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ZEISS Pulsometer EngE KNEW STEREO PALMOS
NATURAL HISTORY. “GERYK"
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Illustrated by 140 text-illustrations, and
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BY THE SAME AUTHOR.
in Madras Museum.
Apply Secretary, Essex House Press.
THURSDAY, JULY 15, 1909.
notes the occurrence of thyroid regeneration following the partial removal of that organ, but he omits to state
that in certain cases the parathyroids are capable of REGENERATION.
regenerating tissue containing colloid substance, and Experimental-Zoologie. Part ii., Regeneration : Eine so resembling, if not identical with, normal thyroid
Zusammenfassung der durch Versuche ermittelten tissue. Neither does he mention that in rabbits and Gesetzmässigkeiten tierischer
tierischer Wieder-erzeugung. other animals which can survive thyroidectomy the By Dr. Hans Przibram. Pp. viii+338; 16 plates. function of the thyroid appears to be taken over by (Leipzig and Vienna : Franz Deuticke, 1909.) Price the pituitary, in which the cells of the pars intermedia 14 marks.
show an increased activity, as manifested especially by TH HE second part of Dr. Hans Przibram's “Experi- a greater secretion of colloid. Both these processes
mental Zoology" has so far only been published are probably to be regarded as instances of functional in German, but it is to be hoped that an English restitution in allied organs of the body. translation will follow in due course. It will be a The regeneration of the uterine mucosa after parmatter for regret if the efforts of the Cambridge turition and menstruation is alluded to, but there is University Press to provide English-speaking biologists no reference to Heape's papers, which deal more fully with standard editions of works which are otherwise than any others with the nature of the post-menstrual accessible only in a foreign language do not receive recuperative processes. Futhermore, there are certain sufficient support to justify their continuance. The omissions in the literature dealing with teratological present volume, which is very considerably larger than science. Nevertheless, the work, as it stands, contains the first (reviewed in NATURE, March 4, p. 2), deals by far the most comprehensive account of the subject with the secondary aftergrowth of lost parts, embracing of regeneration that has as yet been written, and, as the phenomena of morphallaxis and deformation such, it constitutes an important addition to the literaThe allied subject of grafting, which finds a place in ture of experimental zoology. Prof. Morgan's work on “ Regeneration," published
FRANCIS H. A. MARSHALL. eight years ago, is not systematically dealt with, but it may well be that this is reserved for special treatment
A NATURALIST IN TASMANIA. in the final volume on function. The subject-matter of A Naturalist in Tasmania. By G. Smith. Pp. 151. the part now under notice is divided into eight
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909.) Price 75. 6d. net, chapters, dealing successively with the different groups
TAS of the animal kingdom, from the Protozoa to the
TASMANIA is the smallest of the Australian
States, and its scientific interest is out of all Vertebrata. To these is added a general summary: proportion to its size, while its magnificent scenery, containing an account of the general laws which picturesque lakes, rugged mountains, noble forests, govern the regenerative processes and their develop and its combination of vegetation of tropical luxuriment in phylogeny. There are sixteen coloured plates, which are bound at the end of the volume, but these
ance with a temperate summer climate will always
make it one of the most attractive of Australian are so overcrowded with figures as to tend towards tourist resorts. The State has still a small and scat, confusion, and the execution is not good. The work is tered population ; internal communication and railway adapted for purposes of reference rather than for con
construction are exceptionally difficult, so, though it, tinuous reading, and is furnished with an extensive
was the second in date of Australian colonies, much bibliography, in which few omissions to be
of the island is still very imperfectly known. detected.
Mr. Geoffrey Smith, of New College, Oxford, In dealing with the power of compensatory hyper
made expedition to Tasmania in
1907-8, trophy possessed by the generative glands, the author aided by a British Association grant, in order to alludes to the fact that although unilateral castration investigate the primitive shrimps inhabiting its lakes. is said to promote an increased growth on the part of
The short volume gives a charmingly written narrathe remaining testis, the number of spermatozoa found
tive of his journey, and it is illustrated by some of in the semen is very appreciably diminished, at least
Beattie's beautiful photographs and excellent drawaccording to Lohde's observations. These
ings of some Tasmanian animals, such as that of the ments, however, are not necessarily conflicting, since Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus), by Mr. Goodchild. Ancel and Bouin and others have shown that in all It is accompanied by a geological sketch-map based probability the interstitial cells of the organs, and not
on Johnston's. the spermatogenetic tissue, are responsible for the normal testicular influence which is exerted upon the of Tasmanian scenery.
Mr. Geoffrey Smith is enthusiastic over the beauty
He deals especially with the secondary sexual characters and the organism as
districts near Hobart and around the Great Lake on whole; and so it may perhaps be, in general, that it is the Central Plateau. He gives a short note on the the interstitial rather than the seminiferous portion aborigines, with illustrations both of their heads and of the testis which undergoes hypertrophy after one
skulls. On the vexed question as to the relation of sided castration. Moreover, the time which Lohde the Tasmanians, he is emphatic (p. 28) thatallowed to elapse after extirpating the single testis was probably too short to admit of definite conclusions mainland of Australia or not, it is certain that neither
“ Whether the Tasmanian race ever inhabited the being drawn regarding the power of compensation in their physical characters nor in their culture have possessed by the remaining testis. Dr. Przibram they anything to do with the Australian blacks, whose
relationship lies rather with the Veddahs of Ceylon of each material are described, also the preparation and the other straight-haired Proto-Dravidian races for use, varieties met with, impurities and adulterants, that still exist sparsely in India and the Malay defects, and tests for quality, including both laboratory Islands."
tests and simple practical tests such as may be applied He says we have a good deal of information as to by the workman. In every case the author is careful their burial customs, which differ totally from those to point out the application of correct scientific prinof the Australians, and their language seems to ciples, and from his practical knowledge is able to have differed entirely from the Australian and to show suggest many useful tests not generally known. remote connection with the Andamanese” (p. 31). The work is thoroughly up to date, from both a
His last chapter discusses the biological relations of scientific and a practical point of view, and the latest Australia and Tasmania, and the evidence for the results of investigation into such matters as the connection of Australasia with Antarctica. He is setting action of cement, the rusting of iron, and the convinced that the fauna and flora of Australia micrography of metals are clearly and broadly stated entered it from the south and not from Asia. As he in their bearings upon the practical use of material. truly remarks, the marsupials are most numerous This book will prove of great value to students inand of the most primitive types in southern Australia, tending to take up architecture as a profession. The while they are comparatively rare and most specialised builder, also, and the practical man will be glad to in northern Australia. If they had migrated from take advantage of much of the information given. In Asia the opposite arrangement would have been fact, many teachers in the architectural and building expected.
departments of technical colleges will be glad to know The author still accepts Galaxias as evidence of of the book with the view of recommending it to their the recent connection of Australasia and South students. America; he admits that it visits estuaries, but con- This being the first edition, it is hardly to be -siders that it can only have spread across the southern expected that the book is entirely free from defects. Pacific along the shelf around the Antarctic land. The diagrammatic illustrations given seem to be the After Mr. Boulenger's letter (NATURE, 1902, vol. Ixvii., least satisfactory part of the work. While the work p. 84), with its convincing evidence that Galaxias has been written so lucidly as in render numerous breeds in the sea, the distribution of that fish is no figures unnecessary, it would seem that more than indication of a former land connection. One slip, in nine illustrations might be legitimately employed to fact, is the statement that the tree Senecios are assist the reader in grasping the subject. There is unknown in the tropics (p. 133). They are the largest room for some improvement, too, in the chapter on trees in the alpine zone of Kenya and other east timber, several inaccuracies having escaped correction, African mountains. The author represents Tasmania e.g. on p. 295, what is described as decay due to as not a biological appanage of Australia, as he holds worms should rather be ascribed to the larvæ of that it acquired its present distinctive characters certain beetles, &c. Also, on p. 296, the Teredo, ibefore its separation from the mainland. Although although popularly regarded as a worm, should really this view is probable, the striking differences which be classed with the mollusca. In dealing with dry rot the author well describes between the faunas of the on p. 294, the temperature conditions are not referred two areas indicate that the separation happened long to. although these play an important part in the ' enough ago for many of the Tasmanian mammals to development of the fungus. have developed into new species. The most striking A few statements in other parts of the book seem part of the book is Mr. Smith's valuable contributions to call for reconsideration or correction, e.g. p. 20, to knowledge of the primitive Tasmanian fresh- $ 3:-“ If two vessels containing the same liquid be water shrimps, of which he discovered a new genus. connected, the level in each will become the same They are allied to those of the European Carbon- whatever i the form or distance of the connecting iferous Crustacea, and are one of the groups of pipe.” Again, the statement, p. 277, “ Shearing and archaic animals still living in Australasia.
torsional stresses are identical, apart from the method
of applying the force producing them," although PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS.
true, needs explanation to the mind not trained in
mechanics. Introduction to the Chemistry and Physics of Building The explanation given on p. 323 as to the optical
Materials, By Alan E. Munby. Pp. xx+ 345. theory of the production of a green pigment from (London : A. Constable and Co., Ltd., 1908.) Price yellow and blue powders, will hardly explain fully 6s. net.
how it happens that the same blue powder, mixed (NLIKE many books intended chiefly as short with a red one, will produce purple. Turning to the seeks to impart in a clear, concise, and accurate to know why, if the substance denoted by CaO,H, is
is manner the scientific principles underlying the proper termed calcium hydroxide, the substance PbO,H, use of material in construction.
termed lead hydrate; or, if Co, is called carbon Part i. contains chapters devoted to natural laws, dioxide, why Sio, is called silicon oxide. On p. 18 measurement, the air, heat, chemical principles, the author correctly says, “ To move a heliostat reflectwater, acids and bases, coal, and a useful outline of ing a beam of light requires no more effort than would geology. In part ii. all the chief building materials be necessary in the dark," but the heliostat being are dealt with in detail. The origin and occurrence
1 Italics not author's.
unknown to most students of building materials, it cooled, are less subject to intestinal disturbances than might be advisable to substitute the more familiar children fed on raw milk. At the same time, it must “ mirror."
be admitted that the pasteurisation of milk already However, in spite of a few minor points like these,
filled with bacteria, and the products of their acitivities,
will not remedy its defects. The undesirable subthe book as a whole is well written, and admirably stances formed by the bacteria are not entirely adapted to the class for whom it is intended. It destroyed by the heating, and may still cause injury deserves 10 take a permanent place among the text- to the person consuming the milk. books upon the subject, and in future editions the “ By' resorting to pasteurisation, a dealer may be points referred to will no doubt receive attention.
able to dispose of milk that would otherwise quickly II. B.
become unsaleable. Similarly, the failure to cool the pasteurised milk quickly and to keep it at a tempera
ture of 50°, or below that, may lead to the rapid multiECONOMIC BACTERIOLOGY.
plication in the milk of germs producing, injurious or
poisonous substances. Hence, pasteurised milk should Bacteria in Relation to Country Life. By Dr. Jacob be consumed within twelve hours, or should be imme
G. Lipmann. Pp. xx + 486. (New York: The Mac-diately cooled down to between 45o and 50°.' millan Co.; London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd., The subject of tuberculosis in relation to milk is 1908.) Price 6s. 6d. net.
fully discussed. It is pointed out that large numbers
of tubercle bacilli may pass into the excreta of tuberWRITTEN in non-technical language, this book
culous cows, a fact which was fully confirmed by the gives a good account of the activities of micro-experiments of our Royal Commission on Tuberculosis organisms. It may therefore be recommended to all
as contained in the last report, and it is concluded that those who desire to obtain a general knowledge of the functions of bacteria and the important role they play
“Whatever difference of opinion there may prevail
as to the extent of human tuberculosis caused by the in relation to daily life, while the intelligent agricul consumption of milk and milk products, it is conceded turist will find a large amount of information which by sanitarians that persistent efforts should be made should aid him in his work. After a brief survey of
cate bovine tuberculosis." the form, structure, food requirements, and conditions Subsequent chapters deal with milk beverages, of growth of bacteria, successive chapters deal with butter and cheese, canning, ensilage and fermented these organisms as met with in air, water, and sewage. liquors. The relation of water to health and disease is discussed, The book is adequately illustrated and clearly and the chief factors in connection with the con- printed.
R. T. HEWLETT. tamination and purification of water are detailed. A readable account is given of the disposal of sewage and of bacterial systems of sewage disposal. Next
FORESTRY. follow the most important sections of the book, viz. (1) Our Forests and Woodlands. By Dr. J. Nisbet. the relation of bacteria to soil fertility and the influence New and revised edition. Pp. xxiii + 348. (London : of manures. We here find acc runts of the sources of J. M. Dent and Co., 1909.) Price 3s. 6d. net. nitrogen in the soil, of nitrification and denitrification, (2) Trees: A Handbook of Forest-Botany for the . of the action of leguminous crops in fixing nitrogen, Woodlands and the Laboratory. By the late H. and of soil inoculation with pure cultures of nitrogen- Marshall Ward. Vol. v., Form and Habit. Pp. fixing organisms. The proper methods of storing
xi + 308.
(Cambridge: University Press, 1909.) farmyard manure are dealt with at some length, and Price 4s. 6d. net.
"HE losses organic matter manure stack in
book, “Our Forests and Woodlands, three or four months may range from 15 to 20 per cent. appeared in 1902. The second edition has now been to 40 to 50 per cent. of the initial quantity, and valuable issued, and will doubtless be welcomed by a large suggestions are made on the best means of conserva- circle of readers, not only on account of the interesttion of manurial constituents, both by proper methods ing and important information it contains, but the of storage and by the use of chemical fixatives. price is such as to bring it within the reach of many
The chapters which follow on milk, its production who cannot afford the more expensive, though excel. and preservation, are also excellent. Details are given lent, works on forestry at present available to the which show that careful hand-milking yields a better English reader. A very important, and probably the milk as regards bacterial contamination than any milk- most outstanding feature of the new edition is the ing machine, unless extreme precautions are taken in preface, in which the author has given a résumé of the sterilisation of the latter. The subject of pasteur- the progress which has been made in forestry since isation of milk is also critically discussed, and the the appearance of the first edition. The doings of the following extract sums up the author's views on the various Governmental committees and commissions advantages and disadvantages of the process, views which have sat of late years are clearly set forth. with which we fully agrer and which should be widely | There is also given a very striking table in the form known :
of an abstract from the “Annual Statement of the “ Pasteurisation is effective for the destruction of Timber Trade of the United Kingdom ” for 1906 and disease: bacteria in milk and for the improvement of 1907. Here it is shown that the gross total imports its keeping quality. It is agreed that city children fed of wood and timber, wood-pulp, and manufactured on pasteurised milk, properly heated and properly I wood-pulp come to about 37,500,000l. To supply these
present demands, leaving out of consideration the in- previous one, has been seen through the press by Dr. creasing consumption, which will no doubt continue, Groom, who informs us in the preface that he has the author points out that it would require 3,000,000 reduced changes from the original to a minimum. acres of conifer and other woodlands, or an annual cut The few alterations and additions which were found of 50,000 acres of timber worked on a sixty years' necessary have been indicated by enclosure within rotation. Contrary to opinions held in other quarters, square brackets. Part i. deals in a general way with Dr. Nisbet anticipates the decrease in the supply, to the habit or form of trees, and, in addition to the this country at least, of pitwood. At present large text, the form or habit of the tree is indicated in supplies come from Bordeaux, but signs are not many instances by illustrations, while the form of the lacking that the quantity of suitable timber is decreas- branch-system is also indicated diagrammatically. A ing, while the French collieries themselves show series of Mr. Henry Irving's well-known photographs increasing demands. It would be a serious blow to illustrating the outward appearance of the bark has all our industries dependent on coal should the supply been included. of pitwood fail, and in any case the price is likely to In part ii. the trees are detailed according to their increase, which will, other things remaining the same, form and other external appearances. The system of raise the price of coal.
tabulation adopted is similar to that employed in the Another very important question to which the previous volumes. At the end we have an appendix author directs attention is the wood-pulp industry. which contains a classification of trees and shrubs At the present time the L'nited States dominate the according 10 their seedlings, and here we have many paper market of the world, but there is an increasing excellent drawings by Miss E. Dale from actual shortage of suitable timber for the making of paper- seedlings, the scale of magnification or reduction pulp, which is, therefore, naturally increasing in price, being indicated in each case. No doubt this appendix, and the recent large rise in the price of paper is due as Dr. Groom points out, is not so complete as the to the growing shortage in the supply of spruce. Since author evidently intended to make it, yet it is, in1904, the cost of mechanical wood-pulp in this country cluding the drawings, valuable so far as it goes, and has increased from 85s. a ton to 120s., while in is well worthy of careful udy. America during the past ten years the price has Taking the whole work as it now stands, we have increased threefold. The demand for pitwood and five volumes which deal respectively with buds, leaves, wood-pulp is bound to continue; in other words, there flowers, fruits, and form, and it will be admitted on is a sure market for such produce, and the author, all hands that the late Prof. Marshall Ward has left who is a widely recognised authority on such matters, behind a monumental work which will long be conpoints out that our waste lands and poor pastures are sidered a standard on trees. to a very large extent capable of producing conifers and soft-wood crops which could be established at comparatively little cost, and would yield good returns to
NEW BOOKS ON ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. the owner, and at the same time supply pit-wood for (1) Modern Organic Chemistry. By Dr. C. A. Keane. our mining industries and therefore indirectiy benefit Pp. xiv + 503. (London : The Walter Scott Publishall industries dependent upon coal; and, lastly, with a ing Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price 6s. sufficient supply of raw material for the making of (2) Practical Organic Chemistry. By Dr. J. J. Sudpaper-pulp a new industry would be created in this borough and T. C. James. Pp. xviii + 378. country.
(London : Blackie and Son, Ltd., 1909.) Price 55. There are altogether eleven chapters in the book, net. with an index at the end. Some very fine illustrations (3) The Elements of Organic Chemistry. By E. I. are also included. The first two chapters are mainly Lewis. Pp. viii + 224. (Cambridge: University taken up with historical matters, which provide Tutorial Press, Ltd., 1909.) Price 25. 6d. extremely interesting reading. The next two chapters (4) Abhandlung über die Glycole oder Zwei atomige deal with the sylvicultural characteristics of the oak Alkohole. By Adolf Wurtz. Pp. 96. Ostwald's and beech. In chapter v. the remaining hardwoods Klassiker, No. 170. (Leipzig: W. Engelmann, are considered, while the soft woods, such as alder,
are treated in chapter vii. Chapter viii. is more arbori- strongly recommend Dr. Keane's book. It is not a cultural, as it deals with hedges and hedgerow trees. text-book, for there is no systematic arrangement Chapter is. is occupied with the consideration of high- of the materials, and the properties of individual woods, copses, and coppicewoods, while the last two substances and the relations of different groups chapters, viz. X. and xi., are devoted to woodlands, not brought into relief. If, for example, game and sport, and the improvement of British the student wishes to learn something about forestry respectively.
ordinary phenol, he will find bits of scattered The book is full of sound and trustworthy informa- information in four different places. Systematic tion. Its price is moderate, and it deserves a hearty instruction is obviously not the object of the book. reception from all those interested, directly or in. But although the treatment is unconventional, and directly, in our forests and woodlands.
frequent digressions are made into regions not usually (2) This volume dealing with the form of trees is ' embraced by organic text-books, this very fact rather the final one of its series. The volume, like the enhances than detracts from the interest of the
birch, lime, and poplars, are dealt with in chapter vi
. (1) To knowledge of organic chemistry we can