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ticle, the B particle can be stopped or entrapped by a accommodation of the delegates taking part in the conmolecule when travelling at a very high speed.

ference, who will also be able to travel on the railway When the great energy of motion of the a particle and

between Visp and the Gorner Grat at half fares. the small amount of energy absorbed in ionising a single molecule are taken into consideration, there appears to On Tuesday next, August 31, at the ordinary fortnightly be no doubt that the a particle, as Bragg pointed out, meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society, Vincent actually passes through the atom, or rather the sphere of

Square, S.W., there will be exhibited on behalf of Prof. action of the atom which lies in its path. There is, so to speak, no time for the atom to get out of the way of the

Sargent and the president and fellows of Harvard Uniswiftly moving a particle, but the latter must pass through versity, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., a selection of photothe atomic system. On this view, the old dictum, no graphs illustrating the flora, fauna, and scenery of central doubt true in most cases, that two bodies cannot occupy and western China. These photographs are from the large the same space, no longer holds for atoms of matter if

collection taken by Mr. E. H. Wilson during his last moving at a sufficiently high speed.

There would appear to be little doubt that a careful (third) journey to China. The exhibit will be of importance study of the effects produced by the a or B particle in

to all who are interested in the recent new plant introducpassing through matter will ultimately throw much further tions from China; it is also hoped that from its varied light on the constitution of the atom itself. Work already character the selection made will appeal to a wider circle. done shows that the character of the absorption of the The photographs are whole-plate size (8} *6 inches), with radiations is intimately connected with the atomic weights

liberal mounts for herbarium purposes, and all are labelled. of the elements and their position in the periodic table. One of the most striking effects of the passage of B rays

The work of developing and printing has been done by through matter is the scattering of the B particles, i.e.

the well-known worker in Aoral photography, Mr. E. J. the deflection from their rectilinear path by their encounters Wallis, of Kew. with the molecules. It was for some time thought that such a scattering could not be expected to occur in the

The preliminary mineralogical and geological survey of case of the a particles in consequence of their much greater

Northern Nigeria, carried out under the auspices of the mass and energy of motion. The recent experiments of Colonial Office and the Imperial Institute, has just been Geiger, however, show that the scattering of the a par- completed by Dr. J. D. Falconer after five seasons' work. ticles is very marked, and is so great that a small fraction

Valuable deposits of tinstone have been located within of the a particles, which impinge on a screen of metal, have their velocity reversed in direction and emerge again gold, argentiferous galena, monazite, and numerous ores

the Protectorate, as well as less important occurrences of on the same side. This scattering can be most veniently studied by the method of scintillations. It can

of iron. The economic results of the survey are being be shown that the deflection of the a particle from its issued as colonial reports by Prof. Dunstan, while the path is quite perceptible after passing through very few scientific results will be published by Dr. Falconer in the atoms of matter. The conclusion is unavoidable that the

course of the coming winter. Important observations have atom is the seat of an intense electric field, for otherwise it would be impossible to change the direction of the

been made as to the age and origin of Lake Chad and particle in passing over such a minute distance as the

the Bauchi plateau, while sufficient data have been secured diameter of a molecule.

for the compilation of a geological map of the Protectorate In conclusion, I should like to emphasise the simplicity which will largely fill up the existing blank in our knowand directness of the methods of attack on atomic problems ledge of the structure of this portion of the Central opened up by recent discoveries. As we have seen, not

Sudan. only is it a simple matter, for example, to count the number of a particles by the scintillations produced on a MR. Asquith announced in the House of Commons on zinc sulphide screen, but it is possible to examine directly August 19 that the Government has decided to recommend the deflection of an individual particle in passing through

Parliament to make a grant of 20,000l. in aid of the a magnetic or electric field, and to determine the deviation of each particle from a rectilinear path due to encounters

expenses of Mr. Shackleton's expedition in Antarctic with molecules of matter. We can determine directly the regions. Mr. Shackleton has informed a Press representamass of each a particle, its charge, and its velocity, and

tive that this sum will meet all his guarantees. The total can deduce at once the number of atoms present in a cost of the expedition is said to have been nearly 45,000l. given weight of any known kind of matter. In the light

Of this amount, 6oool. was subscribed in Australia and of these and similar direct deductions, based on a mini

New Zealand, and the rest was provided by Mr. Shacklemum amount of assumption, the physicists have, I think, some justification for their faith that they are building

ton's friends. In a letter communicating the decision of on the solid rock of fact, and not, as we are often so the Government to Mr. Shackleton, the Prime Minister solemnly warned by some of our scientific brethren, on the said :--" The Government have been induced to take this shifting sands of imaginative hypothesis.

course as they are much impressed both by the great value of the discoveries made in the course of your voyage and

by the efficient and economical manner in which the whole NOTES.

of the enterprise was conducted, as is shown by the A MEETING of the permanent commission of the Inter- fortunate return of your entire party, and by the comnational Association of Seismology will be held at Zermatt paratively small total outlay incurred.” on August 30, under the chairmanship of Prof. Arthur

We learn from Science of the death, in his eighty-third Schuster, F.R.S. At this meeting reports will be presented

year, of Dr. R. E. C. Stearns, known for his work on from a number of committees, appointed at the last general

the geographical distribution and variation of mollusca ineeting, which took place at The Hague in 1907, and

and for other work in natural science. questions of organisation will be discussed. Papers will be read by Mr. H. F. Reid, on some lessons of the Cali

The death is announced, in his sixty-seventh year, of fornian earthquake and a method of foretelling certain

Dr. Otto von Bollinger, rector of the University of Munich earthquakes; hy Mr. Albert Heim, on the objects of earth

and professor of general pathology and pathological quake investigations; and by Prof. Palazzo, on a projected anatomy in the University. Prof. von Bollinger was the seismic triangulation by means of wireless telegraphy. The author of a number of medical works, among them being Central Government of the Confederation has charged the

books on meat poisoning and on the heredity of diseases, Swiss Naturforschende Gesellschaft with the organisation

and the Atlas

Grundriss der pathologischen of the meeting, and arrangements have been made for the Anatomie," which appeared in 1896.


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The daily papers announce that the Select Committee | Iwan-Müller's applications, there can be no doubt that his on the Daylight Saving Bill has adopted a report approving plea for a recognition of scientific principle on the part of the principle of the proposals made, but adverse to legis- our public men is both reasonable and necessary. lation which would make the seasonal change of time

THE Pasteur Institute of Paris will receive in a few obligatory. The committee has arrived at the conclusion days the sum of 1,200,000l. which was bequeathed to it by that the principle, if applied compulsorily, would tend to

the late M. Osiris. The Paris correspondent of the Daily cause serious dislocations in certain industries, such as

News describes the following interesting circumstances re agriculture and railways, where an alteration in the hours

lating to this generous gift. M. Osiris founded in 1903 of labour would cause great confusion. The hope is ex

a triennial prize of 4000l. to be bestowed on pressed, however, that the principle of daylight saving

who had rendered the greatest service to the human race will be adopted voluntarily in cases where it is found to

during the three preceding years.” The prize was awarded be practicable and desirable.

to Dr. Roux, the head of the Pasteur Institute, for the The Berlin correspondent of the Times reports that the discovery of the anti-diphtheria serum, which has been fifth International Dental Congress opened its proceedings the means of saving the lives of many thousand children, there on Monday, August 23, under the presidency of Prof. and the whole of the money was made over by him to O. Walkhoff, of Munich. In his opening address Prof. the institute. M. Osiris was struck by the unselfish conWalkhoff referred to the increasing recognition of the duct of the man of science, and asked him one day why public importance of dental surgery, which no longer holds he had given the money to the institute. * All that I

subordinate place in the field of science. Prof. ain,” replied Dr. Roux, “I owe to the Pasteur Institute, Waldeyer, director of the anatomical institute of the Uni- for all my experiments and discoveries have been made versity of Berlin, referred to the important problems which

there. Besides, the institute is very poor, for we have dental surgery embraces in anatomy, physiology, pathology, no income except what we make by the sale of serum, and and palæontology.

though that brings in enough to keep the establishment AN “ American colony

going, some fresh remedy inay any day be discovered, in of a very interesting character

which case I fear the institute would have to close its has recently been installed near Guildford, in Surrey,

doors for want of funds." M. Osiris said nothing at the where an attempt is being made to acclimatise the American

time, adds the Daily News correspondent; but at his death, robin (Merula migratoria) in England. Seventeen birds, which occurred a year or two afterwards, it was found nine cocks and eight hens-were imported last spring, and that he had left the bulk of his wealth to the Pasteur after being kept for a short time in a large open-air aviary,

Institute as a token of admiration for the scientific attainall, with the exception of two or three pairs, were liberated

ments and self-abnegation of Dr. Roux. about the middle of June. They mated immediately, and

No. began nest-building almost at once. The nests-coarse,

of vol. i. of the ornithological publications of the bulky constructions—were placed in trees, with little

Field Museum of Natural History is devoted to a catalogue attempt at concealment, and clutches of from four to five

of birds from British East Africa, by Mr. N. Dearborn. blue eggs, about the size of those of the thrush, were laid. In vol. vi., No. 4, of the University of Colorado Studies Old and young, the birds now number between forty and Prof. T. D. H. Cockerell describes and figures a skull of a fifty. Fears are entertained that at the approach of winter ground-sloth from Colorado provisionally referred to the these robins, impelled by their strong migratory instinct, genus Mylodon.

It differs from Paramylodon, of the will leave England and become hopelessly dispersed; but Nebraskan Pliocene, by having the normal five in place of those who know the nature of the birds are confident that four pairs of upper cheek-teeth. by feeding them abundantly as cold weather draws on they

We have to acknowledge the receipt of vols. xxx. (1907) can be induced to remain as permanent residents.

They and xxxi. (1908) of Mémoires de la Société des Naturalistes are cheery birds, their “Kill 'em, cure 'em, give 'em

de la Nouvelle-Russie, Odessa. In the former, Dr. A. physic” being the climax of optimism.

Brauner poi..ts out that while naturalists regard the greenIt is matter of just reproach against our statesmen and headed starling of Western Europe as the true Sturnus administrators that, in devising and carrying out measures

vulgaris of Linnæus, and class the purple-headed bird as intended for the amelioration of social conditions, they are distinct, under the name of S. intermedius, the latter, as very commonly blind to the teachings of science. This occurring in Sweden, should properly be called S. vulgaris. point is well brought out in a striking article by Mr. E. B. Hence the English starling requires another designation. Iwan-Müller in the August number of the Fortnightly

The articles in the July number of the National Review. In the course of his article, which is entitled Geographic Magazine are mostly devoted to Alaska and its “ The Cult of the Unfit,” the writer argues with great products, General Greely opening the subject with an effect that, judged by the standard of biological principles,

account of the economic evolution of Alaska, while Mr. T. much recent legislation must be condemned as ill-adapted Riggs follows with the story of marking the Alaskan for its purpose and likely to be harmful in its results.

boundary, and Messrs. R. H. Sargent and W. H. Osgood Socialism, he maintains, and any legislation tending in that

respectively discuss the mountains and the big game of the direction, runs directly counter to all the lessons that can be derived from the contemplation of evolution by struggle

country. In the last of the articles referred to special

attention is directed to the uncertainty still existing with and survival. “ The new Trades Unionism aims at the establishment and endowment of mediocrity by the elimina regard to the number of forms of Alaskan brown bears. tion of competition.” The facts of parasitism and other We have received the monthly journals of the Meteorocauses of degeneration are dwelt upon, and stress is laid logical Society of Japan for the first half of this year. on the warning they convey against the policy of making These contain notices of recent conspicuous meteorological the conditions of life too easy-a warning still needed, occurrences, and articles on climatological and other inthough not now delivered for the first time. Apposite teresting subjects, among which is a discussion of the winds quotations are given from Sir E. Ray Lankester's Romanes on the east coast of Asia, by Mr. M. Ishida, which runs lecture at Oxford. While opinions may differ as to Mr. through several numbers. The practice of summarising


the more important articles in a European language has published in the August number of Knowledge and Scienbeen discontinued ; this considerably lessens the usefulness tisic News. A full description is given of methods and of the journals, so far as western readers are concerned. materials examined, so that readers, if disposed, may In the July number of the Museums Journal, Dr. E.

make their own preparations. The first chapters deal with Howarth records his resignation of the editorship, a posi- technique and the early stages of division in the cells found tion he has filled for the last eight years. When that

near the root-apices of Hyacinthus and Allium. periodical was started in 1901, early failure was predicted ; The botanists in the Philippine Islands are vigorously but the prediction has proved altogether untrue, and the prosecuting their identifications of indigenous plants, in Museums Journal is now established on a firm, and, it is pursuance of which Dr. C. B. Robinson publishes in the hoped, lasting base. The issue also contains Mr. Henry

first part a revision of Philippine Phyllanthineæ and Mr. Balfour's presidential address, delivered at the Maidstone E. D. Merrill contributes revisions of the families Conmeeting on July 13th, in which the need for a national naraceæ and Loranthaceæ to the second part of the museum of British ethnology is strongly advocated. “What botanical section of the Philippine Journal of Science is required is a National Folk-Museum, dealing exclusively (vol. iv.). Dr. Robinson accepts the separation from and exhaustively with the history of culture of the British Phyllanthus of Glochidion, which becomes a large genus by nation within the historic period, and illustrating the growth reason of several species established by Mr. Elmer and the of ideas and indigenous characteristics. Until such an author. Six genera are recognised by Mr. Merrill for the institution is founded, there will remain a very serious Loranthaceæ, including the segregation of Phrygilanthus lacuna in the list of our museums, and we shall remain open and a new genus, Cleistoloranthus. The number of endemic to the fire of just criticism from other countries, on the species is inordinately great, as out of forty-three species score of our almost pathetic anxiety to investigate and of Loranthus-the only large genus--no fewer than thirtyillustrate the ethnology of other races and peoples, while six are endemic. we neglect our own.

Dr. M. RACIBORSKI contributes to the Bulletin interZOOLOGICAL students are much indebted to Prof. Spengel

national de l'Académie des Sciences de Cracovie (March) a for the publication of that very useful and interesting

long series of descriptions of parasitic and epiphytic fungi journal, the Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der Zoologie, the

collected and examined in Java. A peculiar formation of second part of the second volume of which has just reached

the basidium was observed in Cintractia, as it is abstricted us. This part contains two important memoirs of general interest. The first is a very complete and valuable résumé

directly from the resting spore, and is at once shed; three of our present knowledge of sponge spicules, by Prof. E. A.

or more septa are formed in the basidium, and each cell Minchin. The spicules of sponges are amongst the most

gives rise to a basidiospore. The group of Septobasidieæ

furnishes some of the commonest epiphytes. The Javanese beautiful and at the same time the most incomprehensible objects with which the microscopist has to deal, and a

species are separated by the author into three genera; considerable amount of light has lately been thrown upon

Ordonia is characterised by a fibrous mycelium and absence their nature and origin. Prof. Minchin himself is one of

of a special hymenial layer; Mohortia has a sterile layer the foremost investigators in this department, which modern

below the hymenium, while Septobasidium develops three methods of research have raised to the level of a branch of

distinct layers. Several of the new species fall into the

families Microthyriaceæ and Sphæriaceæ. cytology. The subject, indeed, is one which of recent years has attracted much attention, and given rise to no little There are several noteworthy points in the revision of controversy amongst spongologists, and specialists and non- the American group of Thibaudieæ, a section of the family specialists alike will be interested in Prof. Minchin's Ericaceæ communicated by Mr. R. Hörold to Engler's essay. The second paper in the same journal deals with Botanische Jahrbücher (vol. xlii., part iv.). It provides an the excretory organs of invertebrates, our knowledge independent account of a section which was required to of which has also progressed by leaps and bounds during correlate the diverse views of Hooker and Klotzch. In this the last few years. The author, Prof. Meisenheimer, con- respect the author follows the latter in splitting the large fines himself for the present to protonephridia and typical genus Thibaudia. The classification of the genera based segmental organs, drawing largely for his information upon on staminal characters furnishes an interesting study in the classical and pioneer work of Mr. Goodrich, especially the variation of this organ, which is a special characteristic with regard to solenocytes.

of the family; modifications of apical dehiscence are indiThe July number of the Transactions of the Royal Scot- cated in a text-figure. A list of new plants includes one tish Arboricultural Society contains a large quantity of

genus and many additions to the genera Cavendishia, information useful to forest owners as well as to foresters. Psammisia, and Thibaudia. In addition, the author Articles from many able pens deal with afforestation, and sketches the main features in the geographical distribution we need only mention the names of Lord Lovat, Mr. Munro

of the genera. Ferguson, Dr. Nisbet, Profs. Somerville and Schlich. The

We are in receipt of several important bulletins from report of the Royal Commission on Afforestation from a

the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station dealing landowner's point of view, by Sir John Stirling Maxwell,

with subjects of considerable agricultural interest. Messrs. contains many useful hints. A report is given of a lecture

Whitson and Stoddart discuss the importance of phoson trees of California, by Mr. F. R. S. Balfour, delivered

phates in fertility, and show that the tendency of the to the society, as well as a report of an excursion to

local system of farming has been to deplete the stock of Forglen and Hatton, made by the Aberdeen Branch of the

phosphates in the soil. Some of the soils are acid, and society. The volume also contains interesting notes and

it is pointed out that acidity and lack of available phos. queries, reviews and notices of books, and altogether it is

phates usually go hand in hand. In such cases naturally full of information likely to be of interest to foresters. The price of the volume is 3s.

occurring calcium phosphate gives excellent crop returns,

and does not require the preliminary treatment with The first portion of an account dealing with mitosis sulphuric acid usually given; fortunately, large deposits in higher plants, communicated by Dr. H. A. Haig, is of rock phosphate occur in Florida, and can be purchased

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by farmers. at low prices. Two bulletins by Messrs. ethnological history of the Philippine Islands and the cognate Russell and Hoffmann deal with bovine tuberculosis. This races of that region. disease' has appeared in Wisconsin, and has spread,

In the August number of Man Mr. W. G. Smith disespecially in the southern parts of the State, where more

cusses the character of the eoliths said to have been found than 43 per cent. of the herds are infected. The most

in association with remains of Elephas meridionalis in uncommon mode

herd infection is through the purchase disturbed beds at Dewlish in Dorsetshire. This discovery of infected animals, and State regulation is strongly re

has been assumed by Dr. C. A. Windle and others to prove commended. In another bulletin Mr. Sandsten gives the

the existence of man in the Pliocene period. Mr. Smith results of experiments, which are said to have been entirely

shows that the evidence of the association of these eoliths satisfactory, on the improvement of Wisconsin tobacco

with remains of the Pliocene period is more than doubtíul. through seed selection. The “King” system of ventilating barns and cow-sheds is described in Bulletin No. 164.

He has examined the remains found at Dewlish by the Its essential feature is that fresh air is introduced by

Rev. Osmund Fisher, and finds that one of them is an means of flues running in the walls from the bottom to

undoubted sponge of the Cephalitis order, while none of the top of the barn, and thus enters the building from

the others, in his opinion, exhibit the faintest trace of above, whilst the soul air is withdrawn by flues running

human work. The case of the flints found in the same froin the bottom to the top of the building, and terminating locality by Dr. Blackmore in 1814 is similar ; and an iron outside in a ventilator. This inversion of the ordinary

stain on one example suggests that it was a surface find. system is said to work well, without draught and with

He sums up the question as follows :-“ If bulbed flakes of out great loss of temperature,

undoubted human origin have been found at Dewlish (none

were sent to me) with Elephas meridionalis, this cannot MR. E. PHILIPPI, of Jena, justly observes that the strati

prove that the elephant and the stones are Pliocene in age; fied structure of rocks is one of the phenomena that remain

it only suggests that the elephant had survived into inadequately explained on account of their very familiarity. Paläolithic times, for the sufficient reason that Dewlish

“ Über das Problem der Schichtung und über is an old and well-known locality for Palæolithic impleSchichtbildung am Boden der heutigen Meere” (Zeitsch.

It is mentioned in Evans's “Stone Implements, deutsch. geol. Gesell., Bd. 60, 1908, p. 346), he summarises ed. i., 1872, p. 559, and ed. ii., 1897, p. 638. I have not what is already known as to the bedding of sediments in wiitten this and former notes on 'eoliths 'in an attempt to waters at some distance from a coast, and urges that show that a Pliocene ape-man probably never existed. It the German South Polar Expedition has shown stratification is, to me, possible that such an animal did live somewhere to be the rule and not the exception in such materials. in pre-Glacial and Pliocene times. When the evidenceGlobigerina ooze, for example, seems regularly to contain geological, osteological, and archæological—is conclusive, more terrigenous matter, and to be poorer in calcium car- I shall be one of the first to accept it." bonate, 30 cm. or so below its surface, and Philippi attributes this to the former greater extension of the antarctic

It has been shown experimentally that the incidence of ice, with consequent production of drift. Climatic changes increases its conductivity, and Dr. H. Greinacher, of the

B orq rays from a radio-active substance on a dielectric are probably the normal causes of stratified structure in deep-sea deposits. Deep-sea sands are ascribed to the

C'niversity of Zürich, describes, in the July number of: weathering of submarine slopes and of ridges formed of

Le Radium, his endeavours to detect a corresponding effect

in the case of the a ravs. solid rock, some of which may only recently have been

The rays were derived from a forced towards sea-level. As new earth-ridges rise in sub

layer of polonium, and fell on the dielectric of a condenser marine areas,

new material from them gathers in the placed in series with an electrometer and a battery of concomitant geosynclinals. Regular changes in the char

storage cells. Although at first a considerable increase of acter of strata may thus indicate a periodicity in crust

the conductivity of the dielectric appeared to be produced movement in the past.

when the radiation fell on it, Dr. Greinacher finally traced

the effect to the improved contact between the dielectric THE Philippine Journal of Science for December last is and the electrodes of the condenser, and found no effect of given up to an elaborate somatological study of the the radiation on the conductivity. This he attributes to Benguet Igorots, a tribe occupying the Benguet and the closeness of the ions together in a solid, and the rapid Lepanto-Bontoc provinces of Luzon, by Mr. R. B. Dean, of re-combination of them which in consequence ensues. the Anatomical Laboratory, Manila. The result is that the writer is able to distinguish four groups :—Tall dolicho

The best method of determining an electrical resistance cephalic types with long arms; small dolichocephalic with short

in absolute measure has hitherto been that of Lorenz, but arms; mixed mesocephalic; and brachycephalic with inter

in the Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards for May, Mr.' mediate arm form. One example, of which an illustration

E. B. Rosa proposes to substitute for it a method which is given, is of a type curiously European in appearance.

depends on the revolution of a coil in the magnetic field The race, it is clear, has been subjected to repeated modi

due to an electric current in another fixed coil. The fixed fication by the introduction of new varieties. The original

coil consists of two portions set a little further apart than type seems to have been small and dolichocephalic, with

in the Helmholtz galvanometer. The revolving coil conrelatively short arms, conjoined with a brachycephalic

sists also of two parts wound in. planes at right angles to element, which became mingled with the former and

cach other. The balancing is done by means of a differ-' partially fused. Upon these people intruded a tall, dolicho

ential galvanometer provided with three coils. Of these, cephalic, long-armed race; and the process of fusion was

two are each in series with a part of the revolving coil, continued uninterruptedly up to quite recent times. At

and the third is connected to the ends of the resistance to present the brachycephalic race is more distinct as a type

be measured, which is in series with the fixed coil. By than either the tall or small dolichocephalic people, and

means of this apparatus Mr. Rosa hopes to obtain an they are also present in larger numbers. The memoir,

accuracy ten times that which has been obtained with the which is fully illustrated and provided with full statistical

Lorenz apparatus. apparatus, supplies a singularly interesting example of race We note from an article on machine-tool practice in the fusion, and may be expected to throw much light on the Engineering Magazine for July an interesting example of





the standardisation of lathe and planer tools on a large

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. scale. A central tool-dressing plant has been established Comet 190gb (Perrine's, 1896 vii.).—The re-discovery of recently at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, which supplies Perrine's, 1896 vii., comet by Herr Kopff is confirmed by nigh-speed lathe and planer tools to all navy yards on the a notice in No. 4347 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Atlantic coast. These tools are forged, treated, and ground

where it is stated that perihelion passage should occur to standards. Each of the various yards is equipped for re

about October 31-35 (Berlin M.T.). This comet, according

to Herr Ristenpart, passed through perihelion for the first grinding the tools until they require re-dressing, when time since its discovery in 1896, in April, 1903, but, owing they are returned to the central tool-dressing plant at to its small angular distance from the sun, was not found Philadelphia for replacement by newly dressed tools. The at that return. According to an ephemeris given by Prof. advantages of this system are that all yards are equipped Kobold in No. 4348 of the Astronomische Nachrichten with tools of standard shapes and of uniformly high

(p. 62, August 18), the position of the comet on August 26

will be a=oh. 49-3m., 5= +42° 35', and it is travelling quality, and as the forging, dressing, and grinding of tools

in a direction parallel to, and slightly north of, the line are done in large lots, substantial reductions in cost result.

joining y and 51 Andromedæ; since its discovery on

August 12 the magnitude has increased 0.5. A photograph The necessity for keeping records of the steam of this object was obtained at Greenwich on August 14. sumption in the various prime-movers in use in large factories and generating stations has given a stimulus to

The RecENT PERSEID SHOWER.-Further observations of the development of means of measuring and recording

the recent display of Perseids are published in the York

shire Weekly Post for August 21 by Mr. J. H. Elgie, of automatically the flow of water. In the Lea water- Leeds. A number of bright meteors was seen by him, recorder, illustrated in Engineering for August 13, between II p.m. and midnight, on August 11, and he

The advantage is taken of the accuracy of the Thompson / gives the positions of the limits of their tracks. V-notch, the magnitude of the angle of the notch being brightest object seen appeared at 11.30, and, increasing in selected to suit the flow. The recording arrangement

brightness, travelled from 210°, +35° to 222.5°, +10° A

number of the meteors observed appeared to radiate from consists essentially of a float having a vertical rod attached

a small group of stars which includes B and & Draconis. to it; a rack on this rod gears with a pinion fixed to the A party of four observers at Sandfield, Moor Allerton, spindle of a horizontal drum. The angle of rotation of saw 105 meteors between ih. and nih. 45m. p.m. on this drum will therefore be proportional to the head of

August 11, and one of the party, Mr. J. C. Jefferson, water over the notch. A spiral wire coil or screw thread

considers it the finest display he has seen since 1866.

Another observer, Mr. E. Hawks, of Leeds, recorded 175 is wound round the drum, and has a contour similar to

ineteors between 9 p.m. on August 11 and dawn on the curve of flow for the notch, this curve being plotted | August 12. with head for abscissæ and gallons or pounds per hour for ordinates. A bar capable of sliding parallel to the axis


velocity of Rigel was first determined at Potsdam in the of the drum is actuated by the spiral on the drum, and

years 1888-91, and variability was suspected, but the has an arm carrying the recording pencil. The movement

not sufficiently definite to confirm the horizontally of the pencil will therefore be a measure of suspicion. Similarly, Frost and Adams obtained a range the quantity of water flowing per hour. The record is

of about 8.5 km., and Campbell and Curtis suspected one made on a chart wrapped round a drum which is clock

of 10 km., but in neither case were the results considered driven; hence the total flow in a given time is easily

sufficiently definite to affirm the variability of the velocity.

Results now published, by Mr. J. Plaskett, in No. 1, ascertained by means of a ,planimeter. The makers are vol. xxx., of the Astrophysical Journal (July. p. 26), show, the Lea Recorder Company, 28 Deansgate, Manchester. however, from 275 plates taken on fifty-five nights in

1908-9. that the star is probably a binary, with a period THE tenth edition of Messrs. Townson and Mercer's of velocity-variation of about 21.90 days. There is, further, catalogue of scientific apparatus for physical laboratories

a variation of amplitude which suggests the interference should prove of service to science masters and others. The

of a third body, and may account for the difficulties

encountered by the previous observers, but more evidence volume runs to 413 large pages, and contains well-illus

must be obtained before this can be considered certain. trated information of a great variety of instruments designed The elements now published give the eccentricity as to be of assistance in giving instruction in all branches 0.296 +0.059, the range of velocity as + 26.09 km. to of physics. Some parts of the catalogue, with their full

+ 18.55 km., the velocity of the system as + 22.616+ descriptions and well-executed drawings of important pieces

0.158 km., and the length of the semi-major axis of the

orbit as 1,108,900 km. These results are based on the of apparatus, partake of the character of a practical text

measures of the three lines Mg 1 4481, He 1 4472, and book of physics. Teachers in charge of physical labora

Hy ^ 4341. tories should see that a copy of the catalogue is added to

EPHEMERIS FOR COMET 1909a (BORRELLY-DANIEL).-An their works of reference.

ephemeris for comet 1909a is published by Dr. M. Ebell in

No. We have received from the Geographical Model Works,

4347 of the Astronomische Nachrichten (p. 42,

August 13). As the present brightness is given as 0.07, Middlesbrough, a photograph of a hypsometrical model

that at discovery being taken as 1.0, it is unlikely that of the district of Ingleborough, near Settle, by Mr. J. this object will be observed again except with the largest Foster Stackhouse. The model is said to be correct within telescopes or by photography. 2 feet of the actual district dimension at every part. The

MAXIMUM OF MIRA, 1908.-Mr. Naozo Ichinohe, having area covered is 42 square miles, and the horizontal scale

observed the magnitude of Mira Ceti during the period 6 inches to a mile. Vertically, the measurements which included the last three maxima, publishes the results one-sixteenth of an inch to every 25 feet. The model is of his observations in No. 4346 of the Astronomische built up of a series of ninety-four layers of cardboard, and

Nachrichten, the

made during the period between 500 and 600 pieces were used in its formation.

October, 1907, to February, 1909, being given in detail. The weight of the model in its complete state is above

The following table shows the observed dates of, and

magnitudes at, the maxima, and compares the dates with a hundredweight and a half. Accurate full-size copies of those calculated by Guthnick :the model are now available, and particulars concerning


Observed date Magnitude them may be obtained on application to the offices of the

1906, Dec. 1986

Dec. 12 Geographical Model Works Emerson Chambers,

1907, Nov, 15.5

Nov. 1 Blackett Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

1908, Oct. 113

Oct. 11




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