Page images
PDF
EPUB

was

(3) In the editor's preface to Dent's Scientific nitrogen, the proteins, and the colloid substances. 1: Primers, in which the one under review is included, is from this fourth German edition that the Frent!!

was prepared, anu We are told that the great advances in knowledge translation which is before us during the last thirty years necessitate a re-statement

the fact that a French version is now published .c

be taken as in itsell a tolerably satisfactory indicaof the theories of the different sciences.

tion, not only that Ladenburg's book has establishi This may be true of chemistry if it were a question itself as a work of permanent value in the estimati of publishing a new treatise or even a students' text- of chemists irrespective of nationality, but also that r book; but when we consider that this miniature is free from national bias, such as is frequently mit volume of a hundred pages is intended for a student with in historical works. The translation bears ever

evidence of having had much careful attentia possessing no previous acquaintance with the subject bestowed upon it, and it gives a faithful representaand without the leisure to study it systematically, we tion of the original. The book is produced in a creditcannot be surprised that the advances in knowledge able style typographically. are not very apparent. We might even go further and state that , except for a passing reference to (1) Biologisches Praktikum für höhere Schulen. R.

Dr. Bastian Schmid. Pp. vi+71. (Leipzig ari radium and the noble gases, and the use of the words

Berlin : B. G. Teubner, 1909.) Price 2 marks. “ stereochemistry and polypeptides," the book (2) Biologische Experimente nebst einem Anhang might just as well have appeared thirty years ago. mikroskopische Technik. By Walther Schurie

With the very limited space at his disposal, Prof. Pp. xi+180. (Leipzig : Quelle und Meyer, ICOG. Tilden has made good use of his materials, and has

Price 2.40 marks. compressed into a small compass a very readable and (1) This is an attempt to compress into seventy-one suggestive account of the elementary facts and theories

octavo pages a practical introduction to the study c! of chemistry.

J. B. C.

the comparative anatomy of plants and animals, tsa gether with a certain amount of experimental physk

logy. There are seventy-five text-figures and nine OUR BOOK SHELF.

plates. A considerable number of types, ranging frur. Histoire du Développement de la Chimie depuis bacteria to mammals, are dealt with in a very scrappi

Lavoisier jusqu'a nos jours. By Prof. A. Laden and superficial manner in the text. A large proparburg. Traduit sur la 4e édition allemande. By tion of the illustrations are borrowed from the works Prof. A. Corvisy. Pp. v+388. (Paris : A. Hermann

of well-known authors. They are well reproduced, but et Fils, 1909.) Price 15 francs.

the text and explanations of the figures are

verv in. Forty years ago, the first German edition of Laden- adequate. A plate containing figures of the skeleton burg's “ Lectures on the History of the Development of a frog, a dog, and part of the skeleton of a bird of Chemistry during the past 100 Years” was pub- is omitted), without a single bone labelled, is no

(apparently there was no room for the skull, which lished. This a relatively small book of 320 likely to be of very much service even to the most pages, which presented, in the course of fourteen lectures, a carefully drawn and evenly balanced sketch elementary scholar. Doubtless, however, there ar of the progress of chemistry subsequent to the time people who are gratified by observing a resemblanc of Lavoisier. At the date of its publication it was

between an actual specimen and a book illustratior.. unique in dealing, in a logical and consistent manner,

and they may even think that they have learnt som. with the progress of the atomic theory in its applica, author to mention that the book is intended to be

thing by comparing the two. It is only fair to the tion both to inorganic and to organic chemistry, and in serving at least as an introduction to the particularly used in conjunction with the instruction of a teacher, difficult and complicated period in the history of organic who, no doubt, would be able to supply many of the chemistry which began in the 'thirties and extended to

deficiencies. the late 'fifties or early 'sixties of last century. It was

(2) This little book is addressed to school teachers are not until about four years later that this period was

students of nature, and is intended to serve as a guiddealt with, a good deal more elaborately, by Kopp in

to a large number of simple experiments in animai his “ Development of Chemistry in Recent Times

and vegetable biology. It is very suggestive, but the (1873). A specially valuable feature of Ladenburg's the work suffers greatly from over-condensation. ;

style is rather too much that of a cookery book, and lectures was the abundance of references to the litera- good practical course on general physiology, in itselt ture, which tended to encourage the reader to extend his knowledge of particular branches of the subject by

a very desirable thing, might be founded upon it ta consulting the original papers of the various authors. it would take a very long time to carry out all the

an experienced and well-read teacher of biology, but A second German edition was called for in 1887, when experiments in a satisfactory manner.

1 the original book was revised, and was extended by the addition of a fifteenth lecture.

Inborn Errors of Metabolism. The Croonian Lectures In 1900 an English version of Ladenburg's “History" delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of was published, which was translated from the second London in June, 1908. By Dr. A. E. Garrod. Pp. German edition, but included various corrections and vi + 168. (London : Henry Frowde, and Hodder and minor additions by the author, and also a sixteenth Stoughton, 1909.) Price 3s. 6d. net. lecture, specially written for this translation. A re- | DR. GARROp delivered before the Royal College on vised English edition appeared in 1903. The third | Physicians in June, 1908, his Croonian lectures under German edition (1902) was merely a reprint of the the above title, and the present little book is a welcome second edition with the sixteenth lecture added to it, re-publication of these lectures in a rather more but in 1907 a thoroughly revised and very considerably extended form than those actually delivered. Th enlarged German edition appeared, which extended author is well known for his researches on nutrition. to more than 400 pages, and contained seventeen lec- metabolism, and the urine, and has always had a tures, the subject-matter being brought up to date as special bent in the unravelling of those rarer anomalies fully as possible, and including accounts of the progress which in so many cases are transmitted from generaof discovery in connection with such recent subjects tion to generation. It would lead one too far intr of extended investigation as radium, asymmetric / strictly medical matters to attempt anything in th:

a

[ocr errors]

k=

3N

shape of even a condensed account of the matters

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. specially selected by Dr. Garrod, and so one need only (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions mention that the anomalies treated at length are expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake albinism, cystmaria, alkaptonuria, and pentosuria. to relurn, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected

It must not be supposed that the examination of manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. these comparatively rare conditions. is devoid of No notice is taken of anonymous communications.) general interest, for it is often just these curious accidents of perverted tissue change which form the

Molecular Scattering and Atmospheric Absorption. opportunity of the keen observer in unravelling the

Since Lord Rayleigh discussed the question of moleperplexities of the normal state. The natural sequence

cular scattering, and its bearing on the explanation of the of study is physiology first, pathology next. But very

blue colour of the sky, our experimental and observational often an inversion of this order leads to important knowledge of the number of molecules in a gas allows us

While our

data have become much more trustworthy. accessions to knowledge. Dr. Garrod is to be con

now to calculate with sufficient accuracy the amount of gratulated on having been successful in such an

direct sunlight which is diverted by scattering, Mr. Abbot's experiment, and those interested in metabolism cannot scries of measurements at Washington and on Mount do better than study his lucid and bright exposition of Wilson gives us the actual observed opacity of the air the subject.

W. D. H. for different wave-lengths.

Lord Rayleigh showed that, on the hypothesis of the Practical Testing of Gas and Gas-meters. By C. H.

elastic solid theory of light, small particles of matter, Stone. Pp. x+337. (New York: John Wiley and which act simply by adding inertia to the æther, scatter Sons; London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1909.) light and retard the passage of a wave passing over them Price 155. net.

in such a way that the relation This is a laboriously complete compilation of the various methods of testing gas for illuminating power,

327°/4 - 1)2 purity, chemical composition, and calorific value, and of proving the accuracy of the indications of gas- holds, where k is the coefficient of extinction of energy, meters. The subject is one mainly of technical in- te the refractive index, and N the number of molecules per terest only, and very specially so even for that, and cubic centimetre. He showed, further, that the same hardly suitable, therefore, for detailed consideration equation may be deduced from the electromagnetic theory in these columns. An examination of the book show's

if the particles locally affect the inductive capacity of the how great a diversity of apparatus has been devised

medium. In the forthcoming new edition of my “ Optics and thrust upon the innocent gas-producing world, and theory, provided u is nearly equal to unity ; the limit of its

it will be proved that the equation is independent of how gratuitous some of the diversity is. Where ap- applicability is only reached when there is a retardation of paratus has been designed for official testings, the phase at the origin of the scattered light the square of objection to protecting the manufacture by patents which is appreciable, and it can be shown that this is has given the constructor liberty to alter and “im- actually the case except within the region of anomalous prove or spoil an instrument, as the case may be dispersion. The range of the formula may be further in

The American has a great opinion of the English creased if }(u? — 1)2 is written for (4--- 1)”. official ten-candle lamp designed by Mr. Harcourt, but

For N I have used Rutherford and Geiger's value he will not take it as he finds it, and so he makes 2.72 X 10'', and with the known value of the refractive an American pattern. The English official calorimeter,

index of air, k may be calculated. If h is the height of too, judging by the observations made, has also gone

the homogeneous atmosphere above the point of observa

tion, e-kh is the fraction of light which would reach through a metamorphosis in crossing the Atlantic.

the observer if no light were lost in any other way than As is to be expected, the book is well got up and illus- by molecular scattering. In the following table the transtrated, and its value is increased by the inclusion of mitted light calculated in this manner is compared with a number of tables of value to those whose business is Abbot's observed figures. The first column gives the waveto test and examine gas.

length, the second column contains the observed values Compendium of Food-microscopy. By E. G.

of the transmitted energy for Washington, taking all Clayton. With sections on Drugs, Water, and

observations into account, while the third column gives

the number calculated from the observations on February Tobacco. Compiled, with additions and revision, from the late Dr. A. H. Hassall's works on Food.

15, 1907, when the air was exceptionally clear. The calcu

lated values are entered into the fourth column. The last Pp. xxxix+431. (London: Baillière, Tindall and

three columns give the corresponding numbers for Mount Cox, 1909.) Price ios, 6d. net.

Wilson. The selected clear day in this case was October This book, written by an ardent disciple of the late 11, 1906. Dr. Hassall, is largely based on Dr. Hassall's works on

Washington

Mount Wilson food and its adulteration. An account is given of the

Calcu. Observed Observed Calcu. microscopical characters of all the principal vegetable length

clear day

clear day food-stuffs, beverages such as tea and coffee, fruit

0:55

072 071 ... 073 0-76 0.76

070 preserves and condiments, and of tobacco, opium, and

0:84 0.87 ... 0.85 0.89 0 89 076 0.87

0'94

0.89 0'92 0-95 a few other drugs, together with those of the chief

7

0:84
0'90 ... 0.96

0.95 0-97 adulterants of these substances. In addition, chapters

8

0.87 0-94 ... 0'98 0.96 ... 0'99 0.98 are devoted to foods of animal origin and the parasites

0.90
0.96 0.99 0'97

099

0.99 which may infect them, milk, cream, butter, and cheese, and to the microscopical flora and fauna of The close agreement between the two last columns shows water. The book is profusely illustrated with line that on a clear day on Mount Wilson atmospheric absorpdrawings to scale, which usually reproduce very clearly tion is practically accounted for by molecular scattering. the characteristics of the substances they are intended

There is a slight indication of selective absorption in to depict, though occasionally there is an irritating

the red, but otherwise the columns are in complete agreewant of systematic arrangement of the figures, Fig. A,

On the average day there seems an additional

absorption of about 2 per cent. It is remarkable that, for instance, sometimes being on the right, some

at Washington, the calculated absorption for blue times on the left, of the page. Though the botanical | light should so nearly agree with the calculated value; terminology is not always that used nowadays, on this means that even at the sea-level the greater part the whole the book should form a useful addition to of the absorption on a clear day is due to scattering the library of the analyst and microscopist.

į by the molecules of air. The large diminution in the

Wave

Observed Observed

mean

lated

mean

la'ed

4 x 10-5

...

...

...

[ocr errors]

o'94 ...

[ocr errors]

ment.

even

[ocr errors]

" Radia

an

intensity of blue light at Washington on the average day culture, when Azotobacter is also present, than when alone. seems to indicate that there is a substantial amount of He quotes the following results :scattering by small solid or liquid particles.

Control ... The figures for Mount Wilson give us confidence in the

0:48 mgm. N. per 100 c.c. culture solution

Pseudomonas alone 0.91 trustworthiness of Mr. Abbot's determination of the solar

Pseudomonas and constant, because it is clear that the total effect of the

Azotobacter 1'24 atmosphere can be eliminated with greater certainty if it is mainly due to the permanent constituents of the atmo

These differences would almost seem to be within the sphere, and not to matter which is variable in amount. range of experimental error, but in any case, does not iht As the top of Mount Wilson is less than 1800 metres above

demonstration require a further statement of how much sea-level, we may conclude that at high elevation the blue nitrogen Azotobacter alone would fix? Other observers are colour of the sky is completely accounted for by molecular accustomed to get fixations by Azotobacter alone of from scattering.

5 to 20 mgm. of nitrogen per 100 c.c. of such a culture That the scattering sets a limit to the transparency of solution, the maximum being about 10 mgm. of nitroge1 gases must be kept in mind in discussing problems of fixed per gram of mannite. The only conclusion that could solar and stellar physics. We may feel confident, for

be drawn from Prof. Bottomley's figures would be that example, that what is called the reversing layer can only Pseudomonas injuriously affects the power of Azotobacter have a small thickness, for otherwise we should not be to fix nitrogen, supposing that a reasonably active culture able to observe so far into the ultra-violet as we do.

of the latter had been used. The scattering may profoundly modify the character of Turning to the field experiments, in which Prof. Bottomthe spectrum, as I have explained in a paper on

ley claims to get an increase of crop by adding cultures of tion through a Foggy Atmosphere (Astrophysical Journal, Pseudomonas and Azotobacter to soil which presumabiv vol. xxi., p. 1), in which it is shown how increased thick already contains both organisms, data for estimating the ness, without change of temperature, may convert

probable experimental error are again lacking. From the absorption line into a bright line. It seems to me prob

Rothamsted experiments, where we may assume the con able that the bright and dark flocculi shown in spectro

ditions are more than usually favourable to exactitude, the heliograph pictures may find their explanation chiefly in

mean error of a pair of similarly treated plots in a single variation of thickness in the absorbing layer, the bright year is about $10 per cent., which would more than cover patches being due to increased thickness.

the differences observed by Prof. Bottomley's experimen The transparency of interstellar space has recently re

with oats. ceived a much needed critical discussion at the hands of In another experiment with barley, Prof. Bottomley astronomers, and Prof. Turner has applied the law of obtained a higher percentage of nitrogen in the corn from scattering to explain certain discrepancies between visual

the treated strip than in the corn from the rest of the field, and photographic magnitudes. The value he gives for the

1.76 against 1:55 per cent. (I presume that " milligrammes opacity allows us to calculate the average density of the of nitrogen per cent." is a clerical error). In view of the matter which is diffused through space on the supposi- comparatively small changes in the composition of the grain tion that it is gaseous. If the value of (u -- 1)/D (where of a cereal which are usually effected by large variations in u is the refractive index and D the density) be taken to

the supply of nutrient, I should like to know from Prof. be approximately equal to that of air, I find that the

Bottomley if duplicate samples were taken from different number of molecules per cubic centimetre in space would parts of the untreated section of the field, and what range have to be of the order of a million, and the mean free

of variation they showed in their nitrogen content. path of the order of 3000 kilometres.

Coming to the next experiment, it is difficult to judge Although not directly connected with the subject which

how far a bulbous plant like Galtonia candicans is suitable forms the main part of this communication, I would like

for experiments on nutrition, but it is rather necessary to to point out that the same analysis which gives the

know what relation the weight of the bulbs planted bore coefficient of extinction in terms of the retardation of

to those harvested. Prof. Bottomley only says that 250 phase at the source of the scattering also gives a resultant

bulbs of equal size" were planted in each bed. Can force acting on the molecule in the direction in which the

he let us have the weights in each case? Moreover, he light is passing. When summed up for all the molecules

tells us that the treated bed was twice watered with the this force is found to be identical with what is generally

culture solution, the control bed being given pure water at called the pressure of light," for if E represents the

the same time; was the same amount of water given to energy density, the force acting per unit volume on the each, and how much of the culture solution was applied seattering molecules is found to be ke, where k is the

for it contained monopotassium phosphate, sodium chloride, coefficient of extinction.

&c., which may well have been a considerable factor in any There is a widespread impression that light pressure

beneficial effect experienced ? only acts on particles the linear dimensions of which

Prof. Bottomley will perhaps forgive me if these questions include several wave-lengths of light, but this is not

may seem somewhat critical of his conclusions, but any correct. The determining factor is the extinction of light,

communication appearing in the Proceedings of the Roval whether by scattering or by absorption, as indeed appears Society must be taken into account, and one therefore if we take the view adopted in Prof. Poynting's work on

wishes to have the data necessary for determining the the subject that a propagation of momentum accompanies weight to be attached to the results. A. D. HALL the transmission of light. The momentum is destroyed

The Rothamsted Experimental Station, July 12, 1909. equally whether the molecules act as scattering or absorbing centres. The extinction by scattering near the surface of stellar bodies does not, however, appear to be

Occasional Unexplained Ringing of House-bells. sufficient to cause any measurable effects comparable with

An observation sent me by Mr. Alexander Sinclair, of their gravitation.

ARTHUR SCHUSTER.

Swansea, to the effect that during a thunderstorm drops of water leaking through the ceiling “assumed a pear

shape and jumped 9 inches almost horizontally to the The Fixation of Nitrogen by Soi Bacteria.

curtain rings above the window," suggests that house-bells May I be allowed through the columns of NATURE to ask of the ordinary non-electric type may occasionally be rung Prof. W. B. Bottomley a few questions with regard to his

by this means. I picture the process as follows : -The bell paper on

Some Effects of Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria on the wires collect atmospheric electricity, by induction or otherGrowth of Non-leguminous Plants (Proc. Roy. Soc., wise, which the walls are insufficiently conducting to carry B, Ixxxi., 1909, 287), abstracted in Nature of May 13 (vol. off freelv ; consequently the bells get charged, are attracted 1xxx., p. 327), as I had not the opportunity of being present

to a neighbouring wall or pipe, and released suddenly by when the paper was read?

a spark. This little lateral jerk rings the bell. Prof. Bottomley bases his conclusions on experiments to I put the simple suggestion on record because I sometimes show that Pseudomonas, the bacterium associated with the hear of an inclination to attribute the phenomenon to less Icgamincus plants, will fix mcre nitrogen in an artificial familiar causes.

OLIVER I.ODGE.

as

a

[ocr errors]

66

1

Musical Sands.

face; other fishing birds follow them into the water.

The romantic story of the ospreys at loch-en-eilein In an interesting letter Mr. Carus-Wilson gives us the results (NATURE, July 15) of further observations made by (which should be written eilean) is told and illustrated. him on a phenomenon on which he has written from time

Possibly the “ romance” is a little overstrained in to time. I believe I have suggested to him in years gone places, and ordinary incidents in a bird's general life by—if not, perhaps you will allow me to suggest now—the habits sometimes magnified or transfigured into somepossibility of the musical ring of certain sands in motion thing more wonderful. For instance, it is a common being due to their consisting largely of grains of hyaline custom with snow buntings (and with some other quartz. That fact, if ascertained, would account for the quick-footed birds which feed in flocks) for the rear ring of the grains in motion, while the smoothness of their ranks to fly to the front over the backs of the others, a glassy surfaces would facilitate their motion, and

manæuvre repeated by the others in turn. This simple increase the force of their mutual impact, tending to raise desire (and its expression) to have first turn at whatthe pitch of the note produced. I have never had an opportunity myself of making a microscopic examination

ever food is going is here advanced as a boisterous of such sands, but I venture to commend such an examina: play. The combats of ruffs are much milder and

little game of their own" in the section on sport and tion to Mr. Carus-Wilson's consideration. The ment of the sands by the wind into possibly more rounded

much less important affairs than is here represented; and more angular grains may also throw some light upon and it seems really unlikely that nuthatches could the matter.

A. IRVING. drive out squirrels from their nest, or would want Bishop's Stortford, July 19.

to take possession of it. Unlike most of the popular bird books published in recent years this one fills a

vacant place. Wych Elm Seedlings.

Almost anyone seems to feel capable nowadays

of writing a book on British birds, and, in good The prolific flowering of the Wych elm, Ulmus montana,

truth, there is material enough to compile from. this year must have been followed by the formation of

Time was when to write an account of British birds unusual numbers of fertile seeds. At present the ground beneath these elms in my garden is covered with hundreds

was an undertaking attempted by few, and those only of their secdlings, many of which have already developed

who had made the subject their main study for many a second pair of serrated leaves.

years, and were on all hands accounted authorities. The elms themselves seem to have suffered from the

Now almost anyone does it, and there is a perfect strain of producing so large a crop of fruits, for their stream of books on this subject. They come out so leaves, though now of the usual size, were very late in frequently that, although the title has been turned and appearing, and are sparsely distributed on the branches. twisted in a great variety of ways, it has even been

ROSAMOND F. SHOVE. found impossible to discover fresh and original names 26 Blessington Road, Lee, Kent, July 13.

to distinguish them by. Most of them put forward some special claim upon the public. Many of them

purport to cater for the ignorant and the beginner; POPULAR NATURAL HISTORY.

one, indeed, made a point of picking brains without MR. R. LEA'S “ Romance of Bird-life,” i

acknowledgment. Here is one I “ with a new method a handy and

of identification.” This book has been written with fully illustrated volume published at a marvels the exclusively practical object of enabling persons unlously low price, covers the whole life-history of the acquainted with British bir bird,' from the egg upwards, the twenty-one chapters most obvious characteristics.

to identify them by their

By the grouping of containing a summary of the observations of a great birds, as here carried out, under such headings as many writers on ornithology arranged in a masterly

“ Black-and-White Birds," " and most attractive form. One of the concluding

Ruddy-breasted Birds,"

“ Trunk-climbing Birds,” it is claimed that the birds chapters deals with the birds of the past and vanishing species, and is illustrated with a reproduction of a

are presented to the beginner as he himself sees them.

Where necessary, notes are appended to the descripcurious old wood-cut published in 1601, representing tions indicating those birds with which the one early voyagers knocking down dodos and other birds described is most likely to be confounded, and the with sticks on the island of Mauritius. In that upon chief characteristics by which it is to be distinguished “Wisdom and Folly " we have anecdotes bearing on the intellectual capacity of birds. There are many ever, the user of this book need do no more than read

from them. Before proceeding to observe birds, how. instructive passages in the book, which is quite a mine of information. It is stated that in more than fact, another attempt at a royal road to a knowledge

through the list of group-headings. The book is, in on instance, if when chick cheeping of our birds. The idea has been tried over and over while still in the shell the mother uttered a note of again in some shape or form, both here and in warning, the cheeping stopped instantly; and it is Anjerica, but we do not think it will ever be sucpointed out that this teaches us that the simple cessful. In the present case the difficulties of grouplanguage of call-notes is instinctive, for the chick ing begin to be apparent very shortly. “Skuas.” as cannot possibly have learnt their meaning by experi- a group heading will convey nothing to the beginner

Nestlings the food of which is placed in their without good pictures. In the end the author is left mouths by their parents cannot be taught to pick it up with three birds, the jay, the goldfinch, and the white from the ground like chicks until they are much older. wagtail, which do not fall into any groups. The two Young moorhens, however, which are fed from their first are so conspicuous that perhaps they do not want mother's beak at first, will peck upwards at anything grouping; but, really, after some of the grouping, that is offered to them, but not downwards. So far e.g. putting the hedge sparrow and some others among as the author is aware the frigate bird is the only those which are “brown above and white below,” it species which ever carries on fishing in mid-air, wait. seems rather like straining at a gnat not to have ing until the flying-fish are startled from the sea by dropped the third in among the black-and-white birds. some large fish which preys on them below the sur- We are glad to read that there are a few breeding

a

was

[ocr errors]

Being an Account of the Education, pairs of kites in the Midlands of England, and hope Courtship. Sport and Play, Journeys, Fishing, Fighting, Piracy, Domestic and Social Habits, Instinct, Strange Friendships and other interesting 1" British Birds and their Eggs, with a New Method of Identification." A«pects of the Life of Birds." By John Lea. Pp. 376; illustrated.

Pp. x+ 301; 136 coloured illustrations. (London (London: Seeley and Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price 5s.

and Edinburgh : W. and R. Chambers, 1909.) Price 6s. net.

ence.

1 " The Romance of Bird Life."

By J. Maclair Boraston.

[ocr errors]

nest

[ocr errors]

111 time.1set of 1st bird, I saiik, ri, tas bra dit » inadequaiel trat izie

1 61374 101941 in 13cm. Prent, si an 1994%, * ibat nunty : as sel baie ten caiuge. There are so tre vite*** 1791, 15,4 pts. » 1,49 try to bears barca siasa' birds, the Lazaro bunting and store lars, ius in

» Tavan of 19 of all British i tre status oiwtiica un the British list has ek Ia* ny Inne hair in anziern plaire des to altered since Juons wrote; Set the articies or they

oligo!! by 16 of this picte of birdies are left just as he stuie them. The editor te

1 time Tatinajentity of Cans aixo brought ire vientific arrangement of the spear, 1)* **.tb017 il *** bar pastrably prayed sad trucks up to date. If this was to be done, more care snow with the opera, 65 of 1 futures are siyo have been taken, when the order and sequence of to

(11 14 make the bird-kvar shuddet; for species was altered, to avoid absurdities conseque Wattible and negoistlinu eru of viour their equal upon careless revision of the articles. As it is, we are

told that the black tern is scarcely less aquatic than i firm, up, cet 11** are sleny pori wided with a simple whimbrel; that the name laughing gull is often giver

10 camely their , a part of a larger to the common gull; that the snow-bunting does oc mak, "'The Young Popple's Naturentudy Buk," confine itself so closely to the Arctic regions as ou Win in the form of is gone konbuusk, with blank bravis at homely seed-bunting, and various other absurdites the one fut invoking, not on the spotThe system of all of which are due to the fact that the use of ththis horny is s* follows. The nests are grouped under expression “the preceding species " has not been the lastnika s** centiling to their loxality and position. revised. Harmless as are these misstatements to to Turning to the particular section to which a seasoned ornithologist, they might easily confuse tot bet we fond deditional characteristics of the nests beginner. A large number of species included in the

diluil, which it in hoped should lead by older editions of Johns's work have been omitted fri. **erust of lunsstion to a correct result. The eggs this edition, presumably because of their rarity. B: Wound on the four coloured plates are those most this weeding out, if done at all, should have been dort Ally conuerd. They can hardly be expected 10 consistently, and on some definite plan. Here we fir 1. Vry wened, but will be wwwful. The introductory that while the whole of the rarer herons, including 11 mint ne instructive, and there are some plioto- little bittern (which is believed to have bred with us,

have been left out, the black stork, a very rare casu.... M. Vos ham iwd the second and third parts of visitor, has been retained. The spotted eagle, whico. 11 decription (illustrator) of the rambles of two friends has only occurred on a very few occasions, is included, In manneli ol binde' nels near London, comprising the while the blue-throated warbler, an annual visitor, someItute of Two Henson. 'I hey seem to have been times in some numbers, has been cut out. Then who excepimwly fortunate in finding many interesting include the little crake and not Baillon's crake? Wh Linda und nent, and some which would not have been the Pomatorhine skua and not Buffon's skua? The "mweled. Hou inelunce, a snipe's mest almost within black-necked grebe (which has bred in this country) is Hoot of low Belle seems wonderful. But even more

not included in the text, though it is figured. But it so in some respecte, perhaps, is "a little colony of is needless to go further through the list, except 10 ther pis" of antion crows on a small island; for in say that one very rare bird, the lesser grey shrike, has O presence, vent where crows are common, it is been inserted. The statement that the green sand

on muunnel for these un socinble birds to nest in close piper breeds probably in wild parts of Surrey, Sussex, ponimity to one another. The situation of one nest, and Hampshire has been added to Johns's account of in the top of an elder-ee, about twenty-five feet from this bird because “the Son of the Marshes considers the around, seems unusual in a country where big trees that it does so." More definite information would Min to be found, and the described as about an have been very desirable. There is a glossary of prin inch long was very small, ill average crow's egg vincial names and of technical terms, and an index. measuring an inch and three-quarters. The third The old (and often unsurpassed) wood-cuts with which pint conclude with a grouping of the birds mentioned we have been so long familiar no longer appear, and in aid in this recognition; a description with figures

we cannot but regret them. Instead we have sixtythe Rainopis, an alphabetical index of some four original coloured plates, comprising 256 figures. of the bindt mentioned, and in general index. Many of these are absolutely charming and excellent number of rosin lave been nicely photographed for portraits of birds, and altogether they are by far the the book, but the photographs of stuffed binds are best coloured pictures of our birds we have seen in a open to criticisini, HN IN usual.

book published at anything like so low a price as this. Some of our best and really competent ornithologists The colour reproduction has been much more success, le 100m time to time considered the possibility or ful than usual, for which the artist may well be pleased suivisibility of editing Johnn's classic, but they have and the publishers congratulated.

With regard to the present edition The account of the principles and measures which tricall only report that a good old book has been Baron von Berlepsch advocates' for the exercise of a will tu ne pitent. Fortunatel, not much has i rational protection of birds as carried out at Seebach Arendone for for although the editor claims to have will be read with interest and profit by the many Fernational Nurements as to the local distribution of people who like to feed the birds in winter and get Various species which, with the progress of time and them to breed in boxes. The main features of the Borial hangra, no uger oppila, and to have added protection here treated of are the provision of shelter 1. Hermand there which he considered of some woods and plantations, pruning bushes and trees in

such a war as to provide nesting situations, winter 1.8 IV. Mitmest 474 I Simple time for leientify the feeling, and making up for the loss of natural nesting.

HAN NIIN Salguna por:
Tanto 1947 Nilfit! ***, ne!

places of the breeders in holes consequent upon the 3 spalio y the Narodni *mal wear tireet tune" pri removal of old and decaved trees. With planting for

Thani venire in 2004 I binds we are not so much concerned in England as A Nuit pa. Ma ki ate Nens

1 Tant with them! 1 *H* to pract and get W2 fod Br Martin Henare. in ipsam

tamaaka thy Sne with an action Her Grace the Allah ( Nisan

(Lucco: W::berty 250 Cone image and we tried to

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »