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The invention of “ Poudre B" by Vieille marked the The proceedings in connection with the celebration of commencement of a new era in connection with the science the sooth anniversary of the founding of the University of artillery, and it was not long before smokeless powders of Leipzig began on July 28, when a reception was given made from the violent guncotton, or of guncotton com
by the University to the representatives of German and bined with the still more violent nitroglycerine, entirely foreign universities and learned societies invited to, parsuperseded the centuries-old gunpowder. Modern explosives ticipate in the proceedings. On the following day a are characterised by very greatly increased power, giving festival service in the University Church was attended by enormously greater range to projectiles fired from both the King of Saxony. A commemorative mecting in the rifles and artillery, thus altering entirely the conditions new theatre followed the service, and the King delivered of both land and naval warfare.
an address and presented two medallions to the University It is at present not easy to forecast in what direction to be worn in future by the rector of the University on further improvements in propellants will take place. It
his chain of office. The medallions bear images of the is also difficult to conceive what the explosive of the future King of Saxony and of the founder of the University. will be which will produce a change as revolutionary as
The Saxon Minister of Education in an address afterthat which took place when smokeless powders superseded
wards outlined the history of the University. On July 30 the old-fashioned black powders. For some time to come,
further commemoration speeches were delivered. Prof. probably, the manufacturer of explosives will have to con
Wundt was the principal speaker, and during the course tent himself with endeavours to improve them as far as
of his speech remarked, although the German people seem he can, both from a ballistic and from a stability point
to be in the current of an intellectual movement in which of view, with the ingredients now at his disposal.
the demand for higher education is hardly less strong than was the revival of learning in the Middle Ages, he
said, in the words of Leibnitz, “It is the past which UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL contains the future." Prof. Mahaffy spoke on behalf of INTELLIGENCE.
the British delegates. The following honorary degrees Dr. A. ROBINSON, professor of anatomy in the Uni
were conferred among others :-Doctor of Medicine, Prof. versity of Birmingham, has been appointed to the chair
E. B. Wilson, of Columbia University ; Doctors of Philoof anatomy in Edinburgh University in succession to the
sophy, Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., P.R.S., Prof. J. late Prof. D. J. Cunningham, F.R.S.
Loeb, of California University. Prof. T. Ward, of Cam
bridge University, and Mr. F. L. Griffith, reader in It is stated by the Frankfurt Gazette that the National Assembly of Iceland has decided to establish a university
Egyptology. Oxford University. at Reikjavik, the capital of the island. The new university is to have four faculties, with sixteen professors and lecturers.
PAGE Mr. Edwin Tate has presented new library buildings What the Electrician Wants. By Maurice Solomon 151 to Battersea Polytechnic. The total book accommodation is 20,000 volumes. The cost of the buildings, including Archæology at Avebury. By R. H. C.
The Thermodynamics of the Earth
152 fittings, is estimated at about 60ool., and the whole is Venoms and Anti-venoms
154 being defrayed by Mr. Tate.
The Scottish Lake Survey. By H. R. M.
155 A CORRESPONDENT informs us that the appointments to The Old and the New Mechanics
156 the chairs of chemistry in the Technical High School at Our Book Shelf:Munich have just been officially announced. The names Bailey: “The State and the Farmer
157 of the various professors are :-organic chemistry, Prof. “The Problem of the Feeble-minded " Semmler ; inorganic chemistry, Prof. A. Stock; physical Watt : “The Economy and Training of Memory" chemistry, Prof. R. Abegg. Each professor has Letters to the Editor :institute of his own, and Prof. Abegg retains, at the same Rate of Helium Production from the Complete Series time, his position as extraordinary professor in the Uni- of Uranium Products. -Hon, R. J. Strutt, F.R.S. 158 versity of Breslau. The Technical High School, which is A Kinematic Illusion.-W. B. Croft being built at a cost of something like five million marks, Natural Selection and Plant Evolution.-James B. is making good progress, and is to be opened officially in
159 October, 1910.
Musical Sands. -Cecil Carus. Wilson
159 The commencement address last June at the South A Question of Percentages.-J. T. Cunningham 159 Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City, South Dakota, was The Upper Cretaceous Iguanodont Dinosaurs. delivered by the president of the Colorado School of Mines, (Illustrated.) By H. F. O.
160 Mr. Victor C. Alderson, who took for his subject Artist Nature Studies in New Zealand and at Home, or Artisan—Which?" The artisan,” he said,
162 stands machinery; the artist-engineer is a master of the Researches at the National Physical Laboratory. kinematics of machines. The artisan works with his By C. H. L. .
163 hands and lets his mind rest; the artist-engineer uses his John Reid, 1809-1849. By Dr. D. Fraser Harris brains to relieve his hands. The artisan becomes
165 skilled workman and no more; the artist-engineer sees
Our Astronomical Column :beyond the mere machinery to the economic management Movements in the Sun's Upper Atmosphere
170 of his plant, to the percentage saving possible, to the Search-ephemerides for Comet 1896 VII. (Perrine) 170 market for his product, to the efficient service of his Observations of Jupiter
170 employees, to the general success of the entire plant. To The Orbit of X Sagittarii, a Cepheid Variable
170 do all this he must have an ideal."
170 engineer, he proceeded to say later, should decide early The Solar Eclipse of June 17, 1909
171 in life whether he will become merely an artisan-engineer Recent Improvements in the Internal.combustion or an artist-engineer. Mr. Alderson then gave some in- Engine. I. By H. E. Wimperis
171 spiring advice to young engineers as to the physical,
Continuation Schools and National Efficiency. By personal, intellectual, and moral characteristics they should J. Wilson
172 strive to develop. Incidentally, he said the chance for changes in Colour among Tropical Fishes. (Illusthe untrained or uneducated man to make a success in trated.)
174 this age is practically nil. Taking Who's Who Mineral Output of the United States.' By Prof. standard of national prominence in America, it is found, Henry Louis
174 said Mr. Alderson, that it takes approximately 10,000
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers
175 grammar-school pupils to produce one man worthy to be Mr. Haldane on the Promise of Aviation
177 enrolled in “Who's Who.'' Of high-school students 250 Improvements in Production and Application of suffice, while of fifty college graduates one will, on the
Guncotton and Nitroglycerine. II. average, rise to sufficient prominence to be enrolled in Frederic L. Nathan, R.A. . this book.
University and Educational Intelligence.
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THE CAMBRIDGE NATURAL HISTORY
Edited by S. F. HARMER, Sc.D., F.R.S., and A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S.
INSECTS & CENTIPEDES,
Myriapods. By F. G. SINCLAIR, M.A. Insects.
VOLUME I. PROTOZOA. By Professor MARCUS Hartog, M.A.
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(B.Sc. Lond.). COELENTERATA AND CTENOPHORA. By
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Cooke, A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S., and F. R. C.
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W. F. R. Weldon, M.A. Trilobites. By HENRY
E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S. Pentastomida. By A. E. SHIPLEY, M.A., F.R.S. Pycnogonida. By D'ARCY W. THOMPSON, C.B., M. A.
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Coleoptera, Strepsiptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Aphaniptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Anoplura. By David SHARP, M.A., F.R.S.
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1 I. MINERALOGY.
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Carbonian : Tæniopieris from Asia Minor. 2. Invertebrata : Bosporus · Trias and Devonian; magnificent
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