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area of the State, and 100,000 acres more than in the plant, and could not enable the plant to absorb carbon previous year. South Australia was one time the

dioxide from the soil. Thus the primary conclusion of granary of Australia, but here, as elsewhere, there is a Prof. Moll's original investigations is confirmed. strong tendency for other branches of husbandry to be

The prosperity of Egypt depends largely taken up, and for wheat to lose in relative importance.

successful cultivation of the particular types of cotto The exports of wool were nearly 51 million pounds, again known as “ Egyptian. During the last twelve years, a considerable increase on the previous year. The acreage | however, the yield of cotton has steadily and appreciably under barley and oats is the highest on record, while the diminished, the loss amounting at current rates to abas fruit industry has made very rapid progress. Perhaps the

5l. per feddan (1.109 acres). Many causes have been best indication of improvement in method is found in the suggested as contributing to this result, and in “ Cortaincreasing use of artificial manures. Not many years ago Investigations in 1908” (Cairo Scientific Journa the use of artificial manures was practically unknown.

February, 1909) Mr. W. Lawrence Balls puts forward th. In 1897 it is estimated that 3000 tons were used for cereal

view, for which there is some direct evidence, that a rin crops; the consumption then steadily increased, and has

in the water-table in Egypt has been an important factor. been uniformly greater every year; in 1906 no fewer than Owing to improvements in irrigation, the supply of water 59,000 tons were used. In another article there is an in Egypt is greater than formerly, whilst the natural loss account of the Roseworthy Agricultural College, an institu- , remains more or less constant. Artificial drainages tion which not only provides instruction for those intend

lacking, and in his view Egypt is in danger of becoming ing to be farmers, but also conducts investigations in the

water-logged, in which condition the soil is rendert. area it serves.

impervious to the roots of most plants. The remedy A FRIENDLY, and for the most part favourable, criticism

advocated is extension of the drainage system, an expensitof forest practice is provided by an American forester, proceeding, but justifiable if the reduced yield is due to Mr. B. Moore, in an article on the forests of northern

the rise in level of stagnant water. Another important India and Burma, published in the April and May numbers matter dwelt on in Mr. Balls's paper is the depreciation of the Indian Forester. He expresses a very decided of cottons grown in Egypt owing to the hybridising of opinion in favour of a regulated fire policy for forests of the Egyptian varieties by the less valuable “ American young teak and sal where the forests are situated in a Upland raccs, cultivated because of their heavy yield. 10 moist cl ate, as in Assam. He also agrees with those combat this he proposes the breeding of a cotton bearing who consider that Indian foresters in training should gain flowers in which the stigma is buried deeply amongst the their practical experience in India.

stamens, thus reducing to a minimum the risk of natura!

crossing. The report is accompanied by a photograph of A SERIES of papers by Dr. B. L. Robinson, Miss A.

a section of such a synthesised flower. Egypt is leading Eastwood, and Mr. H. H. Bartlett, describing chiefly new

the way in the practical application of Mendel's discoveries, or little-known Mexican and Central American plants, are

for 1909 has seen the establishment by the Khedivial collected in vol. xliv., No. 21, of the Proceedings of the Agricultural Society of a Mendelian experiment station. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The important is the synopsis of Mexican species of Castilleja,

IN the June number of Folk-lore Mr. T. C. Hodsor, with diagnoses and clavis compiled by Miss Eastwood ;

author of a valuable monograph on the Meithei tribe in seventeen new species contribute to a total of fifty-four Manipur, describes the custom of head-hunting among the species for the genus. Dr. Robinson furnishes a revision

hill tribes of Assam. The custom is, in the first place, of the genus Rumfordia with six species, and diagnoses ancillary to and a part of the funeral rite, which is of various tropical American phanerogams. New identific

affected by the social status of the deceased and the cations are presented by Mr. Bartlett in a synopsis of

manner of his death. The funeral of a Kuki chief is inAmerican species of Litsæa and other articles.

complete without the head of a victim. The corpse is MR. G. MASSEE is responsible for two articles in the

placed within the trunk of a tree, where it remains until

it is sufficiently desiccated to allow of the preservation of Kew Bulletin (No. 5), the one being a list of exotic fungi,

the bones. The heads, again, are presented before piles the other a note on witches' broom of cacao. The latter

of stones, the abode of the Lai, a powerful, mysterious is produced by a Colletotrichum receiving the specific

entity, not always or necessarily anthropomorphised. The name luxificum. Both vegetative and flowering branches are attacked, with the consequent production of hyper

rite of deposition of the head of the victim is thus partly trophied shoots and flowers and diseased pods. The fungi

piacular, intended to propitiate the spirit of the deceased; are all new species of Boletus except one Strobilomyces partly religious, inasmuch as it is devoted to the vaguely

conceived tribal spirit. The custom has also its social collected by Mr. Ridley in Singapore. “Another article in the bulletin is devoted to notes, by Richard Spruce, on

side, as success in a raid is held to be a proof of manli

ness, marking the transition from adolescence to maturity. the vegetation of the Pastasa and Bombonasa rivers, pro

It is also protective, because the spirit of the owner of viding a description supplementary to chapter xvii. of the

the head becomes guardian of the village ; and hence, as a second volume of “ Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes."

necessary corollary, the head of a stranger is most highly

valued, because, being ignorant of its surroundings, it is We have been favoured with a copy of the address less likely to escape from the village of which, perforce, it delivered by Prof. J. W. Moll before the members of the has become protector. Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam

As account of the life and philosophical doctrines of when presenting the dissertation of Dr. K. Zijlstra on the

Henri Poincaré is given in the Revue des Idées for June 13 transport of carbon dioxide in leaves. Prof. Moll pre- by M. Jules Sagret. sents an excellent summary of the investigations, which prove that, to a limited extent, the transport of carbon

PROF. GARBASSO, writing in the Atti della Società dioxide is possible through the intercellular spaces; but

italiana per il progresso della Scienca (Rome : G. Bertero, it is obvious that such transport, if it takes place under

1909), discusses the structure of the atom, and gives a brief natural conditions, is of no appreciable advantage to the account of the theories of Briot, Kirchhoff, Bunsen, Helm


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holtz, Hertz, Lockver, Kayser and Runge, Rydberg, tion of such a medium is afforded by a stratum of gelatin Puccianti, Stoney, and J. J. Thomson.

placed in contact with a solution of zinc chloride and subIn the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy, cxvii., jected to pressure; the colours scen in such a medium under 8, 9, Dr. Philipp Forchheimer discusses certain mathe- polarised light are shown in a plate accompanying the matical solutions of the problem of underground flow of paper. water in a homogeneous stratum bounded by a plane We have received part iii. of Klimatographie von impervious floor, the equation of continuity in this case Oesterreich,” issued by the Meteorological Office of Vienna, being the ordinary two-dimensional form of Laplace's equa- in which the climatology of Styria is fully and ably distion, with the square of the depth as the dependent cussed by Dr. Robert Klein. The treatment of the subject variable.

follows closely along the lines laid down by Hann in his The theory of the polar planimeter is treated in a novel * Handbuch der Klimatologie," and is, indeed, similar to way by Dr. Gabriele Torelli in the Rendiconto of the Naples that adopted by that author in the earlier parts of the Academy, xiv., 8-12 (1908). The author finds that the work which deal with Austria proper. The book is a treatment of the subject given in text-books is far from model of what the treatment of the special climatology convincing, and he proposes an alternative treatment based of a restricted area should be. It gives for each region on the use of Jacobians. Those who have worked with the probabilities of the occurrence of phenomena such as planimeters in this country will fully agree with the author frosts of different degrees of intensity, heavy rainfall, and as to the need of a more satisfactory investigation of their others. At the same time, the underlying principles are principle, and if such a need exists in the case of the polar not lost sight of. Styria presents many features of special planimeter it is still more necessary for the so-called interest, as the altitudes included in its boundaries vary “ hatchet planimeter,” which is usually worked by rule, from about 200 metres to 4000 metres above sea-level. with little attempt, if any, to explain its principle.

The cultivated region extends up to about 1500 metres. An important contribution to our theories of wave-pro- We have thus a great variety of meteorological conditions pagation in wireless telegraphy is given by Prof. A.

brought before us in the records from the stations of the Sommerfeld in the Annalen der Physik, xxviii., pp.

second order which are discussed in the volume. 665-736 (1909). The investigation, while taking account

In the April number of Meteorologische Zeitschrift Mr. both of surface waves and of waves distributed in space, E. Alt gives an interesting account of the double daily tends to support the view that we have to deal with waves oscillation of the barometer over the globe, especially with propagated along the surface of the earth in accounting for reference to the Arctic regions. He preludes his paper the transmission of Marconi signals. Prof. Sommerfeld, by a résumé of the efforts hitherto made to elucidate this further, in his analytical results obtains analogues of intricate problem by harmonic analysis, by Lamont, Angot, properties associated with electrodynamic waves in wires

Hann, and others, and gives useful explanations of the and certain optical phenomena (Brewster's law).

several terms of the series. The theory now generally In the Rassegna contemporanea for May, 1908, Mr. Gino accepted is that referred to by Lord Kelvin (Proc. Roy. Cuchetti discusses the project for anti-seismic houses, due Soc. Edin., 1882) and developed by Prof. Margules to Prof. Giuseppe Torres, of Venice. This project is based (Sitzungsber. Vienna Acad., 1890). Mr. Alt has discussed on the view that circular structures are the best calculated a large number of observations both on land and at sea, to withstand earthquake shocks, and in the designs shown and has exhibited the synchronous distribution of the in the illustrations each building consists of several circular double wave of air pressure by a series of charts. With turrets of different diameter communicating with each reference to the Arctic regions, observations taken mostly other, an arrangement having considerable artistic merits, from the Challenger report show that the maxima of the though wasteful of space. In the succeeding number of the oscillations occur, on an average, about uh. 20m. Rassegna Dr. Enrico Pantano discusses the problem of and p.m., and of the minima, on an average, about “internal colonisation" as applied to Italy, and we note 5h. 20m. a.m. and p.m. (G.M.T.). The amplitude is with considerable interest the important bearing on this small, amounting, on the average, to about 1/10 mm. problem of the campaign against malaria.

The investigations of several physicists, including Prof. A REPORT on the resistance of rivets is presented by Margules, point to the view that the synchronism of the M. Ch. Fremont to the Bulletin de la Société d'Encourage- oscillation in the polar region is due to the existence of ment for April. It is pointed out that the resistance of

a second half-daily oscillation of the atmosphere which riveted plates to statical forces or shocks should be borne occurs in the direction of the meridians. as much as possible by the adhesion of the plates and as We direct attention to a very laborious and important little as possible by shearing of the rivets themselves, and work by Dr. H. Fritsche entitled “ The Mean Temperature the author emphasises the necessity of standardising the of the Air at Sea-level exhibited as a Function of Longiheads of rivets and of regulating the maximum tempera- tude, Latitude, and Period of the Year” (Meteorologische ture during the process of heating, so as not to destroy Publication 1.). The author has, inter alia, calculated the elastic qualities of the rivet. The increased efficiency from the constants of the harmonic formula the resulting obtained by the application of continued pressure during the values of mean temperature for the whole surface of the riveting is also mentioned.

carth, for each 10° of longitude and 5° of latitude, for In a paper on the most general problem of uptics, pub- twenty-four equidistant epochs of the year, and for the lished in the Proceedings of the Turin Academy of Sciences, whole year, with maxima, minima, and phase times. But Prof. Antonio Garbasso and Guido Fubini point out that this general description in no wise gives an idea of the little has been done in solving problems of propagation immense work covered by some 184 closely printed tables ; of light waves in a medium which is neither homo- these are rather difficult to follow, being, with the exgeneous nor isotropic. The authors propose a theory for planations in German, printed in facsimile lithography. the special case of a medium in which the ellipsoids of The calculations are based mostly on Buchan's monthly elasticity are of revolution having their axes parallel, and and yearly isothermal charts (“* Atlas of Meteorology,” by the lengths of these axes are the same at all points in a Bartholomew and Herbertson). The mean yearly temperaplane perpendicular to the axis of revolution. An illustra- ture of the globe is given as 14.6° C., and the amplitude


The gears

as 4.2°; the coldest period is at the end of January, 12.5°, A NEW form of gearing, which has been invented ! and the warmest in the middle of July, 16.7o. The mean Mr. Jules Lecoche, and is being introduced by the Angin temperature of the northern hemisphere, 153° C., is nearly Foreign Inventions Syndicate, Ltd., of 10 Camomile Street, 13° higher than that of the southern. The work includes E.C., is illustrated in Engineering for July 2. seven isothermal charts between 30° and 90° S. latitude ing essentially consists of two wheels having spiral o for the year, for mid-January, and each alternate month. helical teeth which run out of contact, a mechanical clearThe Halbmonatliches Literaturverzeichnis of the Fort

ance of about 1/32-inch separating the tops of the terti schritte der Physik, issuer under the auspices of the

on the two wheels. One of the wheels is provided with German Physical Society, still continues to furnish more

field magnets in such a way that a magnetic flux is promptly than any other periodical a list of the papers

generated between its teeth and the corresponding teeth dealing with topics of interest to physicists which appear

on the other wheel. The mechanical drive is obtaini in the various journals and proceedings of societies. As

entirely by means of the magnetic flux, the form of the instances of the promptness with which' titles of papers

teeth being such that, when the wheels are running are published, we may mention that the number for

together, the tops of any two teeth in magnetic mesh l:June 15 contains the titles of several papers read at the

immediately one over the other, and follow each the sammeetings of the Royal Society and of the Physical Society

path. As two teeth leave each other, the magnetic fux of London in April and May.

will be transferred from the leaving teeth to the approach

ing teeth, thus ensuring continuity of drive. As there is The prestige of the “principle of relativity

as a basis

no contact there can be no friction ; and as the power confor our treatment of electrodynamics in moving media has sumed in the field coils is only about 3 per cent. of the been increased by a preliminary communication made to

power transmitted, a gearing efficiency of about 97 per the German Physical Society by Dr. E. Hupka, an account cent. is attainable. Another advantage lies in the high of which is given in the Verhandlungen of the society for speed of transmission possible. Ball bearings are

used June 15. Three or four months ago Dr. A. H. Bucherer

for the spindles, an example at present being shown in announced that the results of his experiments on the inertia London by the Albany Engineering Company, of Ossort of the negatively charged particles of the B rays from Road, S.E., having a gearing loss of 1.79 per cent. ant radium were distinctly in favour of the principle as against

an over-all efficiency of more than 90 per cent. The its most formidable rival the “ sphere theory." Now Dr.

advantages of this gear should open a widc field for its Hupka, working with the electrons produced when light applications. falls on negatively charged bodies, has shown that when these electrons are accelerated by the action of an electric

We have received a copy of the report of the Indian field, and then deflected by passing through a magnetic

Association for the Cultivation of Science for the year 1907, field, the deflections observed are again in favour of the

The association arranges courses of lectures upon scientific principle, which may be stated as follows :-The electro- subjects, maintains a laboratory and library, and conducis dynamic phenomena exhibited within two systems moving

an annual examination of candidates for prizes and medali with respect to each other in a straight line will follow

Interesting speeches were given at the annual meeting heid the same laws, provided that in each system the unit of

last November, and altogether the association appears to time be so chosen that the velocity of light is expressed

be doing useful work in spreading a knowledge of 10

interest in science. by the same number. “ SUPPLEMENTARY INVESTIGATIONS OF INFRA-RED SPECTRA,"

THE July number of the Fortnightly Review contains an by Prof. Wm. W. Coblentz (parts v., vi., vii.), has been

article by Dr. Marie C. Stopes entitled “An Expedition received from the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

to the Southern Coal Mines.' Dr. Stopes was sent by the This publication contains supplementary data the

Royal Society for special palæobotanical work to Japan, doubtful points which arose in the author's preceding work,

where she spent a year and a half in close touch with the and also some additional observations on the emission

Japanese. In addition to devoting a large part of her spectra of metal filaments and insulators, thus rounding stay to rescarch work in the Imperial University, Dr. up the subject as completely as possible at the moment.

Stopes travelled widely on tours of inspection and investiAlthough, as Prof. Coblentz goes on

gation. She entered a great many of the coal mines in the

say, programme of investigation is completed, the subject is not

Japan, and penetrated to the heart of the country searchexhausted—not even thoroughly initiated. The value and ing for interesting specimens. Her article is in the form importance of the author's work in the infra-red region

of a diary, not written for scientific workers, but intended of the spectrum are too well known to need any further

to supply a series of pictures of life in many parts of diploma of merit at this time; moreover, it is impossible

Japari. to deal in detail with the account of the many new observations described in the present monograph. There are three

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. separate lines of work, namely, infra-red reflection spectra, RADIAL MOTION IN SUN-SPOT VAPOURS.-Referring to transmission spectra, and emission spectra. To these is some comments and queries, by Mr. Buss, in the May added a valuable chapter on the instruments and methods number, Mr. Evershed gives further details of the radial used in the work. Two points of special interest may be

motion discovered in sun-spot vapours, in No. 411 of the noted, one of which is the relation between the maxima

Observatory. He has found that when the slit of the

spectroscope does not bisect the spot symmetrically, but in the reflection spectra of the carbonates and the atomic

crosses the penumbra on the side of the spot nearer to the weight of the metal, where the maxima steadily shift centre of the sun's disc, the lines are always convex towards towards the red with increase in molecular weight. The

the violet ; whereas if the slit crosses the opposite side of second point of interest is the infra-red spectra of the

the penumbra they are convex towards the red. That the colloidal metals in relation to the coloured glasses. There

linc displacements are due solely to motion is shown by is no doubt that, quite apart from its general importance,

the change in position angle of the maximum shift as the

spot traverses the disc. The maximum displacement is Prof. Coblentz's work, owing to the range of spectrum always such as to indicate that the maximum motion is dealt with, will have considerable bearing upon the relation along the radius, but the observations are not yet suffi. between absorption and chemical constitution.

i ciently delicate to disprove the existence of a superimposed,



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of spots.

relatively slow spiral motion ; on the other hand, there is THE KING ON INCREASED PROVISION no direct evidence that such an outward spiral motion FOR ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC INSTRUC. exists.

TION AND RESEARCH. Recent work shows that the radial motion is confined to the lower chromosphere—the “ reversing layer.” In the IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. higher chromosphere the absorption lines HK, and The King laid the first stone of the new buildings of the probably Ha, the direction Imperial College of Science and Technology on Thursto the other lines, thus indicating an inward movement of day, July 8. The plans exhibited were those of the Royal the vapours. This apparently agrees with Prof. Hale's ob- School of Mines and an extension of the City and Guilds servation of a dark flocculus moving towards the centre of London Institute, which will occupy the block of ground of the spot. There is still an apparent discrepancy between at the corner of Exhibition and Prince Consort Roads, this radial movement and the vortex motions invoked by South Kensington, and extend as far west as the Royal Prof. Hale to explain the Zeeman effect in sun-spot lines, College of Music. The Imperial College of Science and and, according to Mr. Evershed's results, the vortex, if it Technology consists at present of the Royal School of exists, either above or below a sun-spot, does not affect the Mines, the Royal College of Science, and the City and absorbing gases of the reversing layer" in the penumbræ Guilds of London Institute, and is administered by a Board

of governors appointed by Royal charter, and under the BINARY STAR ORBITS.-In No. 4, vol. xxix., of the Astro-presidency of Lord Crewe. pluysical Journal, Father Stein discusses the photometric

It is interesting to note that the first building to be observations of the binary star RZ Cassiopeia on the

erected by the governors of the Imperial College is the assumption that it is an Algol variable. Assuming that the

much-needed one for the Royal School of Mines, and that orbit is circular, and that the mean densities of the two

the funds for the purpose have been provided chiefly by components are equal, he finds that the mass of the system

the late Mr. Alfred Beit and Sir Julius Wernher, of the is 1'002 the sun's mass, the mass of the bright body, the

mining house of Messrs. Wernher, Beit and Co. primary, being 0-646 sun's mass ; the radius of the bright

The life of the Royal School of Mines has been one of body is 1'43, and that of the satellite 1.17 the sun's radius,

many vicissitudes. Even from the time of its foundation the mean density of each body being 0.222 that of the sun's

in 1851, difficulty has been experienced in providing density. The centres of the two bodies are separated by adequate accommodation. The move from Jermyn Street 0.022 astronomical unit.

to South Kensington, which began in 1872, and, as was No. 13. vol. i., of the publications of the Allegheny

stated by Lord Crewe in his address to his Majesty, was Observatory, contains a discussion of the orbits of the

not completed until 1880, furnished better accommodation spectroscopic components of 2 Lacertze, by Mr. R. H.

for subjects such as chemistry, physics and mechanics ; Baker. In spectrograms of this star taken on fine-grained geology was probably in but little worse position than in plates, the lines of the components are, at certain epochs; before, but mining, which was the last to move, has had

Jermyn Street, and metallurgy had better laboratories than separated, and it is interesting to note that the blend curve differs considerably from various parts of the primary however, has grown so rapidly that even the laboratories

but poor quarters. The demand for scientific education, curve, thus suggesting that for all spectroscopic binaries having a large range of velocities it is desirable that

for chemistry and physics soon became too small, and the spectrograms should be taken on the finest-grained plates Royal College of Science has its chemical and physical

fine buildings in Imperial Institute Road, in which the obtainable at the epochs of maximum velocity. Tho measurement of such plates might, supposing the lines to

laboratories, have for the past two years received the be separated, considerably modify the results obtained from

students. The buildings now to be erected will comprise coarser-grained plates on which the component spectra are

well equipped laboratories, museums, lecture- and classinseparable. Mr. Baker finds the period of this star to be

rooms, and drawing offices for the mining, metallurgical, 2.6164 days.

and geological sections, and, in a one-storied building,

250 feet by 120 feet, under a separate roof, ore-dressing MICROMETRIC MEASURES OF DOUBLE STARS.—In No. 4336 testing works and an experimental metallurgical laboratory of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Mr. Phillip Fox publishes are to be erected, the equipment being provided by the the measures of a number of miscellancous double stars Bessemer Memorial Committee. made with the 12-inch and 40-inch refractors of the Yerkes The extension of the City and Guilds of London Institute Observatory. The 40-inch is not used regularly for this will include a laboratory for the study of hydraulics, work, but is employed when conditions are not suitable for equipped by Mr. G. Hawksley, but the extension is chiefly securing parallax plates. Mr. Fox's observing-list is mainly necessary on account of the number of students having made up of Holden double-stars, about half of which have already outgrown the space available, and the introduction now been observed, but these measures are reserved until of advanced courses on special subjects requiring more the complete list is ready. The present publication includes

Here, again, top-lighted courts will allow the extenthe measures, made during 1907-8, of about 130 multiple sion of the mechanical laboratories of the institute. The systems.

Goldsmiths'. Company has provided a large um towards THE IDENTITY OF COMETS 19080 AND 1908b (ENCKE).-In

this work. No. 4332 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Dr. Ebell

In the course of his reply to the address delivered by

Lord Crewe on behalf of the governors, professors, students, discusses the question of the identity of comet 1908a with Encke's comet. It will be remembered that when 1908a

and staff of the Imperial College, the King said was first discovered by Prof. Wolf, it was announced as

* The concentration of various associated colleges into

one institution, which was effected by our Order in Council being Encke's comet, but the latter was not discovered until May, 1908, when it was found by Mr. Woodgate at

of July, 1907, has always seemed to me to be an admirable

scheme for the furtherance of scientific instruction, which the Cape Observatory. Dr. Ebell finds that both the motion

my dear father had so much at heart; and the names and the brightness of comet 1908a are against the theory

which appeared in the first list of the members of the of identity with Encke's, for the latter was, theoretically; governing body were sufficient in themselves to give the much fainter, about 3*5 magnitudes, than the observed

college a very high status in the educational world. object. There still remains the question as to whether 1908a

" The purposes of the college, as stated in the charter, was a fragment of Encke's, split off by some accidental encounier or explosion, and this question is being investi

to give the highest specialised instruction and to

provide the fullest equipment for advanced teaching and gated at Pulkowa.

research in various branches of science, especially in its COMET 1909a.-Photographs of comet 1909a (Borrelly. | application to industry. In recent years the supreme imDaniel) were obtained at the Greenwich Observatory, with portance of higher scientific education has, I am happy to the 30-inch reflector, on June 22 and 30, and the resulting say. been fully recognised in England; and as time goes positions are published in No. 4337 of the Astronomische on I feel more and more convinced that the prosperity, even Nachrichten, The same journal also contains a set of the very safety and existence, of our country depend on elements computed by Prof. R. T. Crawford, and elements the quality of the scientific and technical training of those and ephemeris calculated by Prof. Kobold.

who are to guide and control our industries. The rapid





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growth of knowledge makes it necessary for the teacher obtain in their native city instruction in science and ttchof any branch of applied science to be a specialist of a high nology, in art and mathematics, which in former days thus order, and the most accomplished specialist cannot impart were compelled to seek in places far distant íroin the the full advantage of his knowledge without that complete homes, at an expense which in some instances they couri provision of apparatus for research and instruction which ill afford. The universities also foster wholesom this college will supply.

rivalry, and encourage the growth of the highest forin si “ The college has already given admirable results, and public spirit. A man educated at this University will be a we may well look for a steady increase in the number of better citizen of Birmingham, and a better subject of th: students and in the efficiency of the instruction provided. Empire.

The thanks of the country are due to those public- At the close of the opening ceremony, their Majestits spirited donors through whose generosity a large portion of inspected a part of the departments of civil and electrica the funds have been provided for this great work, and I engineering join in your appreciation of their munificence. I think it is especially fitting that the great discoveries of the late Sir Henry Bessemer, to which the remarkable development

THE SCIENCE COLLECTIONS AT SOUTH of the engineering industries in the last half-century is largely dur, should be commemorated by the equipment of

KENSINGTON. the new laboratories of this institution."

THE question of the worthy housing of the science col

lections at South Kensington has been brought before UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM.

the Government on several occasions during the last thirty On July 7 the King and Queen, accompanied by

The object of a deputation which waited upor the Princess Victoria, performed the opening ceremony Mr. Runciman at the Board of Education on Tuesday was of the new buildings of the Birmingham University. Inas. again to endeavour to obtain an assurance that the Goverr:much as the founding of the University on the initiative of ment will provide the money for the building of a museum Mr. Chamberlain has been effected almost entirely by means in which ihe science collections can be exhibited as satis of money subscribed by the inhabitants of the Birmingham factorily as are those of art. The deputation included disdistrict, the occasion was appropriately made to partake tinguished representatives of the leading scientific societies largely of the nature of a civic function.

and institutions, and the memorial which was presented The characteristic note of the proceedings may perhaps was signed by the president and officers of the Roval best be given by sonie quotations from the King's speeches. Society, all its living past-presidents, and 128 of its Fellows In replying to the address from the Corporation, after distinguished in physical science; the Chancellors of the warmly commending the public spirit of the citizens, His Universities of Cambridge, London, Glasgow, and Majesty said :--" Great schemes such as that for providing. Andrews; the Vice-Chancellors of the British universities ; your city with pure water have been undertaken in the the presidents of scientific societies and institutions ; propast, and have been brought to a successful issue ; but fessors of chemistry, physics, mathematics, astronomy, and none is worthier of support or more far-reaching in its scope engineering in all the British universities, university colthan the establishment and extension of the great University leges, and principal technical schools and polytechnics; the in which you have taken so important a part." Later, in directors of the chief polytechnics in London and in the reply to an address from the Chamber of Commerce express- | provinces; and a very large and distinguished body of pero ing the recognition by the commercial and mercantile classes sons eminent in and interested in British science and of the value of the advancement of higher education, his desirous of its promotion. Majesty said :-"I am glad to learn that the commercial There can be no doubt, therefore, as to the opinion of community have been faithful and generous supporters of representatives of physical science upon the urgent need of the University. I feel assured that your expectations of satisfactory provision for the housing of the science collecadvantages to be derived from the Faculty of Coinmerce tions. As Sir William Anson said in introducing the depuin training the future captains of industry will be realised." tation, “ the museum, which represents the application of

After a luncheon at the Council House, their Majesties science to material, should be placed in the same position drove, through roads lined with enthusiastic spectators, to art and natural history by the Government of the the new buildings at Bournbrook, a distance of about three country.” miles. The opening ceremony took place in the great hall The collections should be in a suitable building, with of the l'niversity, which was occupied largely by members room for rearrangement and expansion. A site is available of the University and representatives of other educational at South Kensington if the Government will come forward bodies.

with the offer of funds for the actual building ; but in spite The University address was read by Sir Oliver Lodge, of the memorial and the deputation, Mr. Runciman did and the following characteristic passage may be quoted :- not give an assurance that the money will be forthcoming. “Guided by our Chancellor, whose inability to be present He was sympathetic, and promised to place the matter on this memorable occasion we deeply regret, we have before the Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the made no attempt to give an appearance of finality to our Exchequer, and with this result we must be satisfied for present undertaking: Rather do we regard it as capable a while. A useful purpose has certainly been served by of indefinite expansion. Whilst the field of scientific re- bringing the subject into public view. We can now only search is ever widening, and its discoveries demand yearly hope that the Government will rise to the opportunity and a fresh application to the facts of life, the claims of the offer to the physical sciences, which are closely connected humaner studies become none the less imperative; and in with the industries of this country, the same advantages both these branches of human activity, which can only for its collections as are already possessed by natural flourish side by side, we realise the need of continual history and by art. development. But we believe that the work which we have From a full report of the deputation in Wednesday's begun, upon which this day your Majesties set the seal of Times we make the subjoined extracts. your Roval approbation, can confidently be entrusted to the The memorial presented by Sir Henry Roscoe was as generosity and to the devoted service of the generations that follows:-, are to come.

“We, the undersigned, being deeply interested in the His Majesty, in repiring, after paving a tribute to the practice and progress of British science, desire to bring Chancellor, proceeded :-" For the wonderful progress of before you the importance of the proper housing of the higher education in the country we have largely io thank Science Collections at South Kensington. The permanent the great universities established in our principal cities, buildings now erected provide accommodation for art collerNo nobler object for munificence can be found than the tions only; to complete the scheme a suitable building for provision for the necessary equipment for such education: an the science collections is a necessity. The formation of a equipınent which, in view of the diverse and elaborate science museum representative of all branches of physical requirements of the modern schools of instruction, must be science, both pure and applied, has long engaged the attencostly; but without which these schemes, however carefully

tión both of the Govern:rent and of British scientific men. designed, will prove fruitless. Such institutions as this so long ago as 1854 the Duke of Devonshire's Commission are of paramount importance in enabling students to on Science strongly recommended the establishment of such


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