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tions upon


of efficiency so that the scholarships might be filled up. This danger, with others, has been under the considera

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. tion of the committee, and steps have been taken in the

LONDON. case of certain classes of scholarship to reduce the number available, so that an efficient standard may be maintained.

Royal Society, May 27.-Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., In framing the regulations which will govern the award president, in the chair. --Notes concerning tidal oscillaof scholarships and exhibitions during the next academic

rotating globe : Lord Rayleigh.—The year, the committee has endeavoured to arrange that, so

absolute value of the mechanical equivalent of heat in far as possible, “no child or young person shall be

terms of the international electrical units : Prof. H. T.

Barnes, debarred by poverty from obtaining the kind of education

It is pointed out that the Clark cells used by which will prepare him for the career for which his

the author in his determinations of the mechanical equitalents and character best fit him, and that the pecuniary pared according to the old specifications. The absolute

valent of heat in terms of the electrical units were preemoluments attaching to the scholarships shall be sufficient to enable students to obtain the kind of education, whether

measurements of the Clark cell now being carried on industrial, scientific, or literary, which is best suited to

with such precision in the various standardising laboratheir needs and capacities, but not sufficient to induce

tories are expressed in terms of the new form of cell with them to undertake a particular course of study with the

specially prepared mercurous sulphate. There is an object of securing the pecuniary advantages attaching to

important difference between the cells, which Wolff and the scholarship.'

Waters have shown amounts to 0.03 millivolts. The author

has compared a set of modern cells with cells set up As indicating the wide scope of the London County according to the old specifications, and finds the same Council scholarship scheme, which has recently been constant difference. Taking 1.4330 international volts at amended, it may be said that in 1905 the Council awarded

15o C. as representing the modern cells, then the cells (a) 2600 junior county scholarships to children between the made by the old specifications must be taken as 1.4333 ages of eleven and twelve, and that the annual cost of international volts at 15° C. The author's measurements awarding one of these scholarships annually was 851. ; of the mechanical equivalent at different temperatures (6) 390 probationer scholarships, each costing 561., to were calculated on the basis of a value for the Clark cell children of thirteen to fourteen years of age; (c) 100 inter- equal to 1.4342 international volts at 15° C. Re-calculating mediate county scholarships, each costing 1291., to boys on the new basis, the value of the mean calorie is found and girls of from fifteen to seventeen years of age; to be 4.1849 joules. This agrees with Reynolds and (d) fifty senior county scholarships, each costing some Moorby's directly determined mean, which, expressed 2001., to students more than eighteen years of age; and accura for an interval of temperature between o° C. (e) various scholarships in science, art, and technology, at und 100° C., comes to 4.1836 joules. Rowland's mean an expenditure of more than 18,000l. To state the scholar- value between 5° C. and 35° C. is 4.185 joules, while the ships which are to be offered for competition this year author's value between the same limits of temperature is will indicate some of the changes which have been made | 4.1826 joules. Thus, assuming the variation of the specific as the result of four years' experience. There are to be heat of water to be correctly determined, the value of the (a) 1800 junior county scholarships, costing each the same Clark cell, equal to 1.4330 international volts, brings the as in 1905, and 300 supplementary junior scholarships of clectrically determined mechanical equivalent into excellent lower value; (b) 300 intermediate county scholarships, but agreement with the same constant measured by mechanical the value of each, for sufficient reasons, has been reduced means.-An approximate determination of the boiling to 721. ; and (c) 150 senior county scholarships, each as points of metals : H. C. Greenwood. Although high in 1905, costing 2001. But, whereas the total expenditure temperatures can now be easily attained by means of in 1905 was 283,9401., the amount in 1909 has, notwith- electric heating, no general investigation of the boiling standing the greater wisdom of the conditions of award points of metals has yet been carried out. Moreover, in the scheme, been reduced to 263,08ol. The report of such values as are available have in most cases been the Education Committee gives very satisfactory evidence deduced indirectly, and are very discordant. In the preto show that the object the education authorities in London sent investigation apparatus

devised for directly have in view is to secure a high quality in the results measuring the temperatures of ebullition under atmospheric they obtain, rather than to spread an incomplete and rudi- pressure of a considerable number of metals, allowing of mentary education far and wide.

use up to 2700° C. Heating was effected electrically, and A NUMBER of people interested in the teaching of house- the metal, when unaffected by carbon, was contained in craft and domestic science visited Battersea Polytechnic a thin-walled graphite crucible on the outside of which on June 29 to see the domestic economy training depart- the temperature was estimated by means of a Wanner ment. Since the department was opened in 1894 more

optical pyrometer. The difference in temperature between than 400 students have obtained diplomas, and are

the internal and external surfaces of the crucible walls occupying responsible positions in leading institutions and

was found to be negligible. Accuracy of the temperature schools; the present number of students above eighteen

was secured by checking the pyrometer years of age in the department is 130. Students of the against the “black body melting points of specially department attend, in their first year, a course in “science purified strips of platinum, rhodium, and iridium. The as applied to household work,” which includes physics, following values

found :-aluminium, 1800° C.; chemistry, physiology, and hygiene. This course is taken antimony, 1440° C.; bismuth, 1420° C.; chromium, in addition to the purely practical work of the domestic 2200° C.; copper, 2310° C.; iron, 2450° C.; magnesium, arts. During the second session the scientific basis of 1120° C.; manganese, 1900° C.; silver, 1955° C.; tin, knowledge thus obtained is applied in the practice kitchens, 2270o C. In dealing with the metals aluminium, laundries, and housewifery rooms and hygiene laboratories. chromium, iron, and manganese, which readily combine In the third year's course the same subjects are treated in with carbon, considerable difficulty was experienced in greater detail, special attention being directed to bacterio- avoiding contact with carbon at the high temperatures in logy and the examination of food-stuffs. The main objects question. This was finally accomplished by the use of of the science work are :-(a) to explain, so far as possible,

phite crucibles brasqued with previously' fused magthe chemical composition and properties of the materials

nesia. In the absence of this protective lining the boiling dealt with in household work ; (b) to explain the principal point was very greatly modified by carburisation. The chemical and physical changes taking place in the common

temperatures indicated for aluminium and manganese were household operations involved in cookery, laundrywork, far below those hitherto supposed necessary for ebullition. &c. ; (c) to give a training in the principles of scientific -Some results in the theory of elimination : A. L. Dixon. method. Special stress is laid on the fact that household The eliminant of two quantics 0(x), 4(x), each of the nth degree, work generally is really an application of a number of facts may be expressed as a determinant the elements of which are and principles in chemistry, physics, hygiene, bacteriology, (as, rel, where (a, r) is (pla)(r) – o(r)ula)]/(a - r), and av, &c., and that, in order to understand the rationale of the

an, in:

In are two sets of n arbitrary quantities. For ordinary household processes, a knowledge of the general three quantics p(x, y), 6(x, y), x(x, y), each of the form principles of the branches of knowledge just mentioned is Arpt"** (ran, szni), the eliminant is a determinant the elements necessary.

of which are F(an, ba, , Be) where F(a, b, a, B)=(pla, b),





[ocr errors]



Per cent.


Ma, B), xia, B))/(a -- a) (6-B), and a,, by, .

Jugloxylon Hamaoanum, Populocaulis yezoensis, Fagoxylon are two sets of 2 min pairs of arbitrary quantities. The eliminant hokkaidense, Sabiocaulis - Sakurii, Cretovarium japonicum, of two quantics (.x), x) may be expressed as a Pfaffian The phylogeny and distribution of these plants is considered

so far as possible. £[1, 2][3, 4][5, 6] . [211 – 1, 2n]

June 17.-Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., president, in where [r, s}={øla,) \ame) = pla.)tlar)}/(ar + a). The eliminant the chair.-The nature of the hydrogen flocculi on the of three quanıics alx, y), *.x, y), x(x, y) of the ordinary Prof. G. E. Hale. Photographs of the He line standard form Sargtoga, (r + szn) is given by the Pfaffian

in the spectrum of the solar disc, made on Mount Wilson 2+[1, 2][3, 4][5, 6] . [21: - 1, 2no]

with high dispersion, were shown on the screen. The where

line appears as follows :--(1) A broad dark line, differing

greatly in intensity and width in different regions of the [r, s}=(playbay ar +br), 4(a,0,, Ar+ a.), xla ba, as+b))!

sun. Except in eruptive or rapidly changing phenomena, (a - b) (a, -br).

the differences in width are not very marked. (2) Within

the boundaries of the dark line a narrow single or multiple : -The liquidus curves of the ternary system aluminium- bright line is photographed in many parts of the sun. copper-tin : J. H. Andrew and C. A. Edwards.


Sometimes the appearance resembles that of the calcium study of the constitution of alloys is of great theoretical lines K, and K,-i.e. the bright line lying on its dark interest, and of some practical value; in fact, it may be background is divided into two components by a central said that the heat treatment of a given series of alloys dark line. In other regions the bright line is divided into cannot be correctly, accomplished without an accurate

a larger number of components, varying in width and knowledge of the structural changes which occur with separation. · The images of dark hydrogen flocculi, on varying temperature and concentration. We are now in

spectroheliograph plates taken with camera slit about possession of accurate data bearing on the constitution of equal in width to Ha, appear to be due, in the main, a large number of alloys containing only two elements, to local increase in the intensity of the dark line. In but very little work has been published on mixtures of

some parts of the sun, particularly those where the line three or more metals. The object of the present research is distorted, variations in the width of the line may also

to throw some light on the properties of ternary play an important part. The increased intensity of the alloys, and, incidentally, the effect of impurities on binary dark line is probably the result of increased absorption. alloys. The metals from which the alloys were made had Slides were shown to illustrate the fact that prominences the following degree of purity :

at the sun's brink are frequently recorded as dark flocculi Aluminium

when photographed in projection against the disc. The

99.57 Copper

possible effects of anomalous dispersion were discussed, Tin

and photographs were exhibited of the same region of 99.98

the sun, taken simultaneously with light from the red Freezing-point determinations.—The freezing points of the and violet edges of Ha. The similarity of these photoalloys were determined directly after mixing by means of graphs apparently indicates that anomalous dispersion is a platinum + 10 per cent. iridium thermo-junction. The not the prime factor in producing the hydrogen flocculi. free ends of the wires were connected by a mirror galvano- Certain minor differences suggest, however, that it may meter and balancing arrangement similar to that described perhaps play a secondary part in modifying their form.--by Messrs. Carpenter and Keeling in their work on the

The origin of certain lines in the spectrum of € Orionis iron-carbon alloys. In order to locate the position of the (Alnitam) : Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., F: E. isothermal curves, more than 400 alloys and melting-point Baxandall, and, C. P. Butler.

The star € Orionis determinations were made. Conclusions. The character of (Alnitam) is of great importance as offering a possible the liquidus curves indicates that no well-defined ternary

transition stage between the helium and bright-line stars, compound is deposited from any of the liquid alloys. The and the only outstanding lines of unknown origin were affinity of tin for either aluminium or copper is not


4097, 4379.8, and a conspicuous double at sufficient to overcome the affinity of the last two clements 46476 for each other. As a consequence of the above, curves 14650:8

In the case of 4097, the clue to the identification of the melting points of alloys containing a constant per- was obtained from a spark spectrum of chronium, showcentage of tin bear a striking resemblance to the liquidus ing local intensifications of certain lines at one of the curve of the aluminium-copper alloys. Tin is insoluble in poles. Two of these lines were found to be the previously by far the greater number of the alloys. -Studies on the known silicon (iv) lines, 4089, 4116, probably present as structure and affinities of Cretaceous plants : Dr. M. C. impurities in the fused chromium, while one of the reStopes and Dr. K. Fujii. This paper is the first account maining two lines was found to coincide with the € Orionis to be published of the anatomy of Cretaceous plants line at 4097. These four lines are shown under various petrified in calcareous nodules. As an introduction to the conditions in the plate, indicating the steps taken in flora, cighteen plants are described, all of which are new. tracing their origin to nitrogen. In the spectrum of The age of these plants is Upper Cretaceous, as is deter- nitrogen, under the special conditions which gave the mined from the ammonites which abound in the matrix above lines at 4097, 4103, another line was found at of the nodules, and the locality of all the specimens 4379-8, which was greatly strengthened in comparison with described' is Hokkaido, northern Japan. The plants its intensity in the ordinary spark, and this line coincides include one fungus, three ferns, eight gymnosperms, and

with the unknown line in e Orionis. During the work six angiosperms. These numbers

represent, on the above lines, one of the phoiographs taken of an roughly, the proportions of the flora of the nodules as a alcohol spectrum showed abnormal intensifications whole, of which many more specimens are in the hands either side of the oxygen line 4649.2, suggesting the of the authors than are described in the present paper. presence of a new double. The wave-lengths of the comThe most interesting of the plants are :a new type of ponents of this double were determined as 4647.6, 4650.8, gymnosperm, Yezonia, of which the vegetative anatomy coinciding with the wave-lengths of the components of is different from that of any known genus; a gymno- the strong double in e Orionis. By a series of comparison spermic fructification, also new, which there is good reason photographs of spectra under varied conditions, the origin to believe belonged to Yezonia ; an angiosperm which is of the double was traced to carbon, and one of the strips included in the Sabiaceæ ; an angiosperm of the family of the plate (carbon spark in hydrogen) shows it quite Saururaceæ ; and the first petrified flower, Cretovarium, isolated as it appears in the stellar spectrum. Further which has three carpels surrounded by the perianth. The evidence of the validity of the identification is afforded

of the described plants are :-Petrosphaeria by the peculiar nature of the components of the double. japonica. Fasciostelopteris Tansleii, Schizaeopteris meso- -Electric induction through solid insulators : Prof. H. A. zoica, Niponophylluin cordaitiforme, Yezonia vulgaris, Wilson. This paper contains an account of a series of Vesostrobus Oliverii, Araucarioxylon tankoensis, Cedroxy-experiments on the variation of the capacity of ebonite lon Matsumurii, C. Yendoii, Cunninghamiostrobus yubari- and other condensers, with the time of charging and with ensis, Cryptomeriopsis antiqua, Saururopsis niponensis, the potential difference. It is shown that the capacity




on at



C after a time of charging í is given by the formula can be solved numerically in any particular case. In the C=C(1+B log (1+pt)), where C. denotes the capacity paper the velocity of propagation and the modulus of when tro and B and p are constants. In the case of decay are given for waves of length 2, 5, 10, 20 cm. at ebonite at 30° C. this formula represents the results the surface of mercury on which is superposed a layer obtained to within 1 part in 2000. The values of the of glycerine i mm. in depth. An estimate is also obtained constants have been found for several substances for the damping when the wave-length is small compared different temperatures. The capacity is shown to be in- with the depth of the layer. Two other problems in the dependent of the potential difference within the limits of decay of surface waves are discussed. The passage of error. It is shown that after the temperature of an electricity through gaseous mixtures : E. M.* Wellisch. ebonite condenser' has been changed, then a very slow (1) An experimental method (based on Langevin's method) change in the capacity goes on which continues for more has been devised in order to ascertain whether there are than 100 hours at constant temperature.—The effect of two distinct mobilities for the positive or for the negative pressure on the band spectra of the fuorides of the metals ions produced by Röntgen rays in a mixture of two gases, of the alkaline earths : R. Rossi. It was shown by A. or of a vapour and a gas. (2) No evidence was found Dufour that the band spectra of the fluorides of the of the existence of the two distinct mobilities; accordingly alkaline earths show a marked Zeeman effect, and it was it is necessary to conclude that the motion of the ion thought interesting to see whether these particular bands through the medium must involve a mechanism of a would also be displaced by pressure, for it is known that character such to produce a statistical average. the cyanogen bands, which, like most bands, do not show (3) Experiments were conducted with regard to the effect a Zeeman effect, are not displaced by pressure. The produced on the ionic mobilities in air by adding small large 213-feet concave

grating spectrograph of the quantities of vapours. The mobilities showed a marked physical laboratory of the Manchester University was used, decrease on the addition of alcohol and acetone, but were and the bands of the fluorides of calcium, barium, and not sensibly affected by the addition of the heavier vapours strontium were found to be shifted by pressure. The of methyl iodide and ethyl bromide. (4) Experiments were order of magnitude of the displacement is about the same performed with regard to the ionic mobilities in mixtures as for line spectra.--The components into which the bands of a gas and a vapour, the ions being formed from the are resolved are widened by pressure, and the linear latter constituent only. As a result of the experiments, it relation between pressure and displacement found by was shown that there must be, at all events initially, former observers on line spectra seems to hold also for a transference of the charge (both positive and negative) these bands. There does not seem to be any evident from the vapour to the gas molecule. (5) Experiments relation between the magnitudes of the Zeeman and were performed with regard to the stability of the vapour pressure-shift effect in the case of these bands.-The

ions in the presence of hydrogen ; it was shown that the ionisation produced by an a particle : Dr. H. Geiger. vapour molecules can accompany thc charge to an appreciThe aim of the experiment was an accurate determina- able extent, even in the presence of a considerable quantity tion of the number of ions produced by an a particle when of hydrogen. (6) The mechanism by which the transcompletely absorbed in air. The most direct way to find ference of charge from one molecule to another is effected the number of ions would be to measure the whole ionisa- has been discussed ; there is reason to believe that the tion produced by the a particles from a known quantity of transference takes place by the medium of a detachable radium C. Since it is, however, practically impossible to unit of positive electricity. (7) From the experimental obtain the saturation current due to the a particles at results a theory of the mechanism underlying the passage atmospheric pressure, it was necessary to adopt an indirect of electricity through gases at ordinary temperatures and method. This method was briefly as follows:- The pressures has been deduced.—A study of the use of photoionisation due to the whole number of a particles expelled graphic plates for the recording of position : Dr. C. E. K. from a known quantity of radium C was measured at a Mees.—The coefficients of capacity and the mutual low pressure, allowing only a small definite portion of attractions or repulsions of two electrified spherical conthe range of each a particle to be effective. The ratio of ductors when close together : Dr. A. Russell. The comthe ionisation produced within this small portion of the putation of the electrostatic energy of two spherical conrange to the ionisation produced along the whole path ductors when close together is an important problem in was then found from an accurate determination of the spark systems of wireless telegraphy. In this case the ionisation curve. It was found that the number of ions formulæ previously given for the capacity coefficients are produced in air by an a particle from radium C along its very laborious to evaluate. By extending a mathematical whole path is 2.37 10. Since the a particles from theorem due to Schlömilch, an approximate formula is different radio-active products differ only in their initial obtained for the sum of a certain infinite series. Ву velocity, it was possible by the aid of the ionisation curve using this theorem, it is shown that when the spheres of radium C to calculate the number of ions produced are close together the ordinary series formulæ for the by the other products.-A diffuse reflection of a particles : capacity coefficients can be written in forms which can Dr. H. Geiger and E. Marsden. It was observed that be readily computed to any required degree of accuracy. a diffuse reflection takes place when a particles are in- The author has re-computed and extended in this way cident on a plate. The reflected particles were counted by Kelvin's table for the capacity coefficients of two equal the scintillations produced on a zinc sulphide screen. The | spheres when the least distance between them does not effect was found to vary with different metals as exceed half the radius of either. When the spheres are flectors, the amount of reflection being approximately pro- at microscopic distances apart. the formulæ become very portional to the atomic weight of the reflecting substance. simple. Kelvin's table also for the rates at which the Using different numbers of thin gold foils as reflectors, it capacity coefficients of two equal spheres alter with the was found that the reflection was a volume effect, and distance between them, when this distance does not exceed thus similar to the reflection of B particles. Taking a half the radius of either, has been re-computed and exmeasured quantity of radium C as source, and using a tended. When the spheres are very close together the plate of platinum as reflector, it was found that, of the laws of attraction and repulsion are simple.

Let the incident a particles, about 1 in 8000 suffers reflection.- radius of each sphere be a, let x denote the least distance The decay of surface waves produced by a superposed between them, and suppose that the ratio V/V, of the layer of viscous fluid: W. J. Harrison. An estimate is potentials of the two spheres is not nearly equal to unity, obtained of the effect of a thin layer of viscous liquid and that x/a is very small compared with unity. In this on the decay of waves at the surface of a slightly viscous case the mutual force between the spheres is attractive, liquid. The period equation for the motion is of the and is given by fourth degree, and has two real and two complex roots

alV, -V..)2 in the case of waves of less than a certain length, and


8x four complex roots in the case of waves of greater length. The real roots correspond to dead-bent modes, the complex If the potentials of the spheres be equal, the repulsive roots to propagated modes. No general expression of any

force between them is, to a first approximation, given by use can be obtained for the damping, but the equation Kelvin's formula for the repulsive force between two equal




-pieres when in contact. When the charges on the spheres by heating, it is gradually re-absorbed to its original are +9 and -9 respectively, and x/a is small compared amount from the atmosphere.-Phenakite from Brazil : with unity, the attractive force between them is given by Dr. G. F. Herbert Smith. Crystals of phenakite recently

discovered at the gold mine, San Miguel de Piracicaba, 20

Brazil, all display the new form 2352 noted by other approximately axlug, (a.

observers, and another, 14596, lying near it. The tetarto

hedral character of the symmetry is clearly marked.--The effect of previous magnetic history on magnetisa- F. N. A. Fleischmann.

Preliminary note on the occurrence of gyrolite in Ireland :

The mineral gyrolite, though tion : E. Wilson, G. E. O'Dell, and H. W. K. Jennings. It is well known that if a piece of iron be subjected to

well known as occurring in the basalts of the western

islands of Scotland, has not hitherto been recorded from a considerable magnetising force, and then be tested for permeability corresponding to a lower force, the permea

Ireland. Specimens have now been found in the basalts

and dolerites in the neighbourhood of Belfast. The bility so obtained may differ widely from the permeability which would have been obtained had the material been

mineral occurs in small spherical aggregates, forming a previously demagnetised. The principal object of this

crust on faroelite; it is associated with apophyllite, and paper is to examine the effect of previous history upon

occasionally with chabazite. The chemical composition the dissipation of energy by magnetic hysteresis. A ring

and the optical characters of the mineral agree with those of iron was carefully demagnetised, and the hysteresis

of gyrolite. The mineral is found only in the harder and loop No. 1, corresponding to a force H, was obtained.

denser layers of the basalt, and never in the soft, highly The force was then increased to a value H, for the pur

amygdaloidal layers. pose of producing previous history, and removed. A

Zoological Society, June 15.--Dr. A. Smith Woodward, hysteresis ioop No. 2, corresponding to the force H, was F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.--The organ of then obtained. As is well known, this loop shows

Jacobson in Orycteropus: Dr. R. Broom. Orycteropus reduced permeability, The ring was carefully demag- has a long narrow organ of Jacobson which opens into netised, and a hysteresis loop No. 3 obtained as follows. the naso-palatine canal. The arrangement of the cartilages A magnetising force supplied by an additional coil was

is quite different from the type found in the higher gradually increased, until on reversal of the original force

Eutheria, and there is also a marked difference from the H a change of magnetic induction exactly equal to that

arrangement in Dasypus. The general structure comes observed in the case of loop No. 2 was obtained. Two

nearest to that of the marsupials, though there are loops (Nos. 2 and 3) have now been obtained, each having

number of striking differences. --Some points in the structhe same change of magnetic induction and the same net ture of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla), with change of force H. The change from loop No. 1 to loop a note on the cerebral arteries of Myrmecophaga : F. E. No. 2 has been brought about by inter-molecular force,

Beddard.—Decapod Crustacea from Christmas Island, whereas the change from loop No. 1 to loop No. 3 has

collected by Dr. C. W. Andrews : Dr. W. T. Calman.been brought about by the application of an externally An abnormal individual of the echinoid Amblypneustes : applied constant force. If the effect of inter-molecular

H. L. Hawkins.—The decapods of the genus Gennadas force were capable of being exactly equivalent to that of collected by H.M.S. Challenger : S. Kemp.-Notes on a the externally applied constant force, one would expect young walrus (Odobaenus rosmarus) recently living in the to find that the energy required to perform a complete society's gardens : Dr. P. C. Mitchell.-Notes on the cycle would be the same in each case that is, the area

viscera of a walrus (Odobaenus rosmarus) : R. H. Burne. of loop No. 2 would be equal to the area of loop No. 3. The experiments show that within certain limits the Royal Met orological Soriety, Jun- 16. – Mr.

11. area of loop No. 2 is greater than that of loop No. 3,

Mellish, president, in the chair.-Interdiurnal variability the difference depending upon the magnitude of the reversed force H and the previous history.

os temperature in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions : R. C. 'Mossman. The author discussed the day-to-day

difference in the mean temperature of successive days at Mineralogical Society, June 15.-—Principal H. A. Miers, a few places in the Antarctic regions for which the F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Carnotite and necessary detailed daily observations are available. The associated inineral-complex from

South Australia : T. greatest mcan annual temperati:rc variability: viz. 5.9°, Crook and G. S. Blake. The carnotite of Radium Hill, was recorded during the “ drift” of the Belgica in the ncar Olary, South Australia, occurs in a definitely crystal- | ice pack, this high value being closely followed by a mean line condition. The crystals are tabular and orthorhombic of 5:3° at the South Orkneys. In the Victoria Land in symmetry. The carnotite of Colorado, though not so region, Ross Island and Cape Adare have a somewhat definitely crystalline, also contains tabular crystals which lower temperature variability of 4:50, the values of the are orthorhombic in symmetry, and probably identical in southern station being higher in summer and autumn and mineral characters with those of South Australia. From lower in winter and spring than at the northern station. the general characters of these crystals it appears that South Georgia occupies an intermediate position between carnotite is a mineral belonging to the uranite group, and a continental and an oceanic climate in its curve of that it may be regarded as the vanadium analogue of variability, the mean monthly values varying according to autunitc. The black lodestuff in which the Radium Hill the proximity of the pack ice. At this station the seasonal carnotite

is heterogeneous in constitution. It values show a small variation, and this is also the case consists essentially of ilmenite, which is impregnated with at Ushuaia, in Tierra del Fuego. The variability at the magnetite, rutile, carnotite, and a mineral which is possibly Falkland Islands and New Year's Island is very smali, tschefskinite. The evidence provided by a study of the pointing to the conserving influence exerted by the insula: complex does not necessitate the view that new minerals conditions which prevail at these places. The maximum are present, such as that to which the name “ davidite" variability occurs in winter, and the minimum in summer, has been given.—The species pilolite, and the analysis of at the three Antarctic stations, as well as at South Georgia a specimen from China : G. S. Whitby. The specimen and the South Orkneys. The smallest variability at any examined is from a new source, and possesses the formula season for any station occurs at the South Orkneys in A1,0,.2SiO,,2(Mg0.2S;0,),,H,O, formula which is summer, being only 1.4°. It is at this season that cloud simpler than those given by Heddle and by Friedel to the amount and fog frequency are at a maximum, while, at the pilolites which they investigated. The author considered same time, rapidly moving cyclonic disturbances are of inthat, for the present, the term pilolite should be applied to frequent occurrence.—Temperature records during balloon those varieties of mountain leather and mountain cork ascents : E. Gold and Dr. W. Schmidt. The authors which (1) cannot be referred to asbestos, on account of described experiments made with the view of ascertaining their large water-content; (2) cannot be identified with if appreciable errors could enter into the temperatures serpentinous asbestos, on account of the relatively small recorded in balloon ascents owing to errors in the alcoholamount of magnesia which they contain ; and (3) hold carbonic acid method of testing the apparatus.-The their water in such a way that, when it has been expelled | exposure of thermometers : L. C. W. Bonacina.





Daniel comet : M. Javelle. Observations of this comet Royal Society. June 7.-- I'r ». Ciu'n Brown, vice-pre-i. were made at Nice on June 16, 17, 18, and 19. The comet dent, in the chair. -The anatomy of the Weddell seal : was nearly circular, with a diameter of 1.5'. There was Prof. D. Hepburn. Dr. W. S. Bruce, leader of the a faint nucleus of magnitude 11 to 12.-Observations at Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, had been fortu- the Observatory of Marseilles of the comet 19oga nate to catch a young male seal only two or three days (Borrelly): Henry Bourget. Nucleus scarcely perceptible, old, and it was this young specimen of the Weddell seal of about 10.5 magnitude.-Observations of the comet 1909a the anatomy of which was described in detail. Attention (Borrelly-Daniel) made at the Observatory of Besançon was particularly directed to the abdominal cavity, and with the bent equatorial : P. Chofardet. Observations especially to the peritoneal arrangements and the organs made on June 17 and 19. Diameter, 1.5'; nucleus, very of alimentation. The length of the animal was 51.5 inches, faint; magnitude, i to 12.--A question of minimum : S. and the length of the intestine 50 feet.-Lower Palæozoic | Sanielevici.—The series of Dirichlet : Marcel Riesz.Hvolithidæ from Girvan: F. R. Cowper Reid. The | Flight and the shape of the wing: L. Thouveny.-An description was based on specimens in Mrs. Gray's collec- experimental method for aërodynamical researches : A. tion. Nearly all the species were new; ten well-defined Rateau. The surfaces or models to be studied are placed species of Hyolithes were established, also three of its in a very homogeneous air current moving with a definite subgenus Orthotheca. Two other forms were referred to velocity. The results of experiments on a thin rectangular Ceratotheca, and five new species of Pterotheca were

plane are shown graphically, and it is shown that there recognised. The affinities of these new species were found is no possible angle of inclination of the plane between to be rather with the Scandinavian than with English 299 and 36o. This discontinuity was quite unexpected.members of the group. The rich development of the The heat of polonium : William Duane. The sensitive Hyolithidæ in the Girvan district as compared with other differential calorimeter used in these experiments has been British areas was noticed, and a marked feature of their described in an earlier paper ; 0.2 gram of polonium salt stratigraphical distribution was the abundance of species gave off 0.0117 calorie per hour. Polonium and radium in the Blaclatchie beds. The atomic weight of platinum : in quantities which give the same ionisation currents give Prof. E. H. Archibald. The experimental feature of the

off practically the same quantities of heat. This fact is paper was the extreme care taken to ensure absolute purity favourable to the hypothesis that the heat given off by of the platinum salts of chloro- and bromo-platinic acids these bodies is due to the kinetic energy of the a rays.used in the determination. Assuming the values given by The ionisation of air by high-tension electric mains : L. the International Committee for the atomic weights con- Houllevigue. The observed case of a hailstorm followcerned in the calculation, the author found the atomic ing exactly the direction of a high-tension cable has been weight of platinum to be not far from 195.25.-Group- explained by the suggestion that the wire emits torrents velocity and the propagation of waves in a dispersive medium : G. Green. The aim of the paper was to develop

of ions carrying large electric charges. Direct experiment

fails to confirm this hypothesis. The number of ions, posithe idea of group-velocity contained in Kelvin's paper tive and negative, existing in the neighbourhood of a of 1887 on the waves produced by a single impulse in high-tension wire is sensibly nil. Indeed, the high-tension water, &c., and to reinove difficulties raised by Kelvin

lines appear to reduce the number of ions in the immediate in later papers as to the applicability of Osborne Reynolds's neighbourhood rather than increase them.-A new form of and Rayleigh's dynamical interpretation of group-velocity. the characteristic equation of gases : A. Leduc.-A new The idea of group-velocity used was essentially the same application of the superposition, without confusion, of small as the principle of “ stationary phase" used by Lamb in electrical oscillations in the same circuit : E. Mercadier. his investigation of ship waves, but applied in this paper The original experiments were carried out with a complete to the Fourier trains which constitute any wave-disturb- metallic circuit; similar experiments have been ance. The whole investigation was useful in directing successfully carried out between Paris and Lyons, using attention to the manner in which group-velocity was con- a single telegraph wire with earth return.--A galvanometer cerned in the modification of an initially regular group for alternating currents : M. Guinchant. The galvanoof waves, or of any disturbance initially confined to meter described was designed to replace the telephone in finite portion of a dispersive medium, and in showing, Kohlrausch's method of measuring the resistance of thereby, that the idea of group-velocity contained the ex- electrolytes. The accuracy of the measurements is of the planation of the modus operandi of dispersion.—The

same order as when the telephone is used.—The action of theory of Jacobians in the historical order of development some organo-magnesium compounds on methyl-2-pentaup to 1860 : Dr. T. Muir.-Nematonurus lecointei, a deep- none-4: F. Bodroux and F. Taboury. The reaction is sea fish first discovered by the Belgica, and found again complex, as employing the reagents in molecular propor, by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition : Prof. tions there is always a considerable proportion of unaltered Louis Dollo. The one specimen obtained by Dr. W. S. ketone in the reaction product, together with the ethylene Bruce was found in lat. 62° 10' S. and long. 41° 20' W.

hydrocarbon corresponding to the tertiary alcohol which at a depth of 1775 fathoms, and it constitutes the first should normally have been produced. The tertiary alcohol macrurid found in the Antarctic seas. The correspond- is formed with a yield varying from 40 per cent. to 60 per ing Arctic zone has yielded eight species in six genera. cent. of the theoretical.-Some derivatives of thioindigo : The results were regarded by Prof. Dollo as unfavour- M. Réchamp.--Elateric acid : A. Berg.-Pseudoable to the theory of bipolarity.--An experiment with the morphine : Gabriel Bertrand and V. 1. Meyer.

Crvospark gap of an induction coil: Dr. Dawson Turner.

scopic methods indicate that pseudomorphine is derived When the spark gap is just long enough to prevent the from two molecules of morphine with the loss of two easy passage of the spark, a dielectric rod or plate brought

atoms of hydrogen, and its formula would thus be near the positive electrode facilitates the discharge, but (,,H&N,0,.—The crystalline schists of the Ural: L. when brought similarly near the negative electrode it has

Duparc. --The elaboration of the nitrogenised material in no obvious influence on the passage of the spark.

the leaves of living plants : G. André.—The influence of Paris.

time on the anti-virulent activity of the secretions of Academy of Scienres, June 21.-M. Bouchard in the vaccinated animals and the relative immunity of the chair.-Dimethylcamphor and dimethylcampholic acid : tissues : L. Camus.—The influence of a prolonged stav A. Haller aud Ed. Bauer. Camphor forms a sodium at 2 very high altitude on the animal temperature and the derivative when treated with sodium amide, from which viscosity of the blood : Raoul Bayeux. The body temperathe monoalkyl and dialkyl derivatives are readily obtained. ture and the viscosity of the blood, under the influence of The mixture of monoalkyl and dialkyl derivatives can be high altitudes, undergo modifications which are proporseparated by taking advantage of the fact that only the tional to the stay at the high altitude.—Hay fever : Pierre mono-derivatives combine with hydroxylamine to form an Ponnier.- The tectonic relations of the earthquake in oxime. Dimethylcamphor, heated with sodium amide, Provence : Paul Lemoine.--A geological sketch of the gives an amide, probably dimethylcampholamide, from regions situated to the east and north-east of Tchad : which the corresponding acid has been obtained.--The G. Garde.—The geology of the Peloponnesus : Ph. strata of the island of Elba : Pierre Termier.-The new Négris.—The position of the localities which appear to



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