interesting information as regards the growth of it is therefore desirable that steps should be taken at an nany towns, and has dealt with the re sons for the very early date to create some central authority " which should rapid growth of several of them. From a general review, be charged with the duty of water conservancy in its the conclusion arrived at is that " the nineteenth century widest application, and for that purpose should engage in was in no wise abnormal, and that a steady increase in a close and exact study of the water resources of the the already considerable population may be expected country.' The author then goes more fully into the throughout the twentieth century.

details which ought to be dealt with by such a body. The author describes at some length the methods adopted This proposal is, of course, not new, although of great for checking the waste of water in early days, and par- importance. It was dealt with by Mr. E. P. Hill in a ticularly the system adopted in Liverpool in 1868 of paper which he read at the Institution of Civil Engineers localising the waste by metering the supply in various on November 27, 1906. In the beginning of that paper listricts.

he said, "the water supply of the country is really a






national matter, and it should be considered as a whole, would have it brought home to him in some way or eu and a town should not be allowed to appropriate a par- that between 1858 and 1907 there nad been a fall in ticular area unless it can be shown that in a general annual death-rate due tuberculosis from 2700 survey of available sources of supply that

1,000,000 living to 1150 per 1,000,000 living. He il economically, from a water point of view, be allotted also see that, were the fall to continue at the same sa to it."

tuberculosis would be an extinct disease early in the The value of the paper would have been increased if decade. Although this is too favourable a state of tool some information had been given as regards what is being to look forward to, as there will always remain a ord done in other countries in connection with systematic substratum of tuberculous patients and foci that it 1 investigation of water resources. There is no doubt that almost impossible to reach, tuberculosis should undoubte such an investigation is of more value and of greater be an almost negligible quantity in our death-rate by 31 necessity to the United Kingdom, where the population time. per acre is large, than to some of those countries which How has this fall been brought about? In the are at present rather sparsely inhabited, but which, at the place, even before Koch was able to prove the prema same time, spend money on proposals such as have been of the infective agent, the tubercle bacillus, in tubere. suggested. In the United States this work was under- lesions, it was realised by those who were studying taken as a national one some years ago, a beginning disease most closely that it could be transmitted from having been made in 1894-5 by a grant of 12,500 dollars. person to another, and that crowded and badly ventil This amount was gradually increased, until the grant in rooms were, therefore, fruitful centres of infection. 33 1905-6 was 200,000 dollars. Since then there has, we was a very great step forward, the full effect of ut. believe, been some variation in the amount voted for this however, was not felt until Koch gave his wonda purpose.

demonstration of the presence of the tubercle bacilli. Considering the large amount of work which the author isolated the infective agent-this tubercle bacillus ; its '1 must have gone through to prepare this paper, it may history was studied, and its relation to the tissues of 1 seem almost ungracious to suggest that he should add animal body during the course of the development of anything further to it as regards other countries, but he disease, demonstrated. In the history of the treatmer has shown such a large capacity for putting information any infective disease little progress has been made together that we hope he may be tempted to even further fighting against it until the causal agent has been dem research in connection with this subject.

strated. Once this stage has been reached, however, MAURICE FITZMAURICE. fight waged against infective disease of all kinds :

become more and more effective. In the case of tubo:

losis, the attack can now be delivered along many para.. THE WAR AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS.

Every patient is looked upon as a possible centre of is.

tion, and before setting about the cure of the pate THE National Association for the Prevention of Con- those dealing with the case have set themselves the 2

sumption and other forms of Tuberculosis was well of attacking the bacillus from every quarter and at ea advised to open its exhibition or collection of object- point. It is realised that the first thing to be done : lessons in the Borough of Stepney. It may safely be secure it, or kill it, if possible, immediately it leaves said that the Whitechapel Art Gallery never had any patient, especially, of course, in the sputum, as it com company of more interested sightseers than the thousands from the lungs. who, at this exhibition a few weeks ago, examined and In the case of tuberculosis, isolation, in the ordina, discussed death-rates, ventilation, graduated labour and sense of the term, is out of the question, but although a the apparatus used in performing it in the treatment of patient cannot be segregated from his fellows—and consumption, apparatus for the treatment of tuberculous many cases it would be both unwise and cruel so to da diseases, playgrounds, pathological specimens, back-to- | he should be carefully trained to isolate himself, so 1 back houses, overcrowding, food-stuffs and the principles as the tubercle bacillus is concerned, by taking every of nutrition, methods of disinfection, and the like.

caution to prevent any undisinfected material from getti Any interested onlooker would have seen at once that the beyond his immediate vicinity. More is necessary, h official conferences and set discussions constituted, after ever, than the mere killing of the bacillus as it leatall, but a small fraction of the educational work that was the human body; some attempt must be made 0 " being carried on. Here was an exhibition of which the build up the strength of the patient that his tisa. main object was not to direct the attention of the public may be capable of carrying on war with the baci: to any patent medicine or "all curing " nostrum, but how either on fairly level terms or on terms in favour to regulate their daily life, how to avoid disease, and the patient. This can only be done by ensuring go! how to get the best food value out of their weekly wages, hygienic conditions—plenty of fresh air, light, gol be these great or small. Nevertheless, the promoters of food, work enough with plenty of rest. Given these en this exhibition, realising what an opportunity they had, ditions, and the tubercle bacillus has a bad time of also gathered together a number of medical and municipal remove the conditions, and the bad time falls to the delegates interested in the matter, to discuss the best means patient. It has been stated above that it is often [": of preventing and curing tuberculosis.

necessary to segregate consumptive patients; it must in Even those dropping in casually found an enthusiastic remembered, however, that in the late stages of the band of demonstrators,

from dispensaries and disease, when the patient is weak and when the var: hospitals, attendants from graduated labour homes, from discharges from the body, sputum and other excreta, sanatoria and similar institutions, all hard at work ex- contain enormous numbers of the infective bacilli, it ra plaining to small groups of interested men and women the be advisable, and even necessary, in the patient's or meaning of the exhibits of which they were in charge. interests as well as of those who daily come in cond: It was interesting to see the keenness with which both with him, to keep him in hospital, to make his last days teacher and listener tackled the subject; and that these or even weeks or months, as easy and as pleasant : demonstrators were doing their work well was apparent possible for him. Moreover, under these conditions from the numerous and intelligent questions that were put destruction of the enormous number of tubercle baci.. at the end of the demonstrations. Even to the sharp, coming from the body is a comparatively easy matter. shrewd Londoner the importance of ventilation, of cleanli- Those interested in the treatment of tuberculosis har ness, of light, of suitable feeding, have been small, but for long been convinced that good feeding and fresh ai a few exhibitions and demonstrations such as those seen are factors of prime importance in such treatment. Upt and heard in Whitechapel Art Gallery will soon change a few years ago, however, the results obtained, thous all that; and the President of the Local Government very much better than any obtained under the old method Board has done nothing better for some time than in of treatment, were in certain respects extremely disappoir: giving his countenance and support to what promises to ing. The patients were not properly classified for trea'. be a really living movement.

ment, and many died who apparently ought to have lived What is the object and what are the lessons insisted Those who went to Whitechapel to learn would find th: upon at these conferences ? Anyone visiting the exhibition the treatment of consumptives under Dr. Paterson s


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