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photometers of the Bunsen type are to be preferred to

Meudon is the only observatory employing the spectrothose of the flicker type. He considers the latter, although enrigistreur des vitesses radiales, the results are of great

interest. more sensitive than the former, give readings for the com

To measure the radial velocities all over the disc would parative brightness of the two lamps about 6 per cent. take much more time than the Meudon staff are able to from the true value. He finds photometers of the Lummer devote to the work, so, for the present, only those in the type come short of the Bunsen in sensitiveness, and he neighbourhood of filaments near the centre of the disc thinks that in time the Bunsen will displace the other

have been measured. A diagram of a typical radialphotometers at present in use.

velocity curve shows that in the filament, shown on the

'K,” image, the vapours are moving towards the observer, BULLETIN No. 30 of the University of Illinois consists the displacement of the line being towards the violet. of an important paper, by Mr. J. K. Clement, on the

At first glance this appears to contradict M. Deslandres's rate of formation of carbon monoxide in gas producers.

previous conclusions, and the fact that whilst, in May

and June, when spots were scarce, or small, the filaments The numerous theoretical works on the processes taking

were well developed, yet further suggests that the two place in the fuel bed of the producer have been built up on phenomena

physically connected ; but a rather slender experimental basis, and the present com- Deslandres thinks it necessary only to modify and enlarge munication fills a decided gap in our knowledge. The

these conclusions, and shows how solar convection currents, experiments deal more especially with the rate of forma

analogous to Benard's cellular liquid tourbillons, would tion of co in the reaction C0, +C=2CO, previous re

account for the apparent discrepancy of the results, and,

at the same time, afford an explanation of Evershed's searches having been rather directed to the study of the radial motions observed in the penumbræ of spots. final equilibrium than to the rate at which the

SEARCH-EPHEMERIDES FOR COMET 1896 VII. (PERRINE).action takes place. Three authors contribute to this

In No. 4342 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Herr F. W. memoir, J. K. Clement, L. H. Adams, and C. N. Haskins, Ristenpart publishes a set of elements, brought up to the dealing with the subject from the physical, chemical, and equinox of 1910, for the comet discovered by Perrine in mathematical point of view respectively. The result of

1896; the time of the next perihelion passage is given as

1909 November this collaboration is a valuable monograph, which cannot

4.12 (M.T. Berlin). Three searchbe negiected by anyone interested in gas producers.

ephemerides, computed from the elements by Messrs. R.

Castro and A. Repenning, are also given, T being taken MR. W. B. Clive has published a second edition of Mr.

as October 27.5, November 4.5, and November 12.5 reWilliam Hall's “Modern Navigation.' The text-book

spectively. According to the second ephemeris, the comet deals also with nautical astronomy, and is intended to

is at present in Pegasus (August 6, 12h. M.T. Berlin, meet the needs of cadets of the Royal Navy and the

a=23h. 44.2m., 8=+31° 40-2'), and will apparently travel,

in a north-easterly direction, through Andromeda towards syllabus of the Board of Education. The scope of the Perseus : on August 24 its position should be aroh. 11.4m., volume is limited to instruction in navigation so far as,

8= + 40° 12.4', and the comet should appear about as and including, the problem of fixing position by one posi- bright as when discovered. The computed brightnesses at tion line derived from sights of the sun and another

perihelion are 6, 13, and 20.5 respectively, according to

the date of perihelion passage. derived from a bearing of land. The book has been entirely re-cast. Its price is 75. 6d.

OBSERVATIONS OF JUPITER.-Some incidental measures of

the positions of Jupiter's belts and of the polar diameter An abstract of Dr. John Morrow's contribution of the planet are given by Prof. Barnard in No. 4339 of part iii. of the third volume of the Proceedings of the

the Astronomische Nachrichten (pp. 307-10). For each University of Durham Philosophical Society was published recognisable feature he gives the distances from the south in NATURE of July 29 (vol. lxxxi., p. 128). The volume

and north limbs and the apparent latitude; the observation

on February 19 8h. om. (central standard time), 1907, contains, in addition, other articles of interest, among

gave the apparent polar diameter as 40.78", and, reducing which the following may be mentioned :—Prof. Thornton this to A=5.20, the polar diameter therefore becomes describes a new method of measuring v; Prof. G. H.

36.11". Stanley contributes a note on an artificial formation of

On this date a narrow south belt, 2" wide, in apparent zincite; Dr. D. Woolacott writes on borings at Derwent

latitude -9.88", showed several ill-defined white spots, and haugh and Dunston ; Mr. A. S. Horne describes observa

on May 26, 1908, the north equatorial belt was double for

part of its length. tions on protoplasmic structure and streaming in potato ;

THE ORBIT OF X SAGITTARII, A CEPHEID VARIABLE.Messrs. Harold Crofts, H. Tiplady, and A. Forster

The variability of the star X Sagittarii was discovered by discuss certain chemical experiments; and Messrs. T. Schmidt in 1886, and the radial velocity detected by Herdman and E. Merrick record observations in local Slipher in 1904, In No. 157 of the Lick Observatory geology. The third report of the Boulders Committee is

Bulletins Mr. J. H. Moore discusses a series of onealso included in the volume.

prism and three-prism spectrograms taken Mount Hamilton during the period 1904-8. Plotting the velocity

and the light-curves for the same epoch, it is shown that OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

the times of light-maximum and of greatest velocity of MOVEMENTS IN THE Sun's UPPER ATMOSPHERE.-In con

approach agree very closely, this being a fundamental tinuation of his previous papers, giving the results of the

characteristic, as Mr. Albrecht has shown, of all variables solar researches carried on at Meudon, M. Deslandres

of the 8 Cephei type. No such close agreement is shown,

however, has a paper in No. 3 of the Comptes rendus (p. 179,

between

the epochs of light-minima and July 19) wherein he describes and discusses more recent

maximum recession. results dealing with the question of motion in the upper The LEEDS ASTRONOMICAL Society.—The energy and layers of the solar atmosphere. First he mentions the activity of the Leeds Astronomical Society in popularising connections previously shown

exist between spots, the study of astronomy is well illustrated in the Journal filaments, and alignements,” and points out that and Transactions for 1908. This journal contains abstracts owing to the greater size, frequency, and distribution of of the papers read before the society, and a large number the latter, they afford much more trustworthy and con- of astronomical notes contributed to various periodicals by tinuous data on which to base any researches or theories Messrs. Eigie and Whitmell, members of the committee. dealing with solar changes than does the study of spots Among the former there appear papers on sundials (Mr. alone; but for any exhaustive study of these phenomena T. Wright), variable stars (Mr. Ivo Gregg), and “other the velocities of the solar vapours in the line of sight must inhabited worlds” (Mr. T. Benton), while an interesting be determined, and it is to this determination that M. popular paper dealing with the fancied figures in the moon Deslandres has in the more recent work returned. As is contributed by Mr. Elgie.

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THE SOLAR ECLIPSE OF JUNE 17, 1909.--Observations of The present stage in the development of the internalthe contacts, during the solar eclipse of June 17, were combustion engine is a convenient one at which to summade by Father Rigge, at the Creighton University marise briefly what has been done in regard to itsObservatory, Omaha, and showed that the phenomena improvement. We therefore propose in this and the sucactually occurred a second or two earlier than the com- ceeding articles of the series to state the problem and the puted times. At first contact the difference was 2.025., lines on which, with such a striking measure of success, and is trustworthy, but at the last contact a difference its solution has been attempted. of 18.45. was observed, and may largely be due to the The problem can be stated in a very simple form. Given extremely bad conditions under which the observation was one pound of carbon of, say, 12,000,000 ft. Ib. calorific made, the sun being within fourteen minutes of setting value, which is a normal estimate, find how to obtain the (Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 4340).

largest possible amount of useful power. So far this energy has always been liberated in the form of heat.

This heat has been given to some body which, by its subRECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE INTERNAL- sequent cooling, can give out mechanical energy-such a COMBUSTION ENGINE.

body is a mass of gas or vapour. Let us assume that a:

mass of gas is chosen as the working medium. It is 1.

obviously desirable that the heat liberated should be A SURVEY of the progress made during the last twenty- absorbed as completely as possible by the gas, but in

five years in almost any field of engineering work investigating whether ihis has been effected one at once would show an immense advance. Even during the past meets with a check. To tell whether the whole of the ten years very considerable progress has been made in 12,000,000 ft. lb. of heat energy has reached the gas, we certain branches of applied science, and in none of them may either look out for possible chances of heat leakage to a greater extent than in the internal-combustion engine. or may measure the amount of energy in the gas at the We need not in this comparison claim the gun as a form end of the operation. But to do the latter is practically of internal-combustion engine, though we are naturally impossible, for we do not know the specific heat at high entitled to do so. We may leave lethal weapons aside, and temperature of any gas, and to do the former is extremely think only of the remarkable development of the reciprocat | difficult, owing to the very short time the heat transfering internal-combustion engine, and of the many changes ence usually takes, and owing also to our lack of knowit has brought about in our times. It has revolu- ledge as to the temperature of metal or other surfaces in tionised cross-country transit. It has given us the long- contact with, and enclosing, the gas. Many attempts deferred, but now actually achieved, victory called the have been made to ascertain what happens to the heat conquest of the air.” It is extraordinary to think of the liberated, and much has been written on such topics as numbers of men who have spent ingenious years in seeking

dissociation, after-burning," and increasing specific a solution of the problem of flight. The solution has heats." There would be no difficulty in filling the whole come in the unexpected form of a pair of long, sail-like of the allotted space with a discussion of the various arms, driven forward by a small high-speed internal-com- experiments that have been made and theories that have bustion engine. This simple form of design, which, owing been built on this subject, but as many other matters have to the relation between centre of pressure and angle of tilt, also to be dealt with, and as the author has already written seems to be naturally stable, bids fair to be adopted in a on this topic elsewhere,' he does not now propose to go great output of flying machines shortly to be constructed. into the matter at length. The hardly less novel, but less interesting, dirigible balloon Briefly summarised, the result of gas-engine experiment owes the whole of its dirigibility, whatever that may

is to establish that only about 50 to 55 per cent. of the amount to, to the internal-combustion engine.

heat energy known to be liberated is accounted for by Less startling, but of considerable material importance, is multiplying the measured rise of temperature by the the utilisation of waste heat” in our coal- and iron- commonly accepted figure for the specific heat at constant producing areas. Our coal supply is admitted to be limited, volume. The same ratio of 50 to 55 per cent. was found and there seems to be at least an indication that at the for all sizes and shapes of containing vessel, and for all present rate of consumption mankind would, in a few mixtures of gas. This constancy at once disposed of the centuries, have to be prepared to turn its attention to the theory that the “ suppression of heat” was due to dissociaunlocking of some other form of stored-up energy, perhaps

tion, as such an effect would naturally be dependent upon, a radio-active one. It is not too much to say, however, and increase with, the increasing temperatures due to the that if the power available from the waste gases of blast- richer mixtures. Equally it showed that the cooling of the furnaces and coke-ovens in this country-and the amount gas by convection currents, radiation, and conduction to the can hardly be less in the aggregate than 1,000,000 h.p.- walls of the containing vessel was an inadequate explanawere put to use, the saving in the coal consumption might tion. The suggestion of the French physicists, MM. Mallard perhaps give us another half-century or two in which to and Le Chatelier, that the effect must be due to increase of look about for some substitute for coal.

specific heat with temperature was open to precisely the In writing of what has been already achieved, we have same objection as that of dissociation, and involved values to remember that we are only yet at an intermediate stage of the instantaneous specific heat much in advance of what in the development of the internal-combustion engine. The was then thought likely. It is now generally rcognised that internal-combustion engine gives us a bigger return for heat the real explanation of the apparent suppression of energy put in than any other known form of engine. We cannot is due to a combined cooling effect and rise of specific heat. imagine the development of the future“ going back," so to After-burning" is now generally believed, as a result of speak, on such an advance as that. The internal-combus- many tests, not to occur in normal circumstances. With tion engine must come, and existing steam engines be re- a weak mixture the time of explosion, and therefore of placed. This means the supersession of the steam turbine, cooling, is a long one, so that the cooling loss has time and may therefore seem to suggest a retrograde step, since

to become considerable, and this compensates for the lesser the rotary engine is mechanically an improvement on the degree to which the theory of increasing specific heats is reciprocating one. We have to remember, however, that

effective for these weak mixtures and low temperatures. evolutionary processes sometimes take a step backwards to The constancy of this apparent “ loss" made it clear an earlier form in bringing forward the latest and most

that no great improvement in the internal-combustion developed creation. No one would look on any reciprocat- engine could be looked for in any increase of pressure and ing engine as a final improvement on a rotary one, even

temperature in a gaseous mixture of given strength. We although, as is now the case, large gas engines are capable cannot alter the specific heat law of a substance. We of so uniform a rotary motion that alternators are easily i might, perhaps, alter our working medium, which now for driven by them in parallel-the standard test of excellence the most part is nitrogen, but no other gas is so cheap in this respect. The day of the gas-engine turbine must or so easily obtained ; but we may vary the part of the come. Numbers of men are working at the problem which temperature scale over which we work, and, within limits, it presents; but little has as yet been published as to the we may affect the cooling loss bv altering the shape of result of their labours—an indication that the many difficul. the containing vessel or cylinder. Esperiments have shown ties are not yet mastered.

1“ The Internal-combustion Engine" (Constable and Co.)

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that the less the ratio of cooling surface to volume the CONTINUATION SCHOOLS AND NATIONAL less the proportionate cooling loss, and therefore the greater

EFFICIENCY, the amount of thermal energy converted into work.

MONG the
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problems confronting Engines that have “pockets," that is, cavities in their walls, in which to contain ignition plugs or valves, are

English educational administrators, probably the known to be less efficient than those that have not. On

most urgent is that discussed in the valuable and exhaustive

report attendance at continuation schools the other hand, it must not be forgotten that although. recently issued by the Consultative Committee of the this loss of efficiency exists, it is at any rate partly com

Board of Education. To some extent the report covers pensated for by the greater flexibility of the engine. It has been found, particularly in motor-car engines, that

similar ground to that traversed in the educational sections “ pockets have a very useful effect in enabling very

of the Majority and Minority Reports of the Poor Law variable mixtures to fire. The ignition plug is placed

Commissioners, arriving at almost identical conclusions. in a pocket so that, even when the mixture is a very

The essential features of the problem are as follows :poor one, there will be sufficient local richness

l'nder the existing Education Acts, children must attend

in its neighbourhood to start an explosion which, once started,

school from their fifth to their fourteenth birthdays, subject proceeds throughout the

of the gas.

Another

to certain exemptions (prescribed by local bye-laws) during {act which may have the result of increasing pocket

the last three years of the school period. Local education ing” is the recently measured temperature limit for pre

authorities may grant (a) total exemption from school ignition. Prof. Hopkinson has found that surfaces below

attendance at eleven years of age to children engaged in 700° C. will not cause pre-ignition, whilst those above

agriculture, (b) full-time or half-time exemption, or both,

to children between twelve and fourteen. The “ leaving may do so-if above 750° C. they are pretty sure to do so. Now the surfaces most likely to rise to such temperatures

age" is generally twelve or thirteen. Full-time attendare those remote from the cooling water in the jacket.

ance at a day school until fourteen is now compulsory over The projecting end of an ignition plug is such a surface,

areas comprising about 22 per cent. of the population of and when exposed to the full heat of the explosion, as it is

England and Wales. The committee estimates that in the when the plug is not pocketed, pre-ignition may well occur.

year 1907, the latest vear for which full statistics were Prof. Hopkinson has shown also that when once a point of

available, there were about 211,000 children under fourteen mrial gets hot enough to cause pre-ignition, the very igni

years of age who had obtained full-time exemption from tion of the flame in its neighbourhood will tend to cause the day-school attendance. Of these, only 40,500 were attendtemperature to rise suill higher, so that the phenomenon

ing evening schools in the year 1906–7, leaving 170,500

children between the ages mentioned not attending any grows on itself and persists. It is not everyone who is moved, however, by such considerations, and we have lately

form of week-day instruction. Further, the estimated seen in the design of the new Daimler engine a clearly population of England and Wales between the ages of

fourteen and seventeen is 2,022,300. expressed intention to avoid pocketing and its consequent

Aster deducting from loss of efficiency without any apparent fear of introducing

this the number attending elementary, secondary, technical, other features much less desirable. It is only fair to say,

or evening schools, it is estimated that nearly 1,498,000 however, that this engine is still on its trial. The ideal plan

(or approximately 74 per cent.) boys and girls between would appear to be to pocket the ignition plug but not

the ages of fourteen and seventeen are not receiving any the valves, and so combine the good features of both

form of scholastic instruction. We have therefore, about systems.

1,668,500 boys and girls from twelve to seventeen years This frank abandonment of the highest possible efficiency

of age whose formal education has entirely ceased for the by those who use pocketed engines brings us naturally

time being Recent inquiries in London and Glasgow to the consideration of thermal efficiency and the laws that

render it highly probable that a very large proportion, if regulate it. One may say at once that the theory of the

not the majority, of these boys and girls, if in wage. internal-combustion engine has, until lately, been in a

carning occupations, are employed in purely mechanical chaotic condition. The standard of efficiency for gas engines industrial value when the child becomes an adult.

work of a monotonous, uneducational character, of no laid down by an influential committee had been found

Under these conditions the education, such as it is, subsequently to be unsatisfactory as giving an impossibly given in the elementary school is being rapidly forgotten. ideal figure. That such remarkable progress in invention and mechanical perfection should have gone on side by side

The boys and girls are almost entirely exempt from with this uncertainty, as to the true standard of perform- parental control : they are falling, victims to the prevailing ance has often struck observers with astonishment. The

passion for cheap amusements and to the attractions of the considerable scale of the practical side of gas-engine

streets. Any slight gleam of intellectual aspiration which development is illustrated by the fact that of one well

may have been aroused in the elementary school is rapidly

being extinguished. The enormous known make of double-acting gas engines alone, no fewer

sums spent by the than 247 engines of an aggregate output of 308,000 b.h.p.

State upon the elementary education of these young people have been built or ordered during the last six years. This

are almost entirely wasted. All that remains is a certain corresponds to the large figure of more than 50,000 b.h.p.

facility in reading, writing, and very elementary arithper year for only one of the many firms engaged on the

metic. Even if the boys are definitely apprenticed to a

trade, matters are not much better. Under the present work. At the moment the total capacity of gas engines industrial conditions, involving the minutest possible in use must be well over 2,000,000 h.p., and of petrol specialisation in the works, the employer cannot possibly engines much more than 1,000,000 h.p., making a total of more than 3,000,000 h.p. in internal-combustion engines, training which was given by apprenticeship under the older

afford, even if he wishes, to give the boy the all-round These are striking figures. Some of these engines and plants work with solid fuel and some with liquid. It

industrial régime. Industry now requires, in addition to would not be possible, even were it considered desirable,

manual dexterity, a general industrial knowledge and a to use liquid fuel to the entire exclusion of any other.

trained intelligence which will enable the worker to adapt The present output of petroleum over the whole world is

himself to ever-changing industrial conditions ; but this only 20,000,000 tons, a very small figure compared with

knowledge and training are not now given by apprenticethe yearly consumption of 800,000,000

ship. Hence, an education outside, but concurrent with,

of coal. Unless, therefore, fresh supplies of oil are discovered, there

the workshop is essential. A further important factor is can be no development of the internal-combustion engine

that even if a boy be apprenticed to a skilled trade, he which would lead

is generally not taken on until about sixteen years of age. to liquid fuel replacing solid fuel altogether.

The intermediate years, between leaving school at thirteen

and In the articles that will followthe author intends

commencing apprenticeship at sixteen, are usually to deal with the problem of efficiency, taking into

spent in “ blind alley," uneducational occupations such as

that of errand boy, van boy, messenger, &c. account the now established increase of specific heat with temperature, its effect on rating, and the recent practical

For many years to come the formal education given to improvements in the design and operation of gas engines

tons

1 Riport of ihe Consultative Committee of the Roard of Education on and gas-producing plant.

Attendance, compulsory or otherwise, at Cortinva.ion Schools.

Education, White Paper Cd. 4757. (London : Wyman and Sons.) Price

H. E. WIMPERIS.

Roard of

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the bulk of the population of this country will be that January that in the larger boroughs 37 per cent., and in imparted in the elementary school, the continuation even- the smaller boroughs 22 per cent., of the boys and girls ing school, and the evening technical (including by this leaving school during the year ending October 30, 1908, term commercial, or art or craft) school. The nation, at

employment, joined the evening schools enormous expense, has instituted a system of national immediately. education which is almost entirely confined to children The principal recommendations of the Consultative Comunder fourteen years of age.

In addition to this, an mittee are the following: elaborate system of evening technical education has been (1) The leaving age should be raised to thirteen years, established, mainly for those above the age of seventeen ; and after a short period to fourteen years. but no adequate national system of evening continuation (2) Full-time exemption from the day school should only schools, for the boys or girls between the ages of fourteen be given to boys and girls under sixteen when the parents and seventeen, linking on the elementary school to the or guardians can show that the children in question are evening technical institution, has yet been developed. The suitably employed. boy or girl leaves the elementary school at the age of (3) It should be the statutory duty of each local educathirteen. At seventeen or eighteen the youth may realise tion authority to make suitable provision of continuation the necessity of attending evening classes for technical classes for the further education of young persons up to instruction relating to his special industry, assuming he the age of seventeen. is engaged in some skilled occupation or other. At the (4) Local education authorities should be empowered to technical school he finds that he is unable to profit by the inake bye-law's compelling attendance continuation instruction given. During the years between thirteen and classes for young persons up to the age of seventeen, and Seventeen his powers of assimilation have declined through employers should be compelled to make provision enabling disuse, he has lost the habit of study, and most of his such young persons to attend the continuation classes. previous small stock of knowledge, e.g. mathematics and (5) Employers should be forbidden under penalty to English, has vanished. He speedily becomes disheartenedcmploy any young person under seventeen years of age and ceases to attend. As a result, the greater portion who fails

attend the evening continuation classes of such chances as he possesses of rising in his trade, or regularly. of even keeping his position in a few years' time, vanishes. (6) The curricula of the continuation schools should be Not only is the worker thus damaged in an industrial such as to continue the general education given in the sense, but the community loses, first by his diminished primary school. It should have reference to the crafts efficiency as an industrial unit, and secondly by the lessen- and industries in the district, and prominence should be ing in the sum total of sustained intellectual effort made given to practical and manual instruction. by its citizens. Every workman, who by systematic in- Most educationists will heartily support the above restruction passes from the level of the ordinary artisan to commendations. Numbers (3) and (4) of the above are that of the trained, intelligent worker, becomes an asset taken from the Scotch Education Act of 1908. The comof increased value to the nation.

mittee points out that in Germany attendance at continuaThe problem now is, What can be done to (a) carry on tion schools is compulsory in portions of twenty-two out of the education of the wage-earning youth of this country twenty-six of the constituent States of the Empire, and during the years from thirteen to seventeen, (b) bridge in Switzerland in portions of nineteen out of the twentyover the present gap between the elementary school and five cantons of the Republic. The committee is of opinion the centres of higher evening instruction, such as the that there is now a strong and rapidly increasing body of technical school? The solution lies in the development public opinion ready to support its recommendations. and the increased efficiency of the evening continuation The committee estimates that the total cost (imperial and school.

The following statistics for 1906–7 from the local) of “ maintenance which would follow from raising report are not without interest as showing to some extent the leaving age to fourteen would be about 490,000l. per the measure of success which has been obtained :

The corresponding cost of compulsory continu.1

tion classes (exclusive of new buildings) would be about Average

2,600,000l. per annum.
Number of attendance
Number of scholars on

Percentage

The proposals of the committee, if adopted, would have in public evening register in i elementary

of evening important educational and sociological results. Thus for schools evening schools (from

scholars to example, one of the main causes of unemployment would schools

day scholars

be eliminated. Educationally the proposals would have a upwards)

far-reaching effect upon the development of a complete

national sistem of education. As has been before Lancashire 49,833 230,584

indicated, the continuation schools would take the boys Yorkshire (West

and girls from the elementary schools. continuing without Riding) 29,447 211,281 139

a break their general education, while specialising to a Surrey 132 10.788 70,047 154

limited extent in either commercial, agricultural, technical, Birmingham

31 12,544 77,540 16'2 or domestic work, depending upon the requirements of the Bradford

34

8,361 35,372 23-6 pupils. At the age of seventeen the boys and girls, after Halifax

15
3,578
11,334
316

this preliminary training, could then be drafted on to London 175,482 599,800 29-3

technical, or commercial or art schools. The continuaManchester 92 26,838

88,887
302

tion schools would thus link on directly, and coordinate

with, the elementary schools on the one hand and the Total for all

technical institutions on the other. counties in Eng.

The direct and indirect gain to the community from land and Wales 4,506

(a) the improvement of the general education of the 315,522 2,846,653

(b) the increased technical efficiency of the

workers, would be incalculable. In this connection the Totalíorall county

following extracts from the report may be given :boroughsin Eng land and Wales

“An increasing stock of practical ability in a nation 1,427 420,990 2,063,569 2004 cnlarges the range of its economic abilities and rapidly

adds, through all the gradations of directive responsibility.

to the number of well-remunerated posts which could never In recent years special attempts have been made in some

have existed if men had not been forthcoming to fill districts to persuade boys and girls on leaving the them. elementary schools to join the continuation schools with

A rising level of education among the mass of workers out delay. Some striking results have been obtained. In Widnes about 80 per

increases the real Irvel of their wages, though this mav cent. of the boys leaving the not be accompanied by a rise in their nominal amount. clementary schools commence attendance at evening schools It conduces to wise expenditure of income and to the without a break. Halifax has secured 66 per cent.

'The avninance of thoughtless or hurmful waste. Lancashire County Education Committee reported in

Improvements in educational opportunity make possible

99

annum,

five years

436

216

308

438

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forms of government which give to the working class in phase when the fish is at rest. Under any excitement, such the community an effective voice in policy and administra- as the presence of visitors, the fish assumes a parti-coloured tion.'

aspect. This paper clearly shows how inadequate and The temper, the outlook, the recreations, and the misleading are many of the descriptions of colour hitherto ideals of a nation may be só refined and raised by the accepted, and is a very suggestive and attractive piece of

ght kind of training as to secure for the mass of the work. An error occurs on p. 3, where it is said that “their people a more choiceworthy life."

J. Wilson, different colours result from muscular action upon one of

more kinds of cells.” The mechanism of colour-change is CHANGES IN COLOUR AMONG TROPICAL not muscular, but nervous. FISHES.

MINERAL OUTPUT OF THE UNITED STATES. TH HE Zoological Society of New York recently issued a

very interesting paper written by Mr. C. H. Townsend The well-known publication referred to below row on the instantaneous changes of colour among tropical appears in a form slightly different from the one to fishes (thirteenth annual report, 1909). The specimens which we have hitherto been accustomed, being issued in came from the Bermudas, and are kept under favourable two volumes, the first devoted to the Metallic products

and the second to the Non-metallic
products; this is done in consequence
of a recent legislative enactment (Act
of May 27, 1908), and presents some
advantages, though it might be well to
submit, with all respect, to the Govern.
ment of the United States, that these
(and sundry other) publications of the
United States Geological Survey stand
in far greater need of condensation
than they do of expansion. When a
work becomes unwieldy, there are two
obvious remedies, either to issue it in
two volumes or to compress the in-
formation it conveys into smaller com-
pass; the latter is no doubt the more
difficult proceeding, though the one
that best serves the interests of the
readers, and it is a matter of regret
that, in this case, the line of least
resistance has been followed. In the
present instance it leads also to a few
anomalies, as, for instance, the in-
clusion of crushed steel (as an abrasive)
and of certain other metalliferous
materials, such arsenic,
ganese, chromite, &c., in the volume
devoted to non-metallic products.

It is greatly to be regretted that the mineral statistics of the United States are issued in a form that makes comparisons with the mineral output of other nations difficult; foresample, the various values of the metals are reported, not in the form of ore, but in the metallic state, though obviously the value in this form includes the cost of reduction of the metal, and leads to very serious duplication, which the compilers appear to have overlooked, although the introduction lays stress on the statement that “all unnecessary duplication has been excluded.” To take an example, the production of iron ore is not given, but instead of it that of the pig-iron smelted from it, namely, nearly 26 million

tons,

valued at about 530 Two Colour-pbases of the Nassau Grouper (Epine phelus striatus).

million dollars. Now the production

of coke for the same year was 40 conditions in the aquarium of the society. The changes of 'million tons, produced from 62 million tons of coal, coloration “ begin to be in evidence within an hour of the valued at nearly 73 million dollars. Practically the whole arrival of new specimens, or as soon as they recover from of the pig-iron produced was made with coke as fuel, the alarm produced by handling, and are produced as long and, in the absence of exact figures, it will probably as the fishes live in the tanks, which, in some cases, may be a near approximation to the truth if we be several years."

that three-fourths of the coke production, or, The phases of coloration are illustrated by a striking 30 million tons, was consumed in the production of the series of photographs, two of which are reproduced. From above pig-iron, so that coal to the value of, say, 55 million these it will be seen that the fish can pass from a uniformly dollars was utilised in this way, and this sum is accorddark (plumbeous) colour to a banded phase with white ingly included in the above valuation of the pig-iron promarkings. Four other phases can also be assumed, includ- duction; it is, however, also included in the sum total of ing a uniformly creamy-white one. This plasticity of the value of the coal production, and thus enters twice coloration is characteristic of most of the fish dealt with, which include Serranidæ, Scaridæ, Teuthididæ, and Scor

1 Mineral Resources of the United S-ates, Calendar Year 1907. Part I.. pænidæ. There is frequently a pale and a dark monochrome (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1908.)

Metallic Products. Pp. 743. Part II., Non-m-tallic Products. Pp. 897.

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as

man

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Banded Phase.

assume

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