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The invention of “ Poudre B" by Vieille marked the The proceedings in connection with the celebration of commencement of a new era in connection with the science the sooth anniversary of the founding of the University of artillery, and it was not long before smokeless powders of Leipzig began on July 28, when a reception was given made from the violent guncotton, or of guncotton com

by the University to the representatives of German and bined with the still more violent nitroglycerine, entirely foreign universities and learned societies invited to, parsuperseded the centuries-old gunpowder. Modern explosives ticipate in the proceedings. On the following day a are characterised by very greatly increased power, giving festival service in the University Church was attended by enormously greater range to projectiles fired from both the King of Saxony. A commemorative mecting in the rifles and artillery, thus altering entirely the conditions new theatre followed the service, and the King delivered of both land and naval warfare.

an address and presented two medallions to the University It is at present not easy to forecast in what direction to be worn in future by the rector of the University on further improvements in propellants will take place. It

his chain of office. The medallions bear images of the is also difficult to conceive what the explosive of the future King of Saxony and of the founder of the University. will be which will produce a change as revolutionary as

The Saxon Minister of Education in an address afterthat which took place when smokeless powders superseded

wards outlined the history of the University. On July 30 the old-fashioned black powders. For some time to come,

further commemoration speeches were delivered. Prof. probably, the manufacturer of explosives will have to con

Wundt was the principal speaker, and during the course tent himself with endeavours to improve them as far as

of his speech remarked, although the German people seem he can, both from a ballistic and from a stability point

to be in the current of an intellectual movement in which of view, with the ingredients now at his disposal.

the demand for higher education is hardly less strong than was the revival of learning in the Middle Ages, he

said, in the words of Leibnitz, “It is the past which UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL contains the future." Prof. Mahaffy spoke on behalf of INTELLIGENCE.

the British delegates. The following honorary degrees Dr. A. ROBINSON, professor of anatomy in the Uni

were conferred among others :-Doctor of Medicine, Prof. versity of Birmingham, has been appointed to the chair

E. B. Wilson, of Columbia University ; Doctors of Philoof anatomy in Edinburgh University in succession to the

sophy, Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., P.R.S., Prof. J. late Prof. D. J. Cunningham, F.R.S.

Loeb, of California University. Prof. T. Ward, of Cam

bridge University, and Mr. F. L. Griffith, reader in It is stated by the Frankfurt Gazette that the National Assembly of Iceland has decided to establish a university

Egyptology. Oxford University. at Reikjavik, the capital of the island. The new university is to have four faculties, with sixteen professors and lecturers.

CONTENTS.

PAGE Mr. Edwin Tate has presented new library buildings What the Electrician Wants. By Maurice Solomon 151 to Battersea Polytechnic. The total book accommodation is 20,000 volumes. The cost of the buildings, including Archæology at Avebury. By R. H. C.

The Thermodynamics of the Earth

152 fittings, is estimated at about 60ool., and the whole is Venoms and Anti-venoms

154 being defrayed by Mr. Tate.

The Scottish Lake Survey. By H. R. M.

155 A CORRESPONDENT informs us that the appointments to The Old and the New Mechanics

156 the chairs of chemistry in the Technical High School at Our Book Shelf:Munich have just been officially announced. The names Bailey: “The State and the Farmer

157 of the various professors are :-organic chemistry, Prof. “The Problem of the Feeble-minded " Semmler ; inorganic chemistry, Prof. A. Stock; physical Watt : “The Economy and Training of Memory" chemistry, Prof. R. Abegg. Each professor has Letters to the Editor :institute of his own, and Prof. Abegg retains, at the same Rate of Helium Production from the Complete Series time, his position as extraordinary professor in the Uni- of Uranium Products. -Hon, R. J. Strutt, F.R.S. 158 versity of Breslau. The Technical High School, which is A Kinematic Illusion.-W. B. Croft being built at a cost of something like five million marks, Natural Selection and Plant Evolution.-James B. is making good progress, and is to be opened officially in

Johnston

159 October, 1910.

Musical Sands. -Cecil Carus. Wilson

159 The commencement address last June at the South A Question of Percentages.-J. T. Cunningham 159 Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City, South Dakota, was The Upper Cretaceous Iguanodont Dinosaurs. delivered by the president of the Colorado School of Mines, (Illustrated.) By H. F. O.

160 Mr. Victor C. Alderson, who took for his subject Artist Nature Studies in New Zealand and at Home, or Artisan—Which?" The artisan,” he said,

“ under-
(Illustrated.)

162 stands machinery; the artist-engineer is a master of the Researches at the National Physical Laboratory. kinematics of machines. The artisan works with his By C. H. L. .

163 hands and lets his mind rest; the artist-engineer uses his John Reid, 1809-1849. By Dr. D. Fraser Harris brains to relieve his hands. The artisan becomes

Notes

165 skilled workman and no more; the artist-engineer sees

Our Astronomical Column :beyond the mere machinery to the economic management Movements in the Sun's Upper Atmosphere

170 of his plant, to the percentage saving possible, to the Search-ephemerides for Comet 1896 VII. (Perrine) 170 market for his product, to the efficient service of his Observations of Jupiter

170 employees, to the general success of the entire plant. To The Orbit of X Sagittarii, a Cepheid Variable

170 do all this he must have an ideal."

Every young
The Leeds Astronomical Society

170 engineer, he proceeded to say later, should decide early The Solar Eclipse of June 17, 1909

171 in life whether he will become merely an artisan-engineer Recent Improvements in the Internal.combustion or an artist-engineer. Mr. Alderson then gave some in- Engine. I. By H. E. Wimperis

171 spiring advice to young engineers as to the physical,

Continuation Schools and National Efficiency. By personal, intellectual, and moral characteristics they should J. Wilson

172 strive to develop. Incidentally, he said the chance for changes in Colour among Tropical Fishes. (Illusthe untrained or uneducated man to make a success in trated.)

174 this age is practically nil. Taking Who's Who Mineral Output of the United States.' By Prof. standard of national prominence in America, it is found, Henry Louis

174 said Mr. Alderson, that it takes approximately 10,000

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers

175 grammar-school pupils to produce one man worthy to be Mr. Haldane on the Promise of Aviation

177 enrolled in “Who's Who.'' Of high-school students 250 Improvements in Production and Application of suffice, while of fifty college graduates one will, on the

Guncotton and Nitroglycerine. II. average, rise to sufficient prominence to be enrolled in Frederic L. Nathan, R.A. . this book.

University and Educational Intelligence.

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NOTICE. IF From July 1 to September 30, Complete Sets

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COMPLETION OF

THE CAMBRIDGE NATURAL HISTORY

Edited by S. F. HARMER, Sc.D., F.R.S., and A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S.
Fully Illustrated. In Ten Volumes. 8vo.

.

INSECTS & CENTIPEDES,

VOLUME V.
Peripatus. By ADAM Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S.

Myriapods. By F. G. SINCLAIR, M.A. Insects.
Part I. By DAVID SHARP, M.A., F.R.S.

VOLUME I. PROTOZOA. By Professor MARCUS Hartog, M.A.

(D.Sc. Lond.). PORIFERA (SPONGES). By IGERNA B. J. Sollas

(B.Sc. Lond.). COELENTERATA AND CTENOPHORA. By

Professor S. J. HICKSON, M.A., F.R.S. ECHINODERMATA. By Professor E. W. MAC

BRIDE, M.A., F.R.S.
WORMS, LEECHES, &

VOLUME II.
Flatworms. By F. W. GAMBLE, M.Sc. Nemertines.

By Miss L. SHELDON. Threadworms, &c. By
A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S. Rotifers. By
Marcus HARTOG, M.A. Polychaet Worms. By
W. BLAXLAND BENHAM, D.Sc. Earthworms and
Leeches. By F. E. BEDDARD, M.A., F.R.S.
Gephyrea, &c. By A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S.
Polyzoa. By S. F. HARMER, Sc.D., F.R.S.

SHELLS.

VOLUME III.
Molluscs and_Brachiopods. By the Rev. A. H.

Cooke, A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S., and F. R. C.
Reed, M.A.

CRUSTACEA &

ARACHNIDS.

VOLUME IV. [Just PUBLISHED.] Crustacea. By GEOFFREY SMITH, M.A., and the late

W. F. R. Weldon, M.A. Trilobites. By HENRY
Woods, M.A. Introduction to Arachnida and
King-Crabs. By A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S.
Eurypterida. By Henry Woods, M. A. Scorpions,
Spiders, Mites, Ticks, &c. By CECIL WARBURTON,
M.A. Tardigrada (Water-Bears).

By A.

E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S. Pentastomida. By A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S. Pycnogonida. By D'ARCY W. THOMPSON, C.B., M. A.

INSECTS. PART II.

VOLUME VI. Hymenoptera continued (Tubulifera and Aculeata),

Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Aphaniptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Anoplura. By David SHARP, M.A., F.R.S.

FISHES,

VOLUME VII.
Fishes (exclusive of the Systematic Account of Teleostei).

By the late T.W.BRIDGE, Sc.D., F.R.S. Fishes (Syste-
matic Account of Teleostei). By G. A. BOULENGER,
F.R.S. Hemichordata. By S. F. HARMER, Sc.D.,
F.R.S. Ascidians and Amphioxus. By W. A.

HERDMAN, D.Sc., F.R.S.
AMPHIBIA & REPTILES.

VOLUME VIII.
By HANS Gadow, M.A., F.R.S.

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BIRDS.

VOLUME IX. By A. H. EVANS, M.A. With numerous Illustrations by

G. E. LODGE.

MAMMALIA.

VOLUME X.
By FRANK EVERS BEDDARD, M.A. Oxon., F.R.S., Vice-

Secretary and Prosector of the Zoological Society of
London.

ATHENÆUM. _“The series certainly ought not to be restricted in its circulation to lecturers and students only ; and, if the forthcoming volumes reach the standard of the one here under notice, the success of the enterprise should be assured."

MR. F. G. AFLALO IN COUNTRY LIFE.-" The editors will, on the completion of the series, have the satisfaction of contemplating a work with which, for thoroughness and interest, no other of recent appearance can compare.”

SCIENCE GOSSIP.-“Every library, school, and college in the country should possess this work, which is of the highest educational value."

KNOWLEDGE.—“If succeeding volumes are like this one, the Cambridge Natural History will rank as one of the finest works on natural history ever published.”

TLIIES. _“There are very many, not only among educated people who take an interest in science, but even among specialists, who will welcome a work of reasonable compass and handy form containing a trustworthy treatment of the various departments of Natural History by men who are familiar with, and competent to deal with, the latest results of scientific research. Altogether, to judge from this first volume, the Cambridge Natural History promises to fulfil all the expectations that its prospectus holds out.

FIELD.—"The Cambridge Natural History series of volumes is one of very great value to all students of biological science. The books are not intended for popular reading, but for utilisation by those who are desirous of making themselves thoroughly acquainted with the branches of zoology of which they treat.”

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1 I. MINERALOGY.

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Our new MINERALOGICAL SUMMER-TERM LIST No. 9 gives a short survey of the latest additions to our stock of new and especially remarkable minerals; finest large specimens for museum show.cases, &c.

Great supply of most beautiful new specimens and large crystals of
Benitoite and Carlosite ; magnificent crystals of Rubellite from Brazil
(new (ccurrence); Diamants from the new finds in German South-West
Africa ; choice Ural and Japan Minerals : Topaze, Emerald,
Pyrrhite, Copper Pyrites (Groth Zeitschr. XLIII., p. 47), Danburite,
Epidote, Naegite, &c.

THE CULLINAN DIAMOND.
Imitation in finest crystal glass, showing the natural colour and form.
Price 8s. 6d. Imitations of the nine large brilliants cut from the
Cullinan Diamond, in elegant case, £1 10s.

New Collections of Polished Mineral Sections for optical pur. poses, neatly mounted ; special Price List just out, sent free on application.

SPECIAL SHOW-ROOM FOR CABINETS.
N.B.- For Excellence and Superiority of Cabinets and Apparatus
references are permitted to distinguished patrons, Museums, Colleges, &c.
A LARGE STOCK OF INSECTS, BIRDS' EGOS AND SKINS.
SPECIALITY.-Objects for Nature Study,

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Birds, Mammals, &c., Preserved and Mounted by First-class

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All Books and Publications on Natural History supplied.
36 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.

(Five Doors from Charing Cross.) O CATALOGUE (102 pp.) POST FREE.

II. PALÆONTOLOGY.

The new PALÆONTOLOGICAL SUMMER-TERM LIST No. 34 has just been published, and gives all particulars as to numerous additions to our encrmous stock of fossils, 1. Palæobotany: preparations of plants from the Devonian and

Carbonian : Tæniopieris from Asia Minor. 2. Invertebrata : Bosporus · Trias and Devonian; magnificent

Ancyloceras gigas from the English Gault.
3. Vertebrata: Capitosurus, Mystriosaurus, Ichthyosaurus, &c.,
excellent specimens. Lepidotus elvensis, Ursus spelreus, &c.

Dr. F. KRANTZ,
RHENISH MINERAL OFFICE, BONN-ON-RHINE, GERMANY.
ESTABLISHED 1833.

ESTABLISHED 1833.

WANTED
to purchase Collections or Single Specimens

of fine
OLD SAVAGE CURIOS
from Polynesia and America (especially
New Zealand and British Columbiao);
Carved Specimens, Weapons. Carvings,
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given for fine and rare pieces. References ;
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OLDMAN,

lamilton House, Brixton Hill, London.

MINERALOGY, GEOLOGY & PETROLOGY.

Single Specimens and Collections
for Prospectors, Teachers and Students.
Roek Sections, Well-cut. Fossils from all Formations.
Metallie Ores from all parts. Minerals for Chemical Purposes.

LISTS FREE from-
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139 FULHAM ROAD, SOUTH KENSINGTON, S.W.

Telephone No. 2841 Western. Tel. Add., "Meteorites," London.

The following choice Norwegian MINERALS Crystal of Native Silver, £6; Molybdenite, £4; limenite, £4; Aeschynite, 27/6 ; Malacone, 16/6; Broggerite, 27/6; Xenotime, 14/-; Rutile, 27/6; Apatite, 12/6; Aegirine. 7/-; Columbite, 8/6;

Monazite, 8/6; and Beryl, 5/-;

on view and sale at THOMAS D. RUSSELL'S

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11 JOHN STREET, BEDFORD ROW, LONDON, W.C.

John Street (Theobald's Roadl) is reached from
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now

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THE MICROSCOPE. Volvox, Spirogyra, Desmids, Diatoms, Ameba, Arcella, Actinosphærium, Vorticella, Stentor, Hydra, Floscularia, Stephanoceros, Melicerta, and many other specimens of Pond Life. Price is. per Tube, Post Free. Helix pomatia, Astacus, Ampbioxus, Rana, Anodon, &c., for Dissection purposes.

THOMAS BOLTON, 25 BALSALL HEATH ROAD, BIRMINGHAM. MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

THE LABORATORY, PLYMOUTH. The following animals can always be supplied, either living or preserved by the best methods :

Sycon; Clava, Obelia, Sertularia ; Actinia, Tealia, Caryophyllia, Alcy.
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For prices and more detailed lists apply to
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Sales by Auction.

SALES OF MISCELLANEOUS PROPERTY.
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