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a museum, and in their fourth report the Commissioners by the Government with a definite building scheme would State :- While it is a matter of congratulation that the doubtless give it due consideration. The need is great, British Museum contains one of the finest and largest and the mass of British science workers will hail your collections in existence illustrative of biological science, it favourable decision with gratitude." is to be regretted that there is at present no national collec- in his remarks, Sir fienry Roscoe said that what is tion of the instruments used in the investigation of needed is a building adequate to the proper exhibition of mechanical, chemical, or physical laws, although such the present collection, and one worthy of British science. collections are of great importance to persons interested in The grant for science purposes is i8ool.; that for art the experimental sciences. We consider that the recent 11,2601. The fact that with so small a grant the national progress in these sciences and the daily increasing demand science collections have reached so important and in many for knowledge concerning them make it desirable that the

respects so unique a position has been partly due to the national collections should be extended in this direction, fact that the cost of acquisitions for the current growth so as to meet a great scientific requirement which cannot of such a science museum is far less than that of the correbe provided for in any other way.' Since these words

sponding growth of an art museum. Land sufficient for were written a National Science Museum has been estab- the required purpose is in the hands of the Government, lished, and the collections in it have been steadily enriched and the Royal Commissioners of 1851, so long ago as 1878, by many important acquisitions. These collections are at offered to contribute 100,00ol. towards a building for the present housed in the old buildings at South Kensington Science Museum. Sir Archibald Geikie said that the council known as the Southern Galleries and the Western Galleries. of the Royal Society desired him to express its keen sense They now include models and copies of historical and of the importance of the collections and the need for better modern philosophical apparatus of the greatest value to all housing for re-arrangement and expansion. Sir David Gill interested in the progress of British science, and a large said that, confining his remarks principally to the astronumber of machines, instruments, and models of great nomical collection, he was much impressed with its extreme interest as illustrating the origin and development of our value, as it included apparatus of all periods, from the most pregnant British inventions, together with such special earliest days down to the present time. Mr. Alexander collections as the unique series of models illustrating the Siemens, expressing the view of the Institution of Civil history of shipbuilding.

Engineers, said that in the interest of students of engineerIn 1876 the Royal Commissioners of the Exhibition of

ing it is of the utmost importance that the collections 1851 offered to the Government of the day a sum of should be housed with plenty of space, and should be as ICO,oool., together with a site on the Commissioners'

complete as possible. Sir Hugh Bell, as president of the ground, for the proper housing of this collection, under Iron and Steel Institute, said his national pride was hurt the condition that the Government should undertake its when he went through the building at South Kensington maintenance. In 1878 the Commissioners repeated their and saw the collections housed in a place erected about offer, and in 1879 this was declined by the Government. fifty years ago as refreshment-rooms or something of that In 1888 the land to the south of Imperial Institute Road, sort. Paris, Munich, and Berlin are very much in advance reaching to that conveyed to the Government in 1864 for of London in that matter. Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, director the erection of the Natural History Museum, and containing of the National Physical Laboratory, said that the physical 45 acres, was sold to the Government for 70,000l. This collection at South Kensington is very inadequately housed land has now been in part permanently allocated to the main and quite fails to represent the growth of that science in section of the new buildings of the Imperial College of England. Mr. W. M. Mordey, president of the Institution Science and Technology and to the building in course of erec- of Electrical Engineers, said there is at present no adequate sion for the Meteorological Office and a post office. The re- representation of their work in this country. Sir William inainder of the site is at present occupied partly by tem- Ramsay said it is practically impossible to gain any notion porary buildings and partly by the old buildings-the of the progress of chemistry from a visit to the collection. “Southern Galleries "-which now afford accommodatirn Sir George Darwin said that in going over the museum for the machinery and naval architecture collections of the he was struck by two or three things—first, the great Science Museum. This portion of the site, adjoining as it interest of the collection ; secondly, the overcrowding of it; does on the north the Imperial College and on the south and, thirdly, the extreme deficiency of the buildings in the Natural History Museum, is well regarded as an ideal which it is housed. position for the long projected Science Museum, which Mr. Runciman, in the course of his reply, said :--The would complete the magnificent group of museum buildings memorial which has been presented to the Board of Educaalready erected at South Kensington.

tion and to me on the subject of this museum is one of “ The cost of acquisitions for the current growth of such a the most weighty memorials that I think has ever been science museum, it may be noted, is far less than that of a received by any Minister. We not only provide, or intend corresponding art museum. The value of art products in. to provide, an exhibition for the exposition and demonstracreases rapidly with age, whereas the scientific implements, tion of the principles of science, but we provide illustrations machinery, and apparatus, interesting from an historical of the applications of science and arts to industry, including point of view, have rarely any great commercial value. models and actual examples of outstanding inventions which Th art collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum are are of historical importance, and, as Sir Henry Roscoe has now in possession of splendid buildings. If the buildings said, are absolutely irreplaceable. We have the greatest provided for the science collections were equally worthy of desire to maintain historical industrial processes, and we the interests which they should serve, the objects now in have special collections, such as those in which I myself the museum could be exhibited to much greater advantage. enormously interested-namely, naval architecture, Moreover, those lacunae which mark sections of recent models of machines, and astronomical instruments. The activity in discovery and invention would be more readily whole of these are of priceless value. But I quite recognise filled than they can be while the obviously temporary that they are in many respects incomplete ; and I am also character of the accommodation suggests to those who hold impressed with the fact, as indeed everybody is who knows objects of interest in the history and advance of science that the building in which that collection is housed, that the the authorities have but little appreciation for such things. housing has a great deal to do with the collection in the

“Other countries, notably France and Germany, have buildings in their present state. I recognise that the recognised the importance of preparing suitable buildings collection, even at the present day, is dreadfully overfor their, National Science Museums. In Paris the Museum crowded. The best illustration of that lies in the fact that of the Ecole des Arts et Métiers has a world-wide renown; in the cases now erected in the museum we have found and a National German Science Museum is now being it necessary to provide for what may be called a basement built in Munich at the cost of 300,000l. England, the exhibition. When one passes through the exhibition one mother of so many great inventions that have proved to be sees a considerable number of persons kneeling down on pioneers in industrial arts, stands alone in having made no the floor in order to see what is in the basement of these adequate provision for exhibiting and arranging in proper Anyone who is responsible for the museum order her unique collections. The undersigned venture to hardly avoid being ashamed of that condition of things. urge upon you that the time has now arrived for action. It is true that some parts of the galleries were put up as Land sufficient for the purpose is in the Government's temporarv buildings. They were part of the exhibition, I hands, and the Royal Commissioners of '5ı if approached | think, of 1862, and it is remarkable that they have lasted

am

cases.

can

so long. The whole difficulty is the very prosaic difficulty, and dry-bulb thermograph have been Icnt by the MeteorI fear, of money and land. The South Kensington area, ological Office. They are the identical instruments which which now contains some of the most remarkable collections were formerly in use at Fort William Observatory, the and some of the most valuable buildings in the world, has base station of Ben Nevis. A Dines pressure-tube anemobeen very rapidly occupied. We cannot go south because meter, a Beckley autographic rain-gauge, a Campbellof the Natural History Museum, and we are blocked on the Stokes sunshine recorder, and barograph and thermograph north by the Imperial Institute, the Royal College of of Richard pattern complete the outfit of ordinary meteor Science, and some of the other buildings, and I cannot at ological instruments. Provision has, of course, been made the moment see in what direction it will be possible for us for the usual control readings and for eye observations of to expand. The magnificent work which has been done in weather phenomena. An Ångström compensation pyrhelio the direction of art on the other side of the road certainly meter has also been set up, and preparation has been made sets the pace, and I recognise with you that it is pressingly for recording the atmospheric electrical potential. necessary that we should have a

new building for our At Kew the usual observing and testing work has been great science collection at the earliest possible date. The continued. Summaries of the magnetic and meteorological question of funds is affected to some extent by the hint work are given in the appendix. The results of measure thrown out by Sir Henry Roscoe of assistance from the ments of solar radiation with an Ángström pyrheliometer, 1851 Commissioners. I cannot imagine any better work and of the temperature of the soil at depths of 1 foot and to which the Commissioners could devote their funds than

4 feet, are given for the first time. The examination of in giving assistance in the construction of new buildings. the apparatus to be used at Eskdalemuir has formed an For the moment I will say no more than that I will trans

important part of the year's work, and we note also that mit to my colleagues and lay before the Cabinet, the Prime Mr. W. Dubinsky, of the Pavlovsk Observatory, spent Minister, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer the very some time at Kew for the purpose of making comparisons valuable statement which you made, and I will use my own between the Kew standard magnetometers and barometer personal influence, for whatever it may be worth, to impress and the standards in use in Russia. These comparisons on them the necessities of the case.

were carried out in accordance with a general scheme for

the international comparison of standards approved by the ESKDALEMUIR OBSERVATORY.'

last International Meteorological Conference. The report

concludes with the usual summaries of the magnetic results We have received the annual report of the observatory obtained at the observatories at Falmouth and Valencia.

department of the National Physical Laboratory for the year 1908, which is noteworthy as being the first report issued since the establishment of the new magnetic and

THE IMPERIAL CANCER RESEARCH FUND. meteorological observatory at Eskdalemuir. NATURE will be aware that the advent of electric tramways

Readers of THE annual meeting of the general committee of the

Imperial Cancer Research Fund was held on July a to the neighbourhood of the observatory at Kew has greatly at Marlborough House, when the Prince of Wales, the interfered with magnetic work there. The new establish-president of the organisation, took the chair. ment in Dumfriesshire is far removed from all industrial The following are extracts from the report, which was undertakings, and will thus be free from disturbing effects adopted at the meeting :due to artificial causes.

During the past year further correspondence took So far as Eskdalemuir is concerned, the past year has place with the authorities of the International Society for been one of installation and experiment, and the report Cancer Research in Berlin, in which it has been suggested contains no results of observations. The superintendent, that the executive committee should re-consider the attiMr. G. W. Walker, went into residence on May 11, 1908, tude hitherto adopted and join the International Society; and was followed shortly after by his staff, comprising and offering that the first International Congress should be observer, computer, mechanic, and mechanic's assistant. held in London. The executive committee is of opinion The first instruments to be set up were the Elliot unifilar that the decision arrived at is in the best interests of the magnetometer and the Dover dip circle, which scientific investigation of cancer, and accordingly it adhered given to the laboratory by Sir Arthur Rücher. They are to its position. At a subsequent date a petition was prethe instruments which were used by the donor and Prof. sented by the International Society for Cancer Research in Thorpe in their magnetic survey of the British Isles in Germany to the King, as patron of the Imperial Cancer 1890. The first absolute measurements of horizontal force, Research Fund, asking that the decision might be redeclination, and inclination were made on May 29, and viewed, but His Majesty, after considering the facts subwere continued for eight weeks, when some changes mitted to him through the Foreign Office, expressed the became necessary. Observations, made three times a week, view that the Imperial Cancer Research Fund

has were resumed in October, and have since formed part of cooperated freely in the past, both with German and other the routine work of the observatory. The final determina foreign workers, and will continue to do so in the future. tion of the azimuth of the fixed mark awaits the com

It may be well to recall in this connection the extent to pletion of the arrangements for the time signal.

which the Imperial Cancer Research Fund has encouraged The recording apparatus consists of a set of Eschenhagen

the investigations of independent workers both at home magnetographs and a set of Kew pattern magnetographs

and abroad. As is well known, the material for experimade for the observatory by Mr. P. Adie. The former mental research is difficult and costly to obtain, and is belong to the Admiralty, and are those used at the Dis- beyond the reach of many who, but for the help given covery's winter quarters in 1902-4. Owing to damp. the

from this fund, would be debarred from participation in magnetic house could not be used immediately, and the

this branch of the research. Recognising that such help instruments had to be accommodated elsewhere. The

must be of the first importance, it has been the aim of the Eschenhagen recorders were set up temporarily in the general superintendent, Dr. E. F. Bashford, with the seismograph room. The Adie instruments were accommo

entire concurrence of the executive committee, to distribute dated in the general laboratory, but the warping of the

to all applicants who possess the necessary credentials the wooden supports has made satisfactory compensation for

material accumulated with much labour and expense. temperature changes impossible, and the point will have A satisfactory feature of the past year has been the to be taken up again when the instruinents are removed

recognition of the work of the fund by foreign investigato their permanent positions.

tors, as is shown by the number of applicants for perFor seismological work a twin-boom Milne seismograph

mission to work under the general superintendent. It has is in use. Regular records have been obtained since

been found impossible to concede all the requests, but September 24. Provision has also been made for carry.

gentlemen from Italy, Bukarest, New York, and Munich ing on the work of a meteorological observatory or station

have been accorded full liberty to pursue their researches of the first order. The photographic barograph and wet

in the laboratories supported from the fund, and every

facility has been given them. Special arrangements have 1 The National Physical Laboratorv. Report of the Observatory Derartment. Richmond, Surrey, and of the Observatory, Eskrlalemuir, Langholm,

also been granted to other workers to pursue certain Dumfriesshire, for the Year 1908, with Appendices. Pp. 53. (Teddington, specific investigations, and to certain foreign medical men 1909.)

to study the methods during a short visit to this country.

were

one

Reviewing the results of seven years' work on the com- vey with the mainland of Spitsbergen across Foul Sound, parative and experimental investigation of cancer, says the thus joining up the work of H.S.H. the Prince of Monaco, general superintendent in his report, one is struck by the late Captain Guissez, Captain Bourée, and Captain the difference between the nature of the problems before us Isachsen in the north-west of Spitsbergen. seven years ago and of those now being considered, as In 1907, Dr. Bruce brought back geological collections well as by the freedom one feels in investigating the which have been described by Dr. G. W. Lee, of H.M. problems presented to-day, without the incubus of having Geological Survey of Scotland, in a paper read to the to consider them from the standpoints of the many hypo- Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh. These rocks and theses now proved to be untenable. I do not think that fossils entirely change previous opinions of the geology of too much is claimed by asserting that the arduous labour Prince Charles Foreland, which was thought to be Silurian, of the past seven years is gradually effecting, and in whereas the rocks of Prince Charles Foreland consist, several respects has actually effected,' a complete revolu- first, of a series of metamorphic crystalline schists, quartztion in many aspects of the cancer problem. But it has ites, and non-fossiliferous shales and hard grey limestones; done still more in opening up new vistas in biology. secondly, of the fossiliferous limestone, probably permo-CarSeven years ago no one conceived it possible that portions boniferous; and, thirdly, of grey shales containing the reof the mammalian organism could be kept growing for a mains of dicotyledonous plants of Tertiary age. This time period four times the length of life of the whole Dr. Bruce will carry with him a specially strong geological animal. But to-day the number of different kinds of staff, and he hopes to clear up definitely the whole geology tissues now being propagated separately make it theoretic- of Prince Charles Foreland and the neighbouring coasts of ally possible that the majority of the tissues may be so

the mainland. grown and segregated. In other words, a living animal A special study of the botany of the Foreland will be can be analysed into many of its living component tissues. made, Dr. Rudmose Brown carrying on that special part The finer relations of various kinds of tissues to of the work. Dr. Bruce's staff consists of Mr. J. V. Burn another have been revealed by the application of the new Murdoch, who accompanied him to Prince Charles Foremethods. The biological alterations which living mamma- land in 1907; Mr. John Mathieson, of H.M. Ordnance lian cells may undergo suddenly, as well as gradually, Survey of Scotland, who will take entire charge of the under the influence of experimental conditions, can now survey work; Dr. R. N. Rudmose Brown, late botanist of be, studied. These and many other achievements in the the Scotia, at present lecturer on geography, Sheffield field of general biology are the most important practical University; Mr. 'Ernest A. Miller, who accompanied Dr.' fruits which have accrued from the experimental study of Bruce in 1906, and has since been attached to the meteorcancer, upon which they have only indirect bearings. ological and magnetical service of the Argentine Republic, Ultimately they are bound to be of far-reaching general having wintered at Scotia Bay, South Orkneys, during the biological importance, although to-day they are merely the last year. Mr. H. Hannay and Mr. A. M. Peach are the weapons that have been forged to attack cancer. Their geologists, and Mr. Alastair Geddes will also accompany further development and their utilisation for the solution the expedition. of purely biological problems will probably precede the solu- Dr. Bruce has chartered the steamer Conqueror, which tion of many of the problems surrounding the nature and is being specially re-fitted for the purpose, and has selected causes of cancer.

as master of the ship Captain Francis Napier, who has While some chance opportunity may yield results of been kindly lent by Messrs. James Currie and Co., Leith. immediate practical moment, the outlook on therapeutics The expedition will leave Leith on Monday next, July 19, in the meantime is in the direction of preventing dis- and is expected to be absent about two months. semination or metastasis. The means of explaining why We understand that this expedition, which will be Dr. inoculated cancer can undergo spontaneous cure have been

Bruce's ninth visit to the polar regions, in no way intergreatly enriched by the acquisition of fresh strains of pro

feres with his future Antarctic plans. pagable tumours behaving in a variety of ways in this respect, and presenting all gradations from some growing progressively in every animal inoculated, to others which,

BIRD NOTES. while developing for a time in every animal, are ultimately To the May number of Naturen Mr. Op Lie-Pettersen got rid of in all cases by the active resistance which the

contributes an account of the life-history of the tumours induce against themselves.

icterine tree-warbler (Hypolais icterina or H. hypolais) in In acknowledging a vote of thanks, the Prince of Wales Norway, where it is known as the “ bastard nattergale." said, during the course of his remarks :-“When presid- The dates of arrival in the neighbourhood of Bergen during ing over this committee on previous occasions I have a period of eleven years range from May 16-20 inclusive ; expressed the view that immediate results in regard to the birds of the year take their departure about the middle of cure of cancer must not be counted upon, but that rather July, and old birds some weeks later. By the middle of we must look forward to steady and consistent progress August nearly all have vanished, although an occasional in accordance with the experience of all scientific investiga straggler may be seen up to the end of that month, and tion. There can be no doubt, however, that the seven one specimen was so late as September. Among the trees years' work already accomplished by the fund has brought haunted by this species the hazel is the favourite; nesting about a complete change in the standpoints from which takes place at the end of May or early part of June, and cancer should be studied. The many and varied lines of the period of incubation is thirteen days. research are being pursued with the utmost perseverance, The April number of the Emu contains the minutes of and every development, as it occurs, is followed up with a conference on Government bird-protection in Australia, the minutest care. During the past year an important held at Melbourne in November, 1908. A large number work—the third scientific report-has been issued from of species and subspecies were recommended for total proour laboratories, and has been received with appreciation tection, among these being lyre-birds, coach whip-birds, by all those at home and abroad who are competent to emeus, and cassowaries. Owing, however, to the conferexpress opinions on these highly technical researches. This ence being unable to prepare a protection Bill, on account of itself marks a steady and valuable advance, and one of of the relations existing between the Commonwealth and which we have every reason to be satisfied.

its constituent States, it was eventually decided that the list of species and groups recommended for protection should

be submitted to each State for favourable consideration. SCOTTISH EXPEDITION TO SPITSBERGEN.

The urgent need for efficient legislation in this direction

is made evident by a statement on another page of the DR. WILLIAM S. BRUCE, of the Scottish Oceano- same issue with regard to a recent wholesale slaughter of

graphical Laboratory, is conducting another expedition to Prince Charles Foreland and other parts of Spits- To Mr. L. J. Cole we are indebted for a copy of a paper bergen. One of the chief objects of the expedition is to from the April number of the Auk on the importance of complete the survey of Prince Charles Foreland which he "tagging," or marking, birds as a means of studying began in association with H.S.H. the Prince of Monaco in their movements. It is pointed out by the author that we 1906 and continued in 1907. He will also connect this sur- are still nearly as much in the dark as regards the true

emeus.

revenue

at

“inwardness of migration as was the case a century pose of endowing American colleges and universities. The

Sore ago, and that practically all our information on this sub- Board had already received 8,600,000l. from him. ject is connected with mass-movements, so that we are forty institutions of higher education have benefited by this ignorant of the wanderings of individual birds. The trust, including Harvard and Yale Universities. The cor. acquisition of a knowledge of such individual movements respondent states that the Board's policy is governed by will, it is urged, aid, not only in the study of the general the belief that every city of more than 100,000 inhabitants migration of species, but will assist in analysing the factors should possess a college. The annual income of the Board connected with migration as a whole. Active measures

is said to be 200,oool. are being taken to inaugurate a system of bird-marking The accounts of the London Polytechnics for the year in the United States.

ended July 31, 1908, have been printed by the Londos A similar movement has been started in this country County Council. The council's comptroller points out that by Mr. H. F. Witherby, the editor of British Birds, the the total ordinary receipts of these eleven institutions details of which will be found in the June issue of that amounted to 212,4951., an increase of 8,5431. over the serial. The rings used for marking are extremely light, previous year. The council's grants amounted to So,50zł., and do not in any way interfere with the bird's power of or 37.88 per cent. of the total receipts. Grants from the flight; each is stamped “Witherby. High Holborn, Board of Education amounted to 38,2291., or 17-99 per London," and bears a distinctive number, which in the cent. ; the sums received from the City Parochial Foundasmaller sizes is stamped inside the ring, and it is hoped tion were 27,7041., or 13.04 per cent., and from City comthat anyone into whose hands should fall a bird so marked panies, &c., 6,9291., or 3.26 per cent. The total ordinar will send the bird and the ring, or, if thi is not possible, expenditure on

account of all the polytechnics then the particulars of the number on the ring, the species amounted to 211,9501., an increase of 4,4311. over the of bird, and the locality and date of capture, to the address previous year. Taking the results as a whole, so far as given.

ordinary income and expenditure are concerned, there was Yet another centre for bird-marking is to be established a surplus of 545l. on the institutions, as compared with a at Aberdeen, as announced in the June number of British deficit of 3,5671. in 1906–7. The amount expended on Birds.

teachers' salaries reached 99,2861., or 47.84 of the total The history of the rise and progress of ornithology in expenditure; other salaries accounted for 25,5091., or 12.30 South Africa is presented in concise and popular form by per cent. ; rent, rates, and taxes absorbed 11,5861., or 5.58 Mr. A. Haagner in Popular Bulletin No. 2 of the South per cent.; and apparatus and other educational appliances African Ornithologists' Union, recently published

and furniture cost 18,3271., or 8.83 per cent of the total Pretoria.

expenditure. To No. 1670 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum Mr. E. A. Mearns contributes a paper on new

TEACHERS at agricultural schools and colleges in this

country will be interested in the full and detailed syllabus and rare birds from the Philippines, while in No. 1683 issued by the Colorado State Agricultural College.

The of this serial the same author gives a list of birds recently requirements for admission strike an English teacher as collected in the Philippines, Borneo, and certain other severe, and we can only congratulate the Colorado College Malay islands.

if it is in a position to insist on the high standard they imply. The student is expected to have a certain acquaint

ance with English literature, gained by reading specified UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

classics, and to be “ familiar with the essential principles INTELLIGENCE.

of rhetoric," including the following :-—"choice of words.

structure of sentences and paragraphs, the principles of Dr. E. Knecht has been appointed professor of techno- | narration, description, exposition, and argument. History logical chemistry in the University of Manchester.

is another essential subject, and the teacher who is pre

paring pupils for the college is informed that “the mere From the Observatory we learn that Mr. J. Lunt, astro- learning of a text will not give the preparation that the physical assistant at the Cane Observatory, has been given colleges desire. Effort should be made to cultivate the the honorary degree of D.Sc. by the University of Man- power of handling facts and of drawing proper deductions chester.

from data, to develop the faculty of discrimination, to The annual meeting of the Midland Agricultural and

teach the pupils the use of books, and how to extract subDairy College will be held on Monday, July 26, when the

stance from the printed page. The other subjectsreport on the year's work will be presented. The Duke of

mathematics, chemistry, physics, “ other languages "Gare Rutland will address the meeting, and present the diplomas

to be taught in a similar spirit. Students so trained and certificates gained during last session.

would form admirable raw material, and could have no

great difficulty in taking the fullest advantage of the MERELY to mention the titles of four of the six articles con- college course. tained in the February-March issue of the Southern Educa- The Board of Education has issued (Cd. 4736] its regutional Review is to demonstrate the importance its editor lations for technical schools, schools of art, and other attaches to the education of the negro. These articles are forms of provision of further education in England and those on

Results of Attempts at the Higher Education Wales which will come into force on August i next. No of the Negro of the South,” “The Essential Requirements changes of special importance have been made as comof Negro Education,” “Negro Rural Schools," and Rela- pared with those of last year. It is satisfactory to note tion of the State to the Education of the Negro." The that the amount of each of the royal exhibitions, &c., review is published at Chattanooga, Tenn., U.S.A., by the tenable at the Royal College of Art and the Imperial editor, Mr. H. Elmer Bierly.

College of Science and Technology, South Kensington, has It is proposed to establish in connection with the Paris

been raised from gol. to 60l. per session. The old royal University a system of exchange between French and

exhibitions and national scholarships tenable at the Impeforeign professors on similar lines to that which has for

rial College of Science and Technology, have been comsome time been in vogue between Berlin and America.

bined as royal scholarships, the competition for which is M. Liard, rector of the university, has made an appeal to

to be conducted on the lines hitherto adopted for the award the friends of the university to create a fund for the pur

of national scholarships. . In place of the former studentpose. M. Albert Kahn has placed at the disposal of the ships-in-training in science, the Board of Education has rector an annual grant of 30,000 francs for five years.

established special studentships for teachers of science and The Revue scientifique states that two million francs are

technology who are qualified to enter on the third or fourth necessary for the success of the scheme.

year of the course provided at the Imperial College. We

notice that in future such teachers-in-training are not to be It is announced by the New York correspondent of the permitted to continue for more than two years in all at Times that Mr. John D. Rockefeller has celebrated his the Imperial College, a change which, in view of the need seventieth birthday by giving 2,000,000l. to the General for highly qualified teachers in our provincial schools of Education Board, which he founded in 1907 for the pur- science and technology, seems of doubtful wisdom.

were not to

THE new laboratories of St. Paul's School, built to cele- truncation of spurs, the formation of conchoidal scoops brate the quatercentenary of the foundation, were opened in the concavities of the valleys, a general widening of the on Wednesday, July 8, by Lord Curzon. In his address, valleys, and but slight deepening. A feature of interest Lord Curzon said he noticed how the school had kept pace is the contrast in this small area between these glaciated with the spirit and reforms of the day, how during the valleys and others of V-shaped cross-section, which are last hundred years its numbers had increased from 153 to typical water-carved valleys unaffected by glacial erosion. 500; how the modern side had grown to equal the older -A new species of Sthenurus: L. Glauert.Some side in numbers and importance; and he told how great reptilian remains from the Trias of Lossiemouth : D. M. S. had been the achievement of the school under the late high Watson. The fore-limb of Ornithosuchus Woodwardi is master, Dr. Walker, one of the great school

masters of the shown in a specimen in the Manchester Museum. nineteenth century. Lord Curzon went on to say that we Ornithosuchus is restored as an animal walking on all lived in an age of self-depreciation, of a too great self- | fours, with the head carried rather low. The proportions depreciation. Foreign critics were always coming to our are identical with those of Ætosaurus. A description is public schools to learn how, having their superior equipment given of the skeleton of a very small reptile, interesting and their excellent organisation, they might obtain also as recalling Ætosaurus in its armour.-Some reptilian

that training in character, that sense of moral responsi- tracks from the Trias of Runcorn (Cheshire) : D. M. S. bility, that spirit of civic patriotism, that ordered sense of Watson. Four types of tracks which occur on the slab personal liberty which were among the chief and most of sandstone from Weston Point, described in 1840 by honourable characteristics of our public school system." Dr. Black, are discussed in this paper. It is suggested So while content to learn from others we

that some of these prints may quite well belong to such forfeit that in our educational system which had done so thecodonts as Ornithosuchus.—The anatomy of Lepidomuch in the civic government of the country and the empire. phloios laricinus, Sternb. : D. M. S. Watson. The Bishop of Manchester referred to the conditions, so different from those obtaining now, under which he had

Linnean Society, June 17.-Sir Frank Crisp, vice-presi. learnt at St. Paul's School; yet he had learnt there that

dent, in the chair.-The growth of a species of Battarea : most valuable of lessons, to think. The high master, Dr. I: G, Otto Toppor.-The deposits in the Indian Ocean : Hillard, said that St. Paul's had taken its full share in

Sir John Murray.-The Sealark Penaeidea, Stenopidea, all those changes in educational method which began with

and Reptantia : L. A. Borradailo.—The Sealark LepidoArnold's life at Rugby.

ptera : T. B. Fletchor.-Report on the Porifera collected by Mr. C. Crossland in the Red Sea, part i., Calcarea :

R. W. H. Row.—The African species of Triumfetta, SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

Linn.: T. A. Sprague and J. Hutchinson.—New species LONDON.

of Malesian and Philippine ferns : Dr. H. Christ.—The Geological Society, June 16.-Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., acaulescent species of Malvastrum, A. Gray : A. W. Hill. president, in the chair.—The Carboniferous Limestone of County Clare : James A. Douglas. The district forms

DUBLIN. che westernmost limit of the central Carboniferous Lime- Royal Dublin Society, June 22.–Dr. J. M. Purser in stone plain of Ireland. The area, for the purposes of

the chair.-The fossil hare of the ossiferous fissures of description, is divided into two main districts. The Ightham, Kent, and on the recent hares of the Lepus northern region is formed by an elevated plateau of Viséan variabilis group: M. A. C. Hinton. The paper describes Limestone, which rises on the north and east in terraced the fossil remains of Lepus variabilis, Pall., obtained from cliffs, but to the south-west dips below the “Coal- the rock fissures at Ightham, and deals with the osteology ineasure" series. The surface is of bare rock, devoid of of the recent and fossil hares of the L. variabilis group. vegetation. The southern district is not formed of lime- The Pleistocene hare of England is referred to a stone; the high ground on the east is of Old Red Sand- subspecies, L. variabilis anglicus, which is to be regarded stone and Silurian rocks, that on the west of Coal- as the immediate ancestor of L. variabilis hibernicus, its neasures. The older formations appear

anti- relationship with the existing Scotch form not being so clinal flexures, forming the mountains of Slieve Aughty close. The subspecies anglicus and hibernicus are shown and Slieve Bernagh. The margin of the syncline is formed to be the most primitive members of the variabilis group. by Tournaisian shales and limestone, while the Viséan The most important conclusion reached is that, contrary limestones occupy the core.

The limestone fauna show to the prevalent view, the variabilis group of hares has that the Geological Survey boundary between the Upper originated in temperate latitudes, and not in the high and Lower Limestones corresponds with the transition

north.-The value of benzidine for the detection of minute from a Tournaisian to a Viséan fauna, and the Middle

traces of blood : Prof. E. J. McWooney. The author Limestone contains a fauna distinct from that of the began by explaining the chemical nature of benzidine, Upper, although they are not separable on lithological which is a di-p-diamino diphenyl. This substance, when grounds. The Old Red Sandstone is succeeded by a series dissolved in acetic acid and brought into contact with blood of sandy shales containing brachiopods characteristic of in presence of H,02, at once undergoes oxidation with the Cleistopora zone; at the base are found modioliform formation of a brilliant blue colour. The reaction is in lamellibranchs. The Zaphrentis zone is well developed. principle the same as that with guaiacol, the old-fashioned The most remarkable portion of the whole sequence is Van Deen's or Schönbein's guaiacum test. The colour included in the Syringothyris zone. These beds show base from guaiacol differs from the benzidine colour-base evidence of deposition in shallow water. The fauna is in the same way as an amine (aniline) differs from a compared with that of the Waulsortian phase of Belgium. phenol, or an aurine from a rosaniline dye. The test is The incoming of a Viséan fauna is well marked at the ten-fold more delicate than that with guaiacum, and detects base of the Seminula zone; in the middle of this zone blood in solution as weak as 1/500,000; but for medico

important bed of politic limestone, with legal purposes it is preferable to bring particles of the abundant gasteropods. The Dibunophyllum zone attains a suspected matter into contact with the reagent, when thickness equal to that of the Midland area.-The Howgill each granule, if blood, at once strikes a most brilliant blue. Fells and their topography: J. E. Marr, F.R.S., and The reaction can be observed under the microscope. The W. G. Fearnsides. The Howgill Fells form a mono- test worked well with blood-stains many years old, and clinal block, from which the Carboniferous rocks have seemed to be independent of the nature of the substratum. been denuded. The northern slope probably corresponds Controls, and a time limit of about a minute, were essen, with the sloping plane of unconformity between the tial, and the sensitiveness of each batch of benzidine had Carboniferous rocks and Lower Palæozoic strata. On the to be worked out beforehand. Of all the substances tested, south the slope to the Rawthey is along a block-fault. none gave the typical blue colour so speedily as blood, The chief drainage was originally north and south from save fresh vegetables and fruit, which at once struck an the watershed at the summit of the block. The tract was intense blue, at first limited to the fibro-vascular bundles. glaciated by its own ice, but “foreign"_ice was Boiling deprived them of this power, owing to the destructerminous with the local ice on all sides. The rocks are, tion of the oxydase, whereas blood solutions gave the blue from the point of view of erosive effects, nearly homo- reaction at once after five minutes' boiling. The author geneous. The chief erosive effects of glaciation were the recommended this test to the attention of medical jurists.

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