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Table 1.-Keswick Circle (Lat. 54° 36'). the plant-geography of South Africa. The volume
Azimuth Decl.

contains a full historical summary of the work of Alignment

Altitude E. of N. N. Object previous investigators and travellers, adds much that Cisaledda Gap (Saddleback:} 2 38

8 254

| Arcturus is new, and supplies a series of vivid descriptions of the Skiddaw)

rising. Centre line of chapel to


peculiar vegetation of this quarter of the globe.

7 6 Great Mell Fell

rising After giving an account (accompanied by a series Outlying stone to centre on

May and
64 45

of maps) of the various floral regions as suggested by 13 25

| August Sun. The Pleiades and Arcturus were the warning stars

earlier plant-geographers, the author proposes a

scheme of his own. This resembles, on the whole, for the May and August festivals respectively. Of these, the Arcturus alignment is the better preserved,

that proposed by Dr. Bolus in 1905, but differs in

several essentials from any previous scheme. The and this gives the date of erection of the circle as

following are the larger divisions now suggested :about 1400 B.C.

known The stones

(A) The Cape Province of the South-west. as “ Long Meg and her

(B) The Southern Palæo-tropical Provinces, which Daughters” are in the neighbourhood of Little

include :Salkeld, a few miles from Langwalby. There are sixty-eight stones in the circle, and at least one other

(1) The grass steppes of Rhodesia, the Northern

Transvaal, part of Natal, &c. is buried. The 25-inch Ordnance map gives a fairly

(2) The South-eastern Littoral. accurate plan. The diameters are about 350 feet in

(3) The forests of the South Coast. an east and west direction, and 305 feet north and

(4) The Central Region, including the Karroo, the south.

Karroid uplands, and Little Namaqualand. Between six and seven hundred yards to the north

(5) The Western Littoral. east there is a small circle of some 15 feet diameter

The essential differences between Dr. Marloth's composed of eleven good-sized stones.

scheme and earlier ones consist in (a) the more The only shaped stone, Long Meg, is to the south

accurate delimitation of the Cape Province, (b) the west of the main circle. It is more than 12 feet in

separation of the forest region of the South Coast height, and is deeply notched at the top.

from the Cape Province, and (c) the smaller subThe alignments taken were :

divisions which he proposes for the above provinces. (1) From the centre of the large circle, over a stone which is now recumbent, to a well defined gap on

Though brief descriptions are given of the others, the

only regions treated in detail in this volume are the Newbeggin Fell (the only well defined gap on the

Cape Province, the South Coast forests, and the horizon); (2) from the centre of the large circle to

Central Region. Each of these may now be briefly that of the small outlying circle; (3) from Long Meg

noticed. to the centre of the large circle.

The Cape Province. The peculiar systematic charThese are dealt with in Table II., and we here also

acter of the Cape flora is, of course, well known. It get the date from the Arcturus alignment. This date is exceedingly rich in species, many of which have a is 1130 B.C., showing that Long Meg was probably very limited range, and includes numerous endemic erected after the Keswick circle had fallen into disuse.

forms of the orders Proteaceæ, Thymelæaceæ, Table II.-Long Meg (Lat. 54° 43' 20").

Ericaceæ, Restionaceæ, &c. The dominant vegeta

tion is a “Macchia,” composed of sclerophyllous Alignment

Object evergreen shrubs, with small, entire, xerophytic Circle to Gap (New

35 36 35 {

leaves. Mixed with the shrubs, but subordinate to beggin Fell)

rising them, are many xerophytic dicotyledonous herbs, Lise circle to small

64 24 40 16 44 35 | August Sun.

1 May and

together with bulbous and succulent monocotyledons, Long Meg to centre !

and many Restionaceæ. This Macchia (see Fig. 1), of large circle


which somewhat resembles that of the Mediterranean Fuller descriptions of the circles, and details of the region, forms the real climatic type of vegetation of alignments and the degrees of accuracy to be ex- the Cape region. Other ecological types, e.g. those pected, are given in the original paper in the Proceed- found in marshes, or on rocky ground, sand dunes, ings of the University of Durham Philosophical &c., are due to local edaphic influences. The Macchia Society. An appendix contains the results of a geo- is typical only, where the original vegetation has not logical examination of the stones made by Dr. Woola- been destroyed, and Dr. Marloth is of opinion that if cott. These circles are now brought into line with, and the land were freed from the influence of bush fires render an additional verification (if such were needed) and of grazing herds of domestic animals, in fifty of, the theories first formulated by Sir Norman years' time it would become entirely covered with a Lockyer.

dense, impenetrable Macchia.

Dr. Marloth has explored many of the mountains

outside the area of the Cape Province proper, and THE FLORA OF SOUTH AFRICA."

finds that outliers of the Cape flora HILE cstensibly forming a part of the scientific “ islands" on the higher mountain ridges, both in the

results of the Valdivia expedition of 1898–9, Karroo and also in Little Namaqualand. The occur. the present volume is in reality much more than this. rence of these Cape “islands” is, he considers, Indeed, it represents the results of many years of work largely due to the fact that the ridges are sufficiently and experience of the flora of South Africa. For an high to experience the effects of the rainy south-east account of this flora, the editor of these memoirs has winds. Their climate thus more nearly resembles that been singularly fortunate in securing the cooperation of the Cape than that of the dry desert plains below of Dr. Marloth. The author has given to botanists them. Besides this, wherever edaphic and other an excellent and comprehensive survey, which for factors permit, there is a reciprocal invasion between many years must form a standard reference work on Cape and Karroid forms. For instance, even those

1 "Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf parts of the Cape region which have the greatest dein Dampser l'aldivia, 1898-1899." Edited by Prof. Carl Chun.

rainfall are not entirely devoid of succulent immiZweiter Band, Dritter Teil. Das Kapland, insonderheit das Reich der grants from the Karroo. Comparatively few succuKapflora, das Waldgebiet und die Karroo, pflanzengeographisch dargestellt. By Rudolf Marloth. Pp. 436; with 20 plates and 8 maps. (Jena: lents, however, can survive the effects of an excepGustav Fischer, 1908.) Prices 100 marks and 81.50 marks.

tionally rainy winter.

E. of N.



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The Forests of the South Coast.Though formerly into grass steppes, and to the south and west into the more extensive, the true forests of South Africa are richer vegetation of the Cape Province. now practically confined to a small strip of coast-land The Karroid uplands, which occupy large tracts of in the Knysna district. Floristically, the Knysna the northern part of Cape Colony, are still comparaforests are so distinct from the Cape Province that tively little known botanically, except from the Dr. Marloth has classed them (for the first time) as a collections of Thunberg, Lichtenstein, and Burchall, separate region. In this district, where the annual made more than a hundred years ago. In fact, acrainfall amounts to some 36 inches, the woodland has cording to Dr. Marloth, many parts of this region all the characters of a typical temperate rain-forest. have never yet been visited by botanists. Epiphytes are common, and lianes are not infrequent. Ecology.—The chief value of Dr. Marloth's work is Westwards the forests become more dwarfed, and on the floristic side of plant geography. He has finally pass into the Macchia of the Cape Province. travelled extensively, and, although many parts of

The Central Region.—Passing northwards from the South Africa are still incompletely known botanically, South Coast the rainfall rapidly diminishes, and in he has considerably advanced our knowledge of plant consequence the country becomes increasingly arid distribution in this part of the world. But, in addition and desert-like. Thus the Central Province (including to this, Dr. Marloth has not lost sight of the ecological the Karroo, the Karroid uplands, and Little Namaqua- point of view. Throughout the work the dependence

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Fig. 1.—Macchia srom the North side of Table Mountain, showing Protea, Leucaden dron, Brunia, &c. Reproduced from “ Das Kapland, ".by

Dr. R. Marloth, land) forms a vast area, over which semi-desert, of vegetation on rainfall (which is nowhere better seen conditions prevail. But the only true desert in South than in South Africa) is emphasised, and rainfall and Africa is the narrow strip of coast-line known as the temperature tables are introduced wherever possible. Western Littoral. Elsewhere, the streams arising in One very interesting point brought out is the importthe mountains somewhat lessen the severity of the ance, especially at higher altitudes, of moisture deconditions, and even in the " Gouph we can only posited on the vegetation from the thick clouds which speak of a stony semi-desert. The term “ Gouph,” a so often cover and obscure the mountain tops. An word of Hottentot origin, signifying barren, empty, apparatus for collecting the moisture precipitated void, is employed to denote the most arid and desert- from clouds has been employed on Table Mountain. like part of the central Karroo. The vegetation, for On one occasion, during a period of six days, this the most part, consists of dwarfed, rounded shrubs, instrument registered a precipitation of 152 mm., with reduced, often ericoid leaves, and numerous while an adjacent rain-gauge only recorded an actual succulent herbs scattered between the shrubs. Here rainfall of 4 mm. The author devotes a special and there, one or the other type of plant is so ' section of more than fifty pages to the “General dominant as to render it possible to distinguish a Ecology of South African Plants." Under this succulent steppe from a dwarf-shrub steppe, but in heading are discussed the various growth-forms found general they are mixed. Eastwards the Karroo passes in different plant formations, such annuals,



tuberous and bulbous plants, shrubs, &c. Epiphytes Mention must also be made of the extraordinarily (as is to be expected in a climate of such general massive proportions of the absolutely chinless lower dryness) are few, but parasitic phanerogams are jaw. The knobs on the backs of the incisors recall abundant. A good deal of attention is paid to the the Krapina find. All the upper front teeth have various contrivances for storing water and reducing much curved roots adapted to the round arching of transpiration. Other matters discussed are insects the upper jaw-bone. and birds as agents of pollination, the influence of The position of the skeleton at Le Moustier, like wind, light, &c. Several curious instances that of the find at Grimaldi, proved that Diluvial man adduced, especially in the genus Mesembrianthemum, buried his dead with care. The posture is that of of so-called protective resemblance. Though supposed sleep, with the face turned to the right, and the right cases of mimicry in the plant kingdom should be arm under the head, which was surrounded by flint received with caution, it must be admitted that the flakes. Beside the skeleton were found, in addition to resemblance, both in colour and form, between some flint implements of the Mousterian type, some of the of these curious plants and the stones and rocks Acheulean type, among them a splendidly worked amongst which they grow is exceedingly striking. hand-wedge. A mark on the right femur is trace

The closing chapters of the volume are occupied by able to burning, but there is no sign of the cannibalism a useful discussion on the affinities and origin of the ascribed by Kramberger to Krapina man. South African flora in general, and that of the Cape Another important find in France is that of a male Province in particular. The older theories of Hooker skeleton, brought to light by the Abbés A. and J. and Wallace, as well as those of later authors, to Bouyssonie and Bardon near La Chapelle-aux-Saints account for the resemblances between the floras of (Corrèze), in an absolutely undisturbed archæological South Africa, Australia, and temperate South America, stratum. The subject is an old man of about 1'60 m. are given at some length, and discussed in the light in height. The skull is actually 208 mm. long by of what is known of geological and climatic changes 156 mm. broad, that is to say, dolichocephalic, with since the Cretaceous period.

an index of 75. The height from basion to bregma Not the least interesting feature of the volume is a is only 116 mm. The breadth-height index is 62, far series of short, posthumous sketches of the vegetation outside the variation in living man. The huge, alinost of various districts, by the late Prof. A. F. W. round orbits and very wide nasal aperture agree with Schimper, who was botanist to the Valdivia expedi- what has been noted as very remarkable in skulls of tion. These sketches, which are marked by Prof. the Neanderthal type. Though the face is defective, Schimper's usual lucidity, supplement Dr. Marloth's its prognathous nature is clear. The mandible is of descriptions in many respects.

great dimensions, and in so far as senile atrophy has On p. 188 is a photograph, taken in the Knysna | not produced changes, exhibits a formation which forest district, in which both Prof. Schimper and Dr. | agrees in the main with those of lower jaws from Marloth appear. The latter, however, with character- Spy, Krapina, La Naulette, &c. Here, too, we have istic modesty, has omitted his own name from the absence of chin, “negative chin-formation " (Klaatsch). description of the figure. The volume is copiously The occipital and temporal regions have Neanderthal illustrated by line drawings and photographs. . Some characteristics. The old man's grave contained no of the latter take the form of particularly beautiful tools of the Acheulean stage. This fact, and the preheliogravures. There are also a number of useful dominance of reindeer-bones in the grave, would lend maps, illustrating the rainfall, geology, and phyto- some degree of probability to the supposition that La geographical regions of South Africa. Karte 6 Chapelle man belongs to a rather later cultural phase would be improved by a clearer method of indicating than Le Moustier man. Both are to be taken as the regional boundaries.

representatives of the Neanderthal type, and as beTo sum up, the work presents a most useful account longing to the Middle Diluvium. of the present position of geographical botany in P. Adloff has in several publications dealt with the South Africa. Its very limitations, particularly in the question as to whether the above physical characterecological sections, afford a graphic indication of the istics comprised under the term Neanderthal race enormous (and in many directions practically un

represent an absolutely fixed human type, or whether touched) field which awaits future investigators. they were subject to variations. As regards differ

R. H. Y.

ences of dentition in different specimens of the Nean

derthal type, he comes to the conclusion that by no PALÆOLITHIC MAN.1

means insignificant differences do exist; Krapina man R ECENT discoveries have filled up to a great especially exhibits a form sharply distinguished from extent the gaps in our knowledge of Palæo

other representatives of the genus Homo. Obviously, lithic man. The skeleton find in the lower grotto of

in a type like the Neanderthal, scattered over a vast Le Moustier (Dordogne) in the main confirms

area, and doubtless existing for many thousands of Klaatsch's conclusions, based on a comparison of the years, certain variations must arise by way of adjustface-skeleton of the Neanderthal race with that of

ment to different climatic conditions, food, mode of the present Australians. Homo mousteriensis belongs

life, &c. to the older Diluvial race, that is, to the Neanderthal

Dr. O. Schoetensack has recently made a notable type, not to Homo sapiens found in more

find at Mauer, near Heidelberg, of a fossil human Diluvium. The subject was about sixteen years old

lower jaw, which he has called Homo heidelbergensis.

It unites two at first seemingly contradictory qualiprobably a male. That Homo mousteriensis belongs to the Neanderthal type is further shown by the char- ties: (1) massiveness of the body of the jaw, combined acter of the femur and radius (of which the length thickness, and special form of the ascending rami

with entire absence of chin-projection, breadth and is estimated at 195 mm., while the upper arm measures 210 mm.). The Neanderthal race had short phenomena usually taken as indicating a development extremities, in which fact Klaatsch sees an approxi; of teeth agreeing with that of present man in all

little advanced, so-called pithecoid qualities; (2) a set mation to the present Arctic races of Mongoloid essentials, the size of the teeth not surpassing the relationship

scale of variation in some still extant primitive peoples 1 “Recently discovered Fossil Human Remains and their Bearing upon the History of the Human Race," by Moritz Alsberg (Globus, vol. xcv.,

(e.g. Australians). No doubt, as Adloff says, the teeth No. 17, May 6, 1909).

of man are in many respects more primitive than


those of anthropoids, and the pithecoid characteristics the human race we must go very far back, perhaps met with in human dentition are actually primitive even to the roots of the mammalian genealogical tree, features. A glance at the lower jaw of a young and additional probability is lent to this idea by the gorilla or of a South American howler shows a re- Heidelberg find. The teeth of the Heidelberg jaw markable resemblance of the mandible to that of undoubtedly prove that no anthropoid stage preceded Homo heidelbergensis. Dr. W. Wright has given an that to which the Heidelberg mandible belongs, so account and illustrations of this jaw in NATURE of that to explain the similarity of human and anthropoid June 3, p. 398.

forms we must go back to the remote ancestor from In determining the exact position of Homo heidel- which there branched off on the one side the genus bergensis in the human pedigree, it must always be Homo and on the other the genera of anthropoids and borne in mind that a huge difference in time exists perhaps of other ape-species. The fact that the origin between H. heidelbergensis and the members of the and development of anthropoids reaches back to the Neanderthal race. Fossil remains of Neanderthal | Middle Tertiary age (Miocene) prevents the assumpman belong to the Middle Diluvium, coinciding in tion that the Heidelberg mandible is itself the stage general with the Mousterian culture period; whereas of development at which the anthropoids branched of the remains (of Elephas antiquus, Rhinoceros etruscus, from the genus Homo; this is also rendered improbFalc., and Equus stenonis, Cocchi) were found undis- able by the discovery of eoliths in Middle Tertiary beds. turbed in the same stratification with H. heidelberg. There is nothing to preclude the supposition that the ensis, which points to earliest Diluvium or to the Heidelberg fossil, as regards formation, stood fairly transition period from Diluvium to late Tertiary age near the point of separation. The line of descent (Pliocene). The long periods intervening between Pithecanthropus-Neanderthal man-recent man has to Neanderthal man and H. heidelbergensis are shown a certain extent been shaken by the recent researches, by Penck's climatic curve of the Glacial periods (Ice which attribute less antiquity to Pithecanthropus than ages), mainly coinciding with the Quaternary age, was hitherto supposed to be the case. with warmer inter-Glacial periods between and the At the conclusion of the paper is a brief discussion Palæolithic culture periods introduced into his diagram of the genealogical tree of the phylogeny of man and The culture epoch, called Mousterian by the French the anthropoids, recently published by Prof. G. prehistorians, corresponds, according to Penck, to- Bonarelli

, of Perugia. According to this table Pithecgether with the subsequent divisions of Palæolithic anthropus erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, and Neanculture (Solutrean, and perhaps partly Magdalenian), derthal man may be regarded either as successive to the Ice-age divisions, comprising the inter-Glacial stages in the direct line of descent of Hominidæ or as epoch, which falls between the Riss- and Würmeiszeit. offshoots from those stages. A. C. HADDON. On the other hand, Penck makes the oldest divisions of Palæolithicum correspond : Acheulean and the preceding Chellean, to the warm intervening epoch of THE ORIGIN OF THE PLANETARY SYSTEM. specially long duration between the Mindel- and successive Mousterian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian orbits made remarkably circular by a resisting Risseiszeit. Obviously, the late Palaolithic age (of DR. SEE contends that the planets and satellites

of the solar system were captured and their cultures) lies very much nearer to the present than that earlier division of the Palæolithic age (of Acheu- hypothesis is altogether wrong, whereas the current

medium. In his view, therefore, Laplace's nebular lean and Chellean cultures). The supposition that a very long interval elapsed view is that it is in the main right, though in need

of considerable modification and extension. between Middle Diluvium (with Neanderthal man in Europe) and that earliest Diluvium (of H. Heidelberg- of which is to show that, when the sun and planets

Dr. See's paper contains a single table, the object ensis) receives indirect confirmation from recent ex

are expanded to fill the orbits of the bodies revolving cavations by R. R. Schmidt (Tübingen). He devotes

about them, their rotations must have been so slow himself chiefly to later divisions of the Palæolithic age, and, working back from the Neolithic age, shows the planets or satellites. As an extract from the tables

that it is inconceivable that they could have flung off relatively long duration of the culture-sections which he calls late, high, and early Magdalenian; later and distribution remains unchanged, the principle of con

we may quote that, assuming the law of internal earlier Solutrean; late, high, and early Ayrignacian; servation of angular momentum implies that the sun, and late Mousterian. However, the slow and gradual when it filled the orbit of the earth, rotated in 3192 earliest cultural progress of the human race leads one to attribute to those oldest divisions of the Palæolithic doubt inconceivable that the matter which now forms

years instead of in 25'3 days, as at present. It is no age, commonly called Chellean or Acheulean, a still

the earth was being carried round as an integral part longer duration than to all those later divisions. Thus an enormously long period must have elapsed wards revolving as a planet with 3000 times its

of a nebulous sun at one instant, and shortly afterbetween Neanderthal man (generally coinciding with former velocity; but Dr. See's figures involve the Le Moustier culture) and H. heidelbergensis (of earliest assumption that the law of internal distribution Diluvium, or Pliocene-Diluvium transition). No remains unchanged. He probably regards 3000 as a fundamental objection stands against the view of sufficient factor of safety. Rutot, Klaatsch, Verworn, and others that the first

A precisely similar point is made with regard to beginnings of human cultural development reach far thirty-three other bodies in the solar system.

Dr. back beyond Diluvium into the middle division of the See then continues that, as detachment has been disTertiary period (Oligocene, according to Rutot), and that the much debated eolith is to be regarded as the proved, capture is the only other alternative. This is

not a proof. There are more things in heaven and primitive implement of man at the lowest cultural earth than Dr. See has dreamed of in his philosophy. stage. It is obvious that an extremely long period of Capture is a possibility, but Dr. See has done nothing slow development must have preceded the production

to raise his theory beyond a mere conjecture, even of the “ hand-wedge,” the characteristic implement of though he points out, in addition, that a resisting the Chellean age.

medium would diminish the mean distance and the Neanderthal man, then, is of slight antiquity as

1 “On the Cause of the Remarkable Circularity of the Orbits of the compared with H. heidelbergensis. Klaatsch has for

Planets and Satellites and on the Origin of the Planetary System." By years upheld the theory that to discover the roots of T. J. J. See.

eccentricity of an elliptic orbit, and that in the case centres, and the answer must lie in the miserable inof Jupiter's satellites the outer orbits are highly adequacy of the grant. The advisory committee had eccentric, and the inner orbits nearly circular. It may before them, not the difficulty of the standard of the be mentioned that Mercury is an exception to his rule. colleges, but how to make quite too small a meal

Suppose that Laplace had not thought of the possi- satisfy the demands of a large, hungry, and rapidly tility of capture. Then Laplace would have been as increasing family. In domestic affairs the difficulty much entitled to say detachment was the true explana- has to be met by the father increasing the family tion, because no other was possible, as Dr. See is now allowance, and it would be more logical for Parliament entitled to say that capture survives as the only to increase the allowance. The solution of allowing possible explanation. Laplace, of course, would not part of the family to starve is indefensible. We have have reasoned in this way. His theory explains many alluded to the condition of affairs in London particufeatutes of the solar system, in fact so many that | larly because London has come off worse in amount when new discoveries showed that his theory was than any other city in proportion to its population. incomplete, there has been a nearly universal reluct- London, too, has suffered from want of civic spirit. ance to say that it was altogether wrong. We do not in the lesser cities strong civic spirit pushes their see that Dr. See's hypothesis explains anything. claims on Parliamentary notice. Why, for instance, on the hypothesis of capture are It must be noted that the advisory committee is fully the vast majority of orbits near the plane of the alive to the fact that many of the universities and uniecliptic and their motion direct ?

versity colleges are drawing grants from several

sources, i.e. Board of Education, Board of AgriculSTATE AID FOR UNIVERSITY EDUCATION.: ture, Parliamentary grants, and local rates, and there

is danger of their being paid twice over for the same THE

HE grant in aid of university colleges originated work ; but the advisory committee does not suggest in the demand for advanced education in 1889

at present any way out of this difficulty other than arising from the university extension movement, and getting a return made to them from each of the was intended to help university colleges in providing granting authorities. suitable courses. In twenty years conditions have

It has been suggested before that all higher instituchanged, and some of the university colleges have

tions should receive their grants from one authority, become universities, but they are still claimants for

which should be able to take a survey of the whole the aid. The members of the University Colleges Ad, kingdom. At present many higher institutions have visory Committee had a difficult task before them, and

to depend largely on the local education authority, they submitted a report dated July 24, 1908. On this

which secures neither breadth of treatment nor suffi. a Treasury minute, June 3, 1909, has been founded

cient continuity. The institutions find that there are which lays down the conditions for participation in

fat and lean years, and it is not likely that the best the grant. The conditions are summarised thus :

educational results will be obtained when there is so (1) Any institution to secure a share of the grant must much uncertainty. In an article which appeared rebe prepared to afford satisfactory instruction of university cently in this journal it was suggested that the control standard, which should normally include English, classics, of the higher technical institutions throughout the French, German, history, philosophy, mathematics, physics,

country should be under a central authority, for proschemistry, biology. (2) The courses of instruction must be attended by a

perity in trade is a national affair, and not local. "The reasonable number of students capable of profiting by the

same view must be taken in regard to the university education afforded.

colleges and universities. They should be as free from (3) The buildings and initial equipment must be adequate local restraint as possible. This is foreshadowed in for the courses established.

the report in the following words :(4) The aggregate income of the institution, whether

We trust, however, that it may be found possible to derived from grants or otherwise, must be sufficient to regard such a scheme as being merely transitional, and to maintain all the departments in a state of efficiency, and to

replace it in the near future by one on the more simple provide a superannuation scheme.

lines we have indicated. a scheme that would com(5) The grants should be confined to institutions serving prise in a single vote the whole aid granted by Parliament great centres of population, and no new institution should

to universities and university colleges for education of be admitted unless it serves district not already university character and standard. The coordination of adequately provided with instruction of university

the institutions which provide higher education in the standard.

country in accordance with the principles of administration (6) Due regard must be paid, not only to the standard embodied in the Education Act, 1902, is proceeding apace, and the efficiency of the teaching, but also to the spirit and the universities and university colleges have taken the animating the institution and its influence as an intellectual

initiative in connecting themselves with the local education centre.

authorities most closely related to them by locality and These are the conditions, and it must be agreed that communications. Universities, however, are non-local as they appear very just, except number five, concerning well as local institutions, and it is of importance that this the admission of new institutions to the privileges, as

two-fold aspect should be appreciated by the central there may be two or more institutions in a great administration, which has to dispense the State subvention centre which afford equal or identical advantages, one,

for higher education by way of grants to this or that however, receiving the grant to the exclusion of the locality, and which must at the same time pay due regard

to the interests and necessities of the country as a whole. other. This is the case in London, where there are two large institutions fulfilling the conditions, but excluded because certain other colleges are sharing

NOTES. already in the grant. Both Birkbeck College and East

The present summer promises to be one of the coldest London College more than satisfy all the conditions, and there are several other institutions and poly- short of the measurement in 1903, when at Greenwich

on record, but for rainfall it is likely to be several inches technics which fulfil, or come very near to fulfilling, the

the total fall for the three months, June to August, was qualifications. It will naturally be asked why the grant in aid is to

16.16 inches. So far, the highest temperature at Greenbe limited to certain favoured institutions in

wich since the commencement of June is 77-70, on July 18,

whilst at | University Colleges (Great Britain). Grant in Aid. Parliamentary

the observing station of the Meteorological Paper 182. (London: Wyman and Sons.) Price idd.

Onice, in St. James's Park, the highest temperature is




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